Timeline of the Irish War of Independence

30th December 1918

Belfast

Republican Wing of Crumlin Road Gaol closed off. Sinn Féin inmates, led by Austin Stack, hold a march with music and smuggled instruments and flags. Laurence O'Neill, Lord Mayor of Dublin seeks meeting with Castle authorities to end crisis.

Nenagh.

400 Volunteers march through Nenagh to mark election of Joe McDonagh. They march behind 50 torch bearers, and three Americans (two nurses and a soldier) who carry American flag and tricolour. 2,000 people gather on Barrack Street to hear speeches.

Athy.

A torchlight procession of 1,000 people, followed by a meeting, takes place in Athy to celebrate Art O'Connor's and Domhnall Ua Buachalla's victory in the Kildare constituencies. They congregate in Market Square where tar barrels are lit in celebration.

Carlow - Graigue

A large procession of people marched through streets of Carlow, headed by the Carlow-Graigue fife and drum and Carlow Pipe band, to celebrate the election of Kevin O'Higgins in the Laois Constituency.

Maryborough.

The Court Martial of Myles, Michael and John Walsh, of Tullow, Carlow, takes place - charged with possession of explosives. Myles was found not guilty. The case against John was thrown out. Michael was remanded for consideration of verdict.

31st December 1918

Dublin

Count George Noble Plunkett, recently elected Sinn Féin candidate for North Roscommon, arrives in Dublin after 7 months imprisonment in Birmingham Jail.

Nenagh

The Nenagh Fife and Drum Band parade through the town after midnight on New Year's Eve to celebrate the passing of 1918.

1st January 1919

Kill, Kildare

Kill Town Hall, a small wooden and galvanized structure used by locality for dances and events is burned to the ground.

Killaloe/Ballina

W. Darcy and P. Lyons, two popular locals, that were arrested two weeks ago on suspicion of Volunteer activity are released from Limerick Jail without charge. They receive a warm reception on their return to their homes

Dublin

Baltinglass man, John Gallagher, court-martialled in connection with seizure of documents outlining Volunteer plan to seize Tullow Police Barracks and claim important documents from the Post Office. Verdict to decided later

Belfast

Following the intervention of Lord Mayor of Dublin, Laurence O'Neill Republican prisoners in Belfast Jail, led by Austin Stack agree to end their isolation and cooperate with authorities.

2nd January 1919

Carlow

A meeting of the Carlow Guardians is told that 209 people resided in Carlow Workhouse during Christmas 1918.

Nenagh

At a meeting of local farmers, a policy of protest was adopted at the military's continued practice of commandeering hay from locals. It is stated that at a time when the army was getting rid most of their horses, the forced seizure of hay wasn't necessary

3rd January 1919

Wicklow

What the Wicklow Newsletter claimed to be 'a record' number of 100 people queued up for unemployment benefit along Main Street. £425 was distributed to those that qualified.

Ballina, Tipperary

Prominent Sinn Féiner, James McKeogh's house in Ballina is raided by 30 armed soldiers, and 15 policemen. They searched the McKeogh home on suspicion of Volunteer literature, but left without finding anything

Rathdowney

The home of E Fitzpatrick is raided by armed soldiers looking for materials in contravention of the Defense of the Realm Act (DORA). They found nothing but removed a photograph of DeValera

Thurles

Cathal Brugha is arrested. A policeman approached as he awaited train to Dublin. He asked him his name. When Brugha replied, the policeman asked 'was that Irish?' The arrest was then made. It is the first arrest of an elected official since the election.

Dublin

At a meeting of Dublin Corporation, it is unanimously decided to offer the Freedom of the city to President Woodrow Wilson, on occasion of his visit to Europe. A delegation, led by the Lord Mayor is selected, to travel to Paris to try meet him.

4th January 1919

Greystones

Much amusement was generated in the town when an 'aeroplane' was forced to land in a field just outside Greystones. He took off the following morning amid much fanfare.

Kilkenny

The Kilkenny People reports that there were 260 people residing in Kilkenny Workhouse, the same number as resided there on 4th January 1918. The average cost during the week for each person was 7s. 6d. This rose to 16 s. for those in the Fever Hospital

Killaloe

The home of an elderly woman, Mary Keogh, Main Street, Killaloe, was raided by the local RIC Sergeant, Sgt. Harrington. Photos of the Archbishop of Melbourne, Dr. Mannix, and the late Bishop O'Dwyer of Limerick are taken away.

Pwllheli, West Wales

PM Lloyd George visits his native Wales and attends function in Welsh. He praises the region for not forgetting its language or traditions. This comes hours after the release of Cathal Brugha, arrested in Thurles for giving his name in Irish

5th January 1919

Graiguecullen

A public meeting is held in the town, along with several other towns across Ireland, during which a resolution was adopted demanding the release of Irish prisoners from British Jails

Bagnalstown

Hundreds of people attend public meeting in the Market Square in Bagnasltown demanding release of Sinn Féin prisoners

'Kitchener did not live long afterwards. Like the Pharaohs of old, he and his horsemen were drowned in the sea. Maxwell still lives, but Maxwell will be left to the will of God'

Castlecomer

Mrs. A.M Laracy, member of local District Council, says at the local protest meeting 'When Kitchener and that brute...Maxwell decided to execute [Pearse] they little dreamed such a spirit as has animated Ireland with their bloody deeds ...

Ballacolla

A Sinn Féin branch is established in Ballacolla. Over 40 people are enrolled to the branch. Mr. J. Hyland presided over the meeting and they decided to call themselves the 'Thomas Ashe Club'

Maryborough

Kevin O'Higgins addresses the Maryborough public meeting; 'Sinn Féin is no longer a political party, it is the Irish nation and it speaks now with all the force, moral, and if necessary,the physical force of the people of Ireland to back its claim'

6th January 1919

Kilkenny

The main attraction at Kilkenny Cinema is 'Thelma', a six-reel adaptation of Marie Corelli's book of the same name. In the lead role is Malvina Longfellow who was embroiled in the death of Billie Carleton in London weeks before

Oyster Bay, New York

The 26th President of the Unites States, Theodore Roosevelt dies, aged 60

7th January 1919

Maryborough

John Mahon, Banagher, is courtmartialled in Maryborough. He is charged with possession of ammunition and explosives following a search of his home in November 1918. Verdict to be reached at later date.

Dublin

The first meeting of elected Sinn Féin MPs from the General Election takes place. They take an oath pledging not to attend the English Parliament and to accept nothing less than complete separation from England.

Berlin

Chaos in the German Capital as 500,000 striking workers descend upon downtown and several armed strikers occupy key buildings. The Spartacist Uprising is led by Rosa Luxemburg and Karl Liebknecht.

8th January 1919

Maryborough

It is recorded that 508 people resided in Maryborough Asylum. Three people have escaped in recent weeks, and one man died yesterday in unknown circumstances.

Cork

Four men are courtmartialled under charges against the D.O.R.A; Philip Lennon (New Ross), John Maher (Goldengrove, Tipperary), William Dwyer (Dundrum, Tipperary), and Ben Hickey (Golden, Tipperary). None of the men refuse to recognise the Court.

9th January 1919

Kilkenny

The Annual Concert in aid of the Christian Brothers School @CBSKilkenny1859 takes place in the Theatre Royal. The event is sold out and featured a performance of ‘Paid in His Own Coin’ by members of the dramatic class.

Bray

Charles Brien, from Shankill, was given a reception in Bray following a parade escort into the town’s Sinn Féin Rooms by the local pipe band. Brien had spent three months in Belfast Prison.

Rathdrum

Thomas Cullen is before court for assaulting 2 RIC Officers on day three men were imprisoned for commemorating the Manchester Martyrs. The court was packed with armed officers, a military battalion stood by in the Barracks. Cullen is remanded on bail.

10th January 1919

London

It is announced that Ian Macpherson, 1st Baron Strathcarron, is to succeed Edward Shortt as Chief Secretary to Ireland. Shortt moves to London to become Home Secretary. Lord French to remain as Lord Lieutenant of Ireland

Mountjoy Prison

Republican prisoners continue not to cooperate with officials. Extensive damage is caused to several cells throughout the jail

Killarney

Six men are brought before court charged with Volunteer drilling. Two of them are sentenced to three months prison with hard labour, another for two months, during proceedings a woman wearing a Sinn Féin badge was removed

11th January 1919

Dublin

Shortly after 10am, 30 RIC Officers raid the Sinn Féin HG on Hardcourt Street. No arrests were made, but literature was seized such as the draft constitution of Dáil Éireann and American pamphlets supporting the Easter Rising

London

F.E Smith is appointed Lord Chancellor as Lord Birkenhead. During the Home Rule Crisis he stated that Carson could rely upon ‘the most extreme action’ in support of defence of Ulster.

Dublin

The Jewish Community of Dublin make their second large donation to the Evening Herald’s ‘Boot Fund’, set up to buy shoes for poor children in the city.

12th January 1919

Dublin

A meeting of the Irish Reconstruction Committee is held at the Royal College of Science to discuss the possibility of harnessing the power of water to generate electricity

Berlin

Unconfirmed reports of the death of the leader of the Sparticist Uprising, Karl Liebknecht as he has not been seen for three days. Uprising spreads to German provinces as authorities begin to get upper hand in German capital

London

A detailed report outlining how many casualties were caused in GB by German airraids during the War is released. There was a total of 5,611 casualties, 1,360 deaths (295 children were killed)

Croke Park

@TipperaryGAA defeat @MayoGAA 2-2 to 1-4 to advance to the 1918 All-Ireland Football final. In front of 4,000 spectators, Tipperary score a last minute point to advance to the decider.

Dublin

A Sale-of-Work is held in the Royal Hospital, Kilmainham, for wounded soldiers. It is opened by Lord French

13th January 1919

Dublin

4 survivors from the sunken Schooner, Fleetwing, arrive back in Dublin. The Wicklow Newsletter reports they're in poor state after their ordeal. The Fleetwing was 45 year old, 78 ton, 2 mast schooner that sunk in a gale in Caernarfon Bay, off Welsh Coast

Nenagh

Bill Hoolan, prominent Nenagh Volunteer, returns to town from six month’s imprisonment in Belfast Prison. En-route from Belfast he dropped into Michael Collins in GHQ inquiring as to why Austin Stack’s plan for a break out of Belfast prison was blocked

Dublin

Trouble in Mountjoy continues. In protest at treatment of prisoners, several men refuse to return to their cells after exercise. One of the most prominent is William Sears, TD. Rathdrum men are also imprisoned including John Byrne and James Barnes.

Dublin

Despite judiciary being present, and a jury sworn in, the Quarterly-Sessions are told that there was no case from Dublin to proceed with. The Recorder notes it is a good omen that 1919 will be a peaceable year for the city and district

Arklow

A meeting of the Arklow Urban Council passes a resolution demanding the release of all Irish prisoners in English prisons unanimously

Maryborough

Amidst a downpour, a large military funeral takes place. Tom Greene, of Lyster’s Lane, is buried. Members of the Leinster Regiment attend as his coffin, draped in a Union Jack, is brought to graveyard

Naas

The local Sinn Féin club forcibly acquire a room in Naas Town Hall for their club rooms.

Buenos Aires

Violence between police and striking workers in the Argentine capital increase as violent mobs attack Jewish quarters of the city. Hundreds of people are feared dead in Argentina’s Semana TrÁgica (Tragic Week)

14th January 1919

Paris

Amount of delegates each country is allowed at the Peace Conference is decided upon. USA, UK, France, Italy and Japan will have 5 delegates each. Brazil, owing to ‘its important population’, will have 3. China will only have 2, same as Belgium and Serbia.

Belfast

Work ceased in shipyards at noon to allow for a ballot for either 47 or 44 hour working week. Tensions rise as spectre of a widespread strike grows

Mountmellick

An inquiry is held into an incident whereby Sergeant Timothy Hegarty unlawfully arrested the local Methodist Minister, and that he was on the same day guilty of drunkenness and of being improperly dressed. Verdict to be announced at later date

Arklow

After the Fair was held in the town, local farmers met in the Hibernian Hall and formed themselves into a cooperative.

15th January 1919

Berlin

Rosa Luxemburg and Karl Liebknecht are arrested in Berlin by paramilitary Freikorps and brought to the Eden Hotel where they are tortured for hours

Luxemburg is shot dead afterwards and thrown in a canal. Liebknecht is forced out of a moving car and shot in the back, to give impression he died whilst evading capture, which was the official line that was given to the world’s press

Liverpool

Horace Plunkett departs for America. Before he leaves he states he had hoped that the War would have brought England and Ireland together, but that President Wilson could represent the Irish people far better than the PM at upcoming Paris conference

Boston

A massive tank full of molasses burst in the North End District of Boston. It releases millions of gallons of the thick black substance which hurtled at 35 mph into the adjoining neighbourhood. 21 people die.

Of the 21 that die, 10 are Irish American;

Patrick Breen (44)

William Brogan (61)

Bridget Clougherty (65)

Stephen Clougherty (34)

John Callahan (34)

William Duffy (58)

James Kineally

Micheal Sinnot (76)

James McMullan (46)

Peter Shaughnessy (18)

2 more men who died, Peter Francis (64) and Tom Noonan (43) are Irish born

16th January 1919

Paris

Widespread dismay as it is announced that Peace Conference will be held behind closed doors, away from press. The Paris PA correspondent says ‘The governments of the 5 great powers have decided to keep the press at arm’s length and the public in ignorance’

Athy

A Sinn Féin victory celebration was held in a packed town hall in Athy. The modest entry fee was put towards costs accrued during the recent campaign.

Nenagh

A strike continues in McCurtin’s bakers in the town. An ITGWU rep told the Nenagh Guardian that the striking bakers demanded 10s increase in wages, or a reduction in output, or the hiring of an extra baker

17th January 1919

Paris

On the eve of the opening of the Peace Conference, international newspaper condemnation of a press shutout imposed during talks continues. They suggest that the implied secret diplomacy which could occur was opposed by President Wilson and PM Lloyd George

Clonmel

A large fire destroys a large store to the rear of Fitzgerald’s Printing Works on Parnell Street. The Fire Brigade, in the knowledge that the fire could not be put out, focused on containing it and stopping its spread to the adjoining buildings

Dublin

The third meeting of Republican members of parliament is held in Dublin. Sean T. O’Kelly presides as discussions are held over conduct of business for the first proper public parliament meeting which will take place on Tuesday next in the Mansion House

Barcelona

Ahead of a rumoured strike of up to half a million workers, martial law is imposed in Barcelona. It is stated that the group organising the strike are 'Bolshevik' in nature, and some newspapers comment upon Lenin himself being in the Spanish city

Finuge, Kerry

The Kerryman reports an incident where a group, armed with sticks and stones, and fueled by pints of porter assembled in centre of village demanding Sinn Féiners fight them. After their call is unanswered they break a few windows and retire to rest

Monard, Cork

Two soldiers guarding the Monard Rail Bridge are shot at close range by two men behind a fence. One of the men, Private Hardman, is shot in the head. They are immediately conveyed to hospital, where Hardman's condition is said to be serious

Belfast

Bernard Campbell, solicitor is sentenced for one month in prison for using seditious language at a Sinn Féinn meeting. When speaking about a Volunteer that fought in Ashbourne in 1916, he said...

'That man was a true patriot and a great Irishman who fought at Ashbourne, and there accounted for 20 or 30 of the greatest enemies of Ireland - the Royal Irish Constabulary. Those men have always been greater enemies of Ireland than even the English themselves'

Cambridge University

The compulsory study of Greek in the University, which has been in place for 90 years, is overturned by a vote of 162 to 14

Dublin

At Bank of Ireland's half yearly meeting it is announced that they have made a profit of £214,000 in the last six months. They have deposits of £20 million

18th January 1919

Paris

The Peace Conference opens in the Clock Hall of the French Foreign Office with a speech by French President, Raymond PoincarÉ. He concludes by pledging a league of nations as a guarantee against any fresh assaults upon the rights of peoples

Dublin

The Irish ‘Government’ meets in Dublin Castle. It includes Viscount French (Lord Lieutenant), Denis Henry (Attorney-General, Solicitor General), James Macmahon (Irish Under Secretary), General Sir Frederick Shaw (Commander in Chief of Forces in Ireland)

19th January 1919

Three Rock Mountain, Dublin

2 RIC Officers come upon 50 Volunteers drilling in the Dublin Mtns. The Volunteers rushed at the Officers, based in Stepaside, and tied them up, relieving them of their weapons and ammo. They took off in direction of city.

Kildalkey, Meath

Dry January in evidence in Kildalkey as the local temperance movement enrols 10 new members, brining total membership to 160. They pledge to organise a protest against alcohol for St. Patrick’s Day

Croke Park

@OfficialWexGAA defeat @louthgaa to win the 1918 Leinster Football Final. It is their sixth title in a row

Tullow

A meeting of Sinn Féin clubs from Carlow is held. Represented were Tullow, Ballyhacket, Carlow, Clashganny, Clonegal, Clonmore, Hacketstown, Leighlinbridge, Myshall, Rathanna, Rathvilly, and Tynock

Maryborough

A meeting of workers is held with a view towards organising a county-wide labour movement. Representatives from ITGWU, Land and Labour Association, and Queen’s Co. National School Teachers Association spoke at event

Gragara, Kilkenny

An angry crowd of farmers meet in the townland of Gragara to voice their anger at the unfair division of land by Lord Bellew. A resolution is passed demanding that fairness and justice is sought in a non-violent manner

Athlone

It is reported that an RIC Constable, Private Grehan, who was missing, presumed dead following the sinking of the Leinster in October 1918, turns up at his mother's home alive and well

20th January 1919

Tipperary Town

Patrick O’Dwyer begins his 7th morning watching Tipp barracks, keeping an eye out for a load of gelignite to be transported to @SoloheadbegC. After fruitless day he went to a disused house on SeÁn Hogan’s farm in hope his watch would end tomorrow

Dublin

The London Times Cork correspondent doubts that Sinn Féin have any ‘extra-parliamentary’ plans ahead of the first Dáil tomorrow. He says that talk of a general strike among other things are ‘an amateurish imitation of the old land-league’

Sinn Féin Headquarters, Hardcourt Street, Dublin

By 11am there are only 20 tickets left for gallery for tomorrow’s meeting of Dáil Éireann. The final tickets are quickly snapped up and a notice is placed on the door of the SF HQ stating no tickets are remaining

Cootehill

Over 200 people gather in Cootehill in expectation of a public meeting to form a local labour movement. However, after over an hour of waiting, they are forced to disperse in disappointment as nobody from the ITGWU HQ turns up, as had been agreed

Navan

Tensions rise as Meath SF call on members to stop hunting until the release of all SF prisoners in England. The Meath Farmer’s Association responds by denouncing the call to cease hunting.

Carlow

The Carlow branch of the Women’s National Health Association (WHNA). The WHNA is a women’s movement set up to eradicate TB among the poor in Ireland and to reduce infant mortality rates.

Graiguecullen

Gearóid O’Sullivan is arrested. He is charged with making an illegal speech in Ennis. He is held until a motor car arrives from Clare with RIC Officers. O’Sullivan is released after they state he was not the man that gave the offending speech

Arklow

The problem of unemployment in the town is shown once again, when nine men are moved to Wicklow to work in the local Manure Works, but several had to return as lodgings could not be secured for them

Navan

The local Sinn Féin club condemn the action of some members who maliciously broke windows from certain townspeople’s windows on same evening as their victory celebration following the election

Athlone

600 operatives go on strike bringing work in the local Woollen Mill to a standstill. They are all members of the English Trade Union, the National Union of General Workers. They object to some co-workers who refuse to join the union

21st January 1919

12.05pm

Tipperary Town

Patrick O’Dwyer observes a cart of gelignite leaving the barracks, being driven by James Godfrey, accompanied by a County Council Officer, Patrick Flynn, and two RIC Officers. O’Dwyer makes his way to Soloheadbeg to report to Sean Treacy

12.40pm

Soloheadbeg

When cart of gelignite reaches Soloheadbeg, 8 Volunteers await. Dan Breen & Sean Treacy call ‘halt, put your hands up’. When the two RIC officers move to aim their weapons they are shot dead. They are James McDonnell and Patrick O'Connell.

3.35pm

Dawson Street, Dublin

27 men, who were elected in the 1918 General Election to Parliament, enter the Round Room of the Mansion House. They were greeted by prolonged cheers from the men and women that had gained entry to the room #Dail100

3.45pm

Mansion House

A hush fell over the packed gallery once Count Plunkett began to speak in Irish. He proposed that Cathal Brugha be appointed President of the assembly for the day #Dail100

This was unanimously agreed to and the Dublin man, representing Waterford County became the first leader of an Irish legislative assembly since John Foster, the last speaker of the Irish House of Commons before the Act of Union

3.55pm

Mansion House

Brugha read out the names of each person invited to attend, including all Unionist and Irish Parliamentary Party MPs. There was much laughter when Edward Carson’s name was announced and noted as absent.

Usk Prison, South East Wales

Frank Shouldice, Joe McGrath, George Geraghty and Barney Mellows escape from Usk Prison late in the evening. Their escape plan had not been shared with GHQ and put under threat ongoing efforts to break DeValera out of Lincoln Prison

Belfast

Another outbreak of violence in the Crumlin Road Jail as cells were smashed by republican prisoners. Authorities entered the wind and forcibly handcuffed 40 prisoners in an effort to subdue them

Lincoln Prison

SeÁn Etchingham, elected MP for Wicklow East, is released from Lincoln Prison on medical grounds. His release is seen as a move to stop any potential trouble had he died in the prison, where he was incarcerated along with Eamonn deValera

Nenagh

The @NenaghGuardian points to the tragedy in Soloheadbeg; though the system they represent is one of the most anti-national in the entire world. The Irish people have recognised that it is alien spirit in control and not the ordinary constable at fault

Richmond Road, Dublin

Mr. Alfred Pearson, a middle-aged man, was found dead on a footpath near his home with gunshot wounds

Arklow

A major search is carried out by 7 RIC Officers of the premises of T. Kavanagh, Railway Tavern, in connection with an associate of Kavanagh’s, Mr. Gregory, who is secretary of the Arklow SF Club. Another search is carried out of McGraths on Main St

Maryborough

John Hayden, Offaly St, Athy, is courtmaritalled for possession of documentation likely to cause ‘disaffection to his Majesty’. Hayden refuses to recognise court and when proceedings concludes he sings ‘Soldier’s Song’ as he is dragged away

Maryborough

The local Cumann na mBan are allowed to give dinners to the men that were being courtmartialled, including John Hayden, and 3 others. The DORA prisoners were very grateful for their kindness

Avoca, Wicklow

Michael Traynor is expected to his home in Avoca following his release from Belfast Prison. He had played a pivotal role in the food strike in the prison and events there last Christmas and New Years

Kells

The Meath Farmer’s Association ramp up their opposition to Sinn Féin and formally pass a resolution denouncing their call for a stop on all hunting in the county until release of all republican prisoners in English jails

Killaloe

Derrycastle House is destroyed by fire. The house had been owned by the Spaight family, and there had been much rancour at prospect of unfair division of attached lands in 1918. W.L Hodgins, Nenagh Solicitor, ended up buying the house in late 1918

Westminster

A bill is read in the House of Commons relating to the potential application of the system of Proportional Representation voting for Irish local elections

22nd January 1919

Hardcourt St., Dublin

Having heard that SeÁn Etchingham had a message from Lincoln Jail for him, Michael Collins rushes back to Dublin from England. He bursts into a room in HQ and demands of Con Collins and Piaras BÉalsaí where he was...

Having no idea where he was, Collins left and soon caught up with the released man. Capping off a hectic day, Collins then covertly left Dublin for England again that night to continue plans for an attempt to spring DeValera from his majesty's hospitality in Lincoln

22nd January 1919

Coachford, Cork

The remains of Constable Patrick O'Connell arrive by motor car from Tipperary ahead of funeral. Constable James McDonnell will be interred in St. Michael's Cemetery in Tipperary tomorrow

23rd January 1919

Tipperary Town

Constable James McDonnell, one of the two men that died in the Soloheadbeg Ambush, is buried in St. Michael's Cemetery in Tipperary

Dublin

Laurence O'Neill is re-elected for a third term as Lord Mayor of Dublin. He says 'they were passing through dangerous times did not know what fate might be in store for them and that that the year to come wasn't going to be one of sublime sunshine'

Cork

William F. O'Connor is elected Lord Mayor of Cork

Belfast

John C. White is elected Lord Mayor of Belfast

Kilkenny

Peter DeLoughry is elected Lord Mayor of Kilkenny. He is currently imprisoned in Lincoln Jail and is deeply involved in plans for an escape of DeValera from the prison

Limerick

Phons O'Mara is re-elected Lord Mayor of Limerick

Dublin

Sean Etchingham and George Lyons, who were released on from Lincoln and Usk prisons, give detailed interviews to the Evening Herald and Irish Indo on their experiences. Etchingham described how DeValera hosted daily Spanish and Irish classes in Lincoln

Tipperary

Patrick Flynn, the County Council worker who escorted the consignment of gelignite to Soloheadbeg on Tuesday, is hospitalised for stress. He collapsed yesterday at the official coroner's inquest into the deaths of the 2 RIC Officers

London

A landmark case continues in which a hotel is appealing that government owes it rent for having its premises commandeered during the war for military purposes. In defence, a government solicitor quotes statutes set out by Henry VIII in the 16th Century

Tipperary South Riding

Tipperary South Riding is declared, by the Army Council and the Chief Secretary, a special military area following the Soloheadbeg ambush. Armed troops begin to flow into the district

The towns of Cashel and Ballyporeen see a number of companies of troops take residence for the first time as Crown Forces continue their investigations

Tipperary

The 2 men arrested in connection with the Soloheadbeg ambush are released. They are Patrick O'Gorman, Chruchfield, Donohill, and Edward Brown, Ballagh, Dundrum.

London

The English Morning Press newspaper reporting on the Soloheadbeg deaths states that there has been open conflict in Ireland for years now, and that Irish and British men are being shot in the open streets or from behind hedges.

Lincoln Prison

A letter written by Michael Collins is smuggled into DeValera. Collins explains that the next attempt to break out of the prison will take place on 28th Janaury

Nenagh

Michael Guilfoyle is unanimously re-elected as chairman of Nenagh Urban District Council for the 29th year in a row

Tuam

J. Hoey, Michael Moran, and Thomas Dunleavy were arrested by RIC officers in Tuam. All were members of the SF Club. Amidst the scuffle in the arrest of the three men an officer's rifle was accidentally discharged, narrowly avoiding one of the men

Kilbride, Meath

Several homes are raided in the area including those of John Ballesty, James Hanley, and Thomas Daly. During another raid of the home of P.J Bartley, the clerk of Oldcastle Union, several copies of republican songs are taken away

Thurles

The @NenaghGuardian notes that for the first time ever, there are no criminal cases to be brought before the County Court Judge in the town. Criminal activity seems to have ceased and the town is peaceable...

24th January 1919

Caherciveen

As labour unrest grows around the country, the Post Office authorities draft in several men to complete the work of laying a cable to Valentia Island which had begun by local men on strike for better wages

Mullagh, Cavan

Four men and their horses, that were surfacing roads in the area, go on strike in protest at Cavan County Council not paying them for the past five weeks. The Meath Chronicle poses the question why would Cavan not pay their men and Meath would..?

Templederry

Pat Cash, who had spent month in Limerick Prison for putting up a Sinn Féin poster, returned home to a remarkable reception. He was led into the village with a torchlit procession of hundreds of young men amid flaming tar-barrels and the local band

Dublin

A libel case between Laurence O’Neill, Lord Mayor, and Irish Times begins. O’Neill objects to the Times, in an article on 26/6/18 in which it is claimed he was trying to smuggle the Mansion House Anti-Conscription petition to Woodrow Wilson

Lincoln Prison

Frank Kelly delivers a cake to the prison. Within, are two keys, made in a Manchester locksmith under orders of Harry Boland, who had brought the cake from the home of Liam McMahon, whose housekeeper baked it. The keys, however, did not work

25th January 1919

Dublin

The libel case that Laurence O’Neill, Lord Mayor, takes against the Irish Times ends. Jury are unable to reach a verdict after several attempts by the Judge to offer legal guidance. The foreman eventually stated it was hopeless, and they were discharged

Belfast

Belfast dock workers cease work at noon. The street lights are not lit as the city is plunged into darkness owing to workers in electricity and gas works downing tools too. It will not be clear how significant the strike will be until Monday

Clones

Patrick McGoldrick and Patrick O’Halloran are sentenced to a month’s imprisonment for their participation in an unlawful assembly in the town. McGoldrick was charged with using seditious language such as ‘Up Dublin’ and ‘Up the Rebels

Newry

A play, ‘For the Cause, Story of ‘98’, is banned from continuing in the Town Hall. It is replaced by the non-political ‘My Irish Home’

Rathfarnham

Margaret Pearse is present as RIC Officers search St. Enda’s School. Little material of use to them is found.

Tipperary Town

As part of the designation as a special military area, military roadblocks block farmers entering Tipp Town for the market.

England

Wartime divisions of football in England continues. Despite losing their first game of the season to Man. City, Everton lead the Lancashire section. Nott. Forest lead the midland section. Brentford beat Cry. Palace 6-1 to secure their lead in London.

26th January 1919

Macroom

At 8pm a party of 5 soldiers were attacked by a group of unknown men in an attempt to seize their arms. It is the first time that such an incident has occurred in the twelve months that soldiers had taken up a base in the town

Tipperary

At Sunday masses, priests and bishops condemn the ambush in Soloheadbeg and the needless taking of life. Archbishop Harty, speaking in Thurles Cathedral, said that 'we all look on the horror of the deed and the outrage against Christian morals'

Belfast

Street lights remain out, and tramlines grind to a halt as the labour chaos grows in the city. Electricity is only being supplied on an emergency basis to some hospitals

Fleet Street, London

The Daily Mail publishes an article outlining how a number of well-known Dublin citizens had occupied an island in Dublin Bay and solemnly declared it to be a Republic and prepared a message to the Free Nations of the World

Kilkenny

A 'competitive smoking concert' is held in the CYMS Hall. Smoking concerts were popular events in 1800s, they were evenings of music before a male-only audience. The term smoking came from fact that men indulged in smoking liberally w/out women present

Maryborough

The Leix and Ossory Sinn Féin Executive meet. Representatives from all over the constituency come together to discuss plans for 1919. The attendees are as follows;

Mr. P. J. O'Neill, Vice-President, Leix Executive...

T. Delaney and E. P. McEvoy (Abbeyleix)

J. Muldowney and D. Sheil (Ballinakill), P. Flynn (Ballybrittas), R. Hipwell (Courtwood), T. McHugh, and Mr. Broderick (Ballyadams), J Fleming and Mr. Hurley (Ballylinan), Mr. Bolton, and Mr. McEvoy (Graiguecullen)...

M J Phelan and J. Delaney (Rathdowney), E. J. Poole, (Rosenallls), Arthur Costello, and M. Tynan (Portarlington)

J. Campion and Mr. Hyland (Cullobhlll), E. P. Tarrant, and M Moore (Castletwon), P. O’Flanagan and Mr. Farrell (Durrow), M. Fogarty and Mr. Delaney (Errill), M. D. Egan (Kyle), S. Lynch and W. Kavanagh (Mountmellick), Mr. Morris and Mr. Rourke (Mountrath)...

J. Ramsbottom (Timahoe), M. O'Connell (Vicarstown), T Dunne end J. Fleming (Wolfhill), T. Hyland (Borris-in-Ossory), Mr. Tynan and Mr. Delaney (Camross), P. Brennan and Mr. Davis (Clonaslee), W.J. O'Connor (Ballacolla), and

Mr. Wrafter (Clough)...

P. Connor and Mr. Gorman (Killenard), T. Carpenter and Mr. Byrne (Kllcruise), J.Ramsbottom and P. J. Brophy (Knock), W. Ramsbottom (Heath), J. J. Delaney and P Case (Maryborough), Mr. Scully and Mr. Malone (Emo),

M. T. O'Connor and Mr. Fingleton (Stradbally)..

Croke Park

@LimerickCLG defeat @OfficialWexGAA 9-5 to 1-3 to win the 1918 All-Ireland Hurling Final, their 2nd title and 1st in 22 years.

27th January 1919

Belfast

On the first working day since the beginning of the strike, the full impact of withdrawal of labour is felt. Gravediggers from City Council join the growing list of workmen striking in sympathy with their colleagues in the docks

Derry

Two hand grenades are thrown into Derry gaol. One of them did not go off. The one that did caused significant damage to the women's section of the prison, but nobody was injured

Wolfhill

Sean McDermott Sinn Féin club join a growing list of clubs to ban hunting in their area until the release of political prisoners in England is secured

Durham

Eamonn Bulfin and Frank Bulfin, two sons of Señor Eamonn Bulfin, the Birr-born writer based in Argentina, are released from Durham prison. Eamonn Bulfin was the man that raised the green 'Irish Republic' flag over the GPO during the Rising

Tipperary

A group of school children find a 1lb stick of gelignite near Allen Creamery. It was discarded by the Volunteers that carried out the ambush the previous Monday in Soloheadeg. RIC subsequently found other explosives in the area discarded too

Cappawhite, Tipperary

Military officers search homes in the Cappawhite area, as well as in Creenane. A dance that was taking place in the hall in Cappawhite was broken up by police and the military took occupation of the building

28th January 1919

Belfast

Crisis continues to deepen as strike continues. A large fire at the lower end of Donegall Street damages several buildings and warehouses exacerbating the menacing outlook the city finds itself in

Bray

A man is arrested and charged with the attempted murder of an RIC Officer the previous June in Tralee. The arrested man is John Cronin who also went by the aliases Richard Macrear and Joseph Hegarty.

Sandycove

John Doyle, Summerhill Avenue, Sandycove, is arrested and charged in connection with the incident involving a group of Volunteers attacking two RIC Officers on Three Rock Mountain

Dublin

Famous cartoonist, Jack Morrow, is brought before court charged in possession of government files with intent to distribute. As proceedings opened Morrow asked was the court recognised by Dáil Éireann. When told it wasn’t he refused to register a plea.

Soloheadbeg

The Evening Herald publishes an article outlining the significance Soloheadbeg has played in Irish history before. It was there, in 968, that Brian Boru’s Dalcassians defeated the Danes which led Boru’s occupation of Limerick.

Emly

The military block the fair in Emly. As farmers entered the area they were all searched before being turned back

Kilkenny

Frank Lloyd’s adaptation of Dickens’ ‘A Tale of Two Cities’ gets top billing in Kilkenny Cinema

Lincoln

De Valera prepares for another attempt, their third, to break out of Lincoln Prison. However, the keys that are sent into the prison, in a cake delivered by Harry Boland, do not work again. De Valera’s frustration grows

29th January 1919

Tipperary

Appeals are made to Brigadier-General Prescott Decie, the officer in command of troops in South Tipperary, to ease restrictions in the proclaimed area. Clonmel and Kilsheelan Coursing Club appeal for their Tipperary Cup to be held as normal

Great Britain and Ireland

172,000 people are on strike across the country. Alongside the 60k in Belfast, there are strikes growing in London, Glasgow, Leith, and Manchester.

Clonliffe Road, Dublin

RIC Officers enter a hall on the Clonliffe Road in Dublin where they find 40 men. 12 of them are arrested and charged with illegal Volunteer drilling. They are brought to the Bridewell but refuse to give their details in English or Irish

Belfast

As the city remains in overnight darkness, there is a night of looting with police charging at mobs of young men in various parts of the city centre. The only illuminated buildings, post offices, attracted violence as many windows are broken

Bombay, India

Labour unrest is prevalent elsewhere in the Empire too. 150,000 people are on strike in Bombay. News reaches Ireland of riots a few days ago where two strikers were killed by the bayonettes of troops keeping the peace

Monaghan Town

100 attendants and staff of Monaghan Asylum seize the building as part of strike action. They are led by Peadar O’Donnell, ITGWU Organiser from Donegal. A red flag is hoisted over the building as 180 officers come to assess the situation

Barcelona

Catalan leaders, who continue their pursuit of independence, make American President Wilson, an honorary citizen. He Secretary of State replies, thanking them for their ‘compliment’. Meanwhile, his freedom of Dublin City is greeted with formal silence

Macroom

The town of Macroom is proclaimed following attack on officials a few days ago. A public ITGWU meeting is broken up by RIC. Organiser, Pat Coates shouts ‘long live James Connolly’ as he leads the group to local hall where meeting continued

30th January 1919

Belfast

Builders and labourers join the striking workers in Belfast bringing the total number of people withdrawing labour to 70,000. People begin to question Edward Carson’s silence on such a critical matter

Belfast

The world’s biggest rope factory, in Belfast, closes when a section of key workers bring to a halt the production line. 4,000 people are left without work as a result.

Paris

Europe’s first regular commercial airline service gets a setback as officials in Paris block initial plans for service from London. It is deemed necessary to draw up set of internationally recognised rules for air travel before any service should commence

Paris

Discussions at peace conference hit stumbling block over what to do with some of the captured German colonies such as German Kamerun (Cameroon) and German Samoa. Japanese officials are especially annoyed at prospect of losing newly gained territories

Dublin

The Evening Herald publishes details of Private Thomas Bennett, Royal Irish Regiment, died on his way home from the War, three days after the signing of the Armistice. He was originally from Templeogue.

Tipperary

Patrick Flynn, Chief witness to the Soloheadbeg Ambush, is released from hospital after being admitted for a few days the day after collapsing at the inquest into the deaths of the two RIC Officers

Monaghan

The Monaghan Asylum Soviet continues. A dance is held in the Asylum dining area for all inmates organised by the striking workers. It is said that the inmates of the asylum are delighted with the turn of events and excitement caused

Tullamore

P.J Egan is re-elected the Chairman of Tullamore Urban District Council

31st January 1919

London

The Daily Express newspaper reports that there are being moves made once more to introduce a Home Rule Bill in Ireland to quell growing unrest, and to curb support for Sinn Féin

Ireland

There is now labour unrest in Belfast, Derry, Lurgan, Donegal, Limerick, Dublin, Dundalk, Monaghan and Maryborough

Glasgow

Approximately 25,000 striking workers make their way to George Square. At 12.10pm they are charged by police and chaos breaks out. The leaders of the strike, David Kirkwood and Willie Gallacher, are arrested #blackfriday #battleofgeorgesquare

Aghada Aerodrome, US Navy Base, Cork

At the American naval base in Aghada, 2 RIC Constables are arrested by American servicemen. They are detained in Cork Prison. They were found in the military stores after hours. They are reportedly based in neary Whitegate

Yarmouth

The Nimrod, the ship that Ernest Shackleton led his Antarctic expeditions on, sinks off the coast of Yarmouth. 10 of the 12 crew drown. Nimrod had rested in Thames as a museum ship from 1909 to 1911, but was sold and refitted for commercial use again

Killaloe

A soldier, back home from leave, causes a significant disturbance when he smashes the windows of several homes and businesses late at night. The @NenaghGuardian notes ‘he was labouring under the influence of drink’

1st February 1919

Rome

A day after plans for a commercial airline to begin operating from Paris to London were scuppered, the Italian Caproni Aero-Bus service begins their service from Rome to Naples

Dundalk

The strike of men employed on Dundalk quays for the past five weeks has come to a settlement. Employers agree to a modest increase in workers’ wages which was immediately accepted by strikers that were struggling without payment since before Christmas

Belfast

George Cumin, the Chairman of Harland and Wolff, dies. It is a blow to striking workers as he was said to have been a sympathetic voice among the Directors of the company

Glasgow

After yesterday's tumult, peace returns to the streets of Glasgow. Hundreds of military guard key points in the city. It is stated that they are fully armed with fixed bayonets in anticipation of more trouble.

Kingstown

Brennan Whitmore and Con Donovan arrive into Kingstown by boat following their release from Usk Prison. They were released due to ill health and were said to have alighted the boat in blankets and were ushered away for urgent rest and recuperation

Drumcondra

The 12 men that were arrested a few days ago in a hall on the Clonliffe Road are sentenced to 6 months imprisonment. Evidence is given of RIC Officers hearing commands from within the hall like “Forward’, “About Turn’, and “Stand at Ease’. The imprisoned men, none of whom recognised the court, are Patrick O’Daly, John Forde, Joseph Leonard, Patrick Fogarty, Patrick Farrelly, Stephen O’Connor, Henry Morgan, Patrick McCullen, Edward Lehane, Dermot O’Shea, John Irvine, William Finucane

2nd February 1919

Dublin

As opposition to Sinn Féin's boycott against hunting grows, a letter to the Irish Times poses the question how do the really think they're action would make any difference to the plight of their prisoners in English prisons?

Ireland

Parish priests announce that on the following Sunday there would be an announcement regarding the monies collected as part of the Anti-Conscription fund. The fund, which is it suspected collected a great deal of money, is seemingly now without purpose

Dublin

Patrick Cullen, one of the men imprisoned as part of the raid on hall on the Clonliffe Road, is further remanded for breaking a window in the Bridewell, where he was kept before trial. Cullen said his hand slipped. The judge waived a sentence

Curragh

Soldiers in the Curragh Camp voice their growing frustration at lack of demobilisation which, they say, is moving far too slowly, given fact that was is over nearly three months

Sackville Street

A protest is held at the Parnell Monument against occupation of St. Enda's School by military. Speeches made by Countess Plunkett, and Michael Staines. It is suggested that they purchase the school outright for £10,000 and gift it to Mrs. Pearse

Monaghan

The Monaghan Asylum Soviet continues. All inmates are brought to mass and life goes on as conditions remain satisfactory. Attendants in Clonmel Asylum call for a reduction in their working week and threaten similar action in a few days time

Tipperary

3 men, arrested in connection with Soloheadbeg investigation are released. They are Michael &his son, Matthew Ryan, Donour, Greenane, &; Matthew Riordan, a workman for the Ryans. It comes after discovery of more discarded explosives on the Ryan's land

Carlow

Nora Connolly, daughter of James, addresses town hall ITGWU meeting. She says that women now realised their importance in machinery of the world and have finally put a value upon themselves.

Trim

South Meath Sinn Féin Comhairle Ceanntair pass resolution demanding a cessation of hunting in the area until all political prisoners in English jails are released. They say that, if needs be, they will take strong steps to enforce their decision

Oldcastle

Joseph Cullen, Loughbawn, a prominent local farmer, was travelling from mass with his wife in his pony and trap when, from behind a hedge, he was shot at. No motive is theorised upon, although it may be related to a local land dispute

Donaskeigh Cross, Tipperary

There are plans to hold a public meeting to form a branch of the ITGWU after mass. However, two motors, full of military personnel arrive in trench helmets, and take up positions. The crowd disperse, no attempt made to hold a meeting

Dublin

After the St. Enda's protest at the Parnell monument, a group of people follow 2 detectives through streets shouting abuse. The crowd chanted 'Up Tipperary' until they sought refuge in the Gresham Hotel. The eventually dispersed, singing 'Soldier's Song'

3rd February 1919

Belfast

As the Belfast Strike continues, striking workers march through the streets in defiance of the police

6.30pm, Lincoln Prison

Eamon de Valera, Sean Milroy, and Sean McGarry have a meal of fried eggs, bacon, and fried bread, cooked by Paul Dawson Cusack, Sinn Féin prisoner from Granard, Longford

7pm, Lincoln Prison

Frank Kelly gives Michael Collins and Harry Boland a rope ladder outside Lincoln Prison, which was to be used in event that the doors could not be unlocked. Kelly then takes up watch on Wragby Road, as Collins and Boland cut through a fence

7.40pm, Lincoln Prison

At the agreed time, Boland flashed a torch at de Valera's window. To Boland &; de Valera's horror, the torch would not extinguish, forcing Boland to hide it. de Valera responded to the signal by lighting a few matches. The escape was on...

7.50pm, Lincoln Prison

As Boland and Collins awaited the prisoners to make their way to the door of the exercise yard, one of them, in their haste, tried to unlock the door with a key that Boland had made in Manchester. The key, however, broke in the lock...

7.55pm, Lincoln Prison

The 3 prisoners reach the door. Boland tells them there was a broken key in the lock, news that was greeted with dismay. De Valera inserts key de Loughry had made into lock from his side. It pushes out the broken key and the door opens

8pm, Lincoln

As 3 soldiers, accompanied by 3 women, approach the escapees, Boland gives deValera a fur coat and tells him to link him. As they pass, Boland, pretending to be drunk, jokes with the soldiers. They pass by and the escapees get in a taxi and flee

10.40pm, Lincoln Prison

After much delaying tactics by remaining Sinn Féin prisoners, which included drawing out card games and inviting warders into cells to share a drink, the alarm is raised of an escape. But by that stage, they had a three hour head-start

Ireland

As the number of influenza cases grow, there are fears that another epidemic could spread. People, should they experience symptoms, are advised avoid crowds &; 'remain cheerful' A London physician recommends alcohol as great medicine for those suffering

Tipperary

For the first time in Ireland, the authorities use a plane in their search for evidence in the Soloheadbeg ambush investigation. A plan flew low over the lands around the area as they continue to search for those responsible

Mountainstown Estate, Meath

An attempt is made to hold a hunt, but several members of the local Sinn Féin club, along with many others from Navan succeeded in stopping proceedings

4th February 1919

England

Amidst the breaking news of the escape of de Valera, McGarry, and Milroy from Lincoln Prison, speculation grows that there will be releases of prisoners from English prisons. There are 60 Sinn Féiners still interred. They are...

Durham Prison - Darrell Figgis, M. Fleming, P. Sugrue, M. Spillane, M. Trayers, D. McCarthy

Birmingham Prison - Dr. McNabb, Dr. B Cusack, Messrs D. Doherty, S. Jordan, B. Fallon, G. Nicholls, B. Higgins, J O'Hownhane

Reading Prison - W.T Cosgrave, W.T Cole, R Davys, F. Fahy, J. Hurley, Dr. R Hayes

Gloucester Prison (cont.) - Joseph McBride,J. J. O'Connell, J. N. Dolan, P.J McCann, T Hunter, P.J. Cahill, S. Morkan, L. Ginnell, R. Brennan

Holloway Women's Prison - Kathleen Clarke, Countess Constance Markievicz

Gloucester Prison - Gloucester - Messrs. J. J. Clancy, P.J. Berrill, E. Moore. Tadhg Barry, P. Hughes, J. Minahan, F. Lawless, J.R . O'Reilly, P. Haskins, W. Loughran, P. O'Keefe, F. Drohan, Dr. T. Dillon, J. McGuinness,S. MacEntee , D. Fitzgerald,Arthur Griffith ...

Lincoln Prison - Sean O'Mahony, Peter De Loughry, P. Monohan,J. Corcoran, P.F.Burke, M. Lennon, Sean Dobbyn, P. D. Cusack. M. P. Collivet, S. O'Flaherty, S. Cotter, V. Galligan

4th February 1919

Ballyvaughan, Clare

7 armed and masked men enter Gregan's Castle, the residence of F. Martyn, and take 2 double-barrel shotguns, 2 revolvers, ammo, a pair of binoculars, and a sum of money

Cashel

Timothy O'Dwyer, Clonkelly, Dundrum, and Patrick McCormack, Cappamurragh, are arrested on charges of possession of seditious literature. O'Dwyer has not long complete a one month's sentence for giving his name in Irish to a policeman

Ravensdale House

The home of the Earl of Arran is raised by masked men in search of arms. Two old rifles, two old shotguns, a couple of swords, and a bayonet are taken from the stately home between Dundalk and Newry

Iniscarra, Cork

In accordance with edict from local Sinn Féin club, angling is prohibited, in same manner as hunting, until the Sinn Féin prisoners are released from prison. 50 young men armed with sticks patrol the Lee scaring away fishermen

Dublin

News reaches the evening press of De Valera'a escape from Lincoln Prison, with McGarry and Milroy. Rumours are rampant, but speculation wisely surmises that some sort of master key must have been employed, and that it may have been thrown in over the wall

5th February 1919

London

Amidst a strike of London Tube workers and electricity suppliers, an act is passed under DORA, making it illegal for anyone employed in supply of electricity to break their contract under penalty of 6 months imprisonment

Dublin

Speculation mounts on whereabouts of de Valera. Rumours vary from Paris, and an imminent appearance at the Peace Conference. Other rumours suggest he is about to burst into the House of Commons and take his 2 seats, disrupting the election of the Speaker

Paris

Emir Faisal, leader of the Arabs in War, speaks at the Peace Conference requesting a single Arab confederacy in the lands previously held by the Ottomans. Faisal was close ally and friend of T.E Lawrence

USA

A fight is announced between the reigning champion, Jess Willard, and Jack Dempsey for the Heavyweight Championship of the World

Paris

Discussions in the Peace Conference move towards the fate of Palestine. It is understood that there will be agreement that the area will be granted to the Jewish people and will come under the stewardship of the British as per the Balfour Declaration

New York

At a meeting of teachers at Irish Carmelite Schools in New York, prizes are given out to winners of a Gaelic League competition. Liam Mellows won lilting contest

Glasgow

Tensions in Glasgow subside as people begin to return to work. The military maintain a heavy presence though, with the arrival of six tanks into the city.

6th February 1919

Dublin

1918 Election expenses for Irish candidates are released. Some notable sums include that of Constance Markievicz (£355) and the defeated Alfie Byrne (£426). The highest released figure is £801 for Robert McCalmot, elected Unionist MP for East Antrim.

Bow Street Court, London

Joseph McGrath, a railway clerk in Kentish Town, and William Burrow, a manager in a Birmingham arms manufacturer, are sentenced to six months imprisonment for possession of arms and ammo intended for use in Ireland

Nobber

8 men are arrested by RIC Officers. They are charged with intention to illegally plough lands in Spiddal amidst an ongoing land dispute. They are John Cahill, Pat Eogan, William Halpin, Hugh Ward, Pat McMahon, Peter Halfpenny, Michael Boyle, Hugh McMahon

7th February 1919

Washington

The House of Representatives pass a resolution approving a report of the Foreign Relations Committee, in which the hope is expressed that Congress will ask the Peace Conference to consider favourably Ireland’s claims to self-determination

Dungarvan

The Tipperary hurling team train in Dungarvan, owing to the military imposition in their own county. They are accommodated in a playing field occupied by Daniel Fraher.

Killarney

A postcard arrives from South Africa, via aerial mail, a newsworthy event at the time.

Macroom

Macroom Urban Council are notified that their meetings may proceed, following prohibition of gatherings by the military in the area. The ban was roundly opposed in the community. Posters, informing bans of fairs, are taken down too.

Cork

The Cork Examiner publishes a photo of the most expensive fur coat ever made. At $75,000 (around $1 million in today’s money) the coat made from Siberian pelts, was made for Mabelle Corey, the 2nd wife of steel magnate, William Corey.

Ireland

Members of the RIC are told that they are not permitted to join the National Union of Police and Prison Officers. They are informed that as they are a semi-military force, they come under the auspices of the army, more so than the police

London

As rail services slowly start to resume, aggrieved soldiers began a protest in the West End. Tensions rose as some windows were smashed at Victoria Train Station

Belfast

Hopes for an end to the strike grow as workers and employers meet for six hours of talks. The talks were chaired by Lord Pirrie, a senior figure in Harland and Wolff

Tipperary

James Browne, Killshenane, is sentenced to a year’s imprisonment for possession of a revolver with ammo without a licence.

North Tipperary

A @NenaghGuardian journalist notes the apparent loneliness of life in the countryside, lamenting apparent idle gossiping among young men of the area

8th February 1919

London

Following on from yesterday's disturbances involving disgruntled soldiers, a group of up to 500 soldiers in uniform, many of whom were armed marched to the War Office demanding clarification on their status. They argued that they were being left in limbo

Dublin

A fresh perspective on the 1914 'Curragh Mutiny' is offered by Hubert Gough, retired General in charge at the time. He states he was offered chance to either resign or send troops to Ulster, and that he wanted to take the former option.

9th February 1919

Belfast

Former boarder in Portarlington school, and 'hurler' with TCD Hurley (not hurling) team, Edward Henry Carson turns sixty-five

Tuam

A large horse racing meeting is cancelled in Tuam. The meet was to be a Red Cross 'Our Day' charitable event. It is reported that cancellation is due to threats made by local Sinn Féin clubs in accordance with policy of stopping sporting events

Dublin

More election expenses released. The latest details include those of Eamon de Valera (£263), and Harry Boland (£356). Similar to last release a few days ago, the highest claim comes from a Unionist MP, William Allen (below, £763)

Thurles

John Brett, Drombane, is sentenced to two months imprisonment for drilling the previous March. Bail is denied after Brett refused to recognise the Court

Kilkee

James Behan, Cahirfeenick, goes against standard Volunteer policy and recognises the Court that tries him for leading drilling. For this, and for promising not to do it again, he is granted bail and walks free

Sligo

Joseph Berreen, Mullinabreena, gets 1 month for illegal assembly. He led group of Volunteers at funeral of the leader of the Gurteen Volunteers, Owen Tansey, in which they fired a rifle volley over his grave. Berreen blocked RIC from entering the graveyard

Paris

Sean T. O'Kelly arrives in Paris in an effort to engage with the Peace Conference on Dáil Éireann's behalf. In doing so, his delegation becomes the first Irish diplomatic mission

Dublin

As tensions among armed forces grow as to their status, and concerns over plans for demobilisation, full page ads are taken out in daily newspapers urging patience, and outlining who will be demobilised, and the rates of pay for those willing to stay on

Tipperary

There is a noticeable ramping up of military activity in south Tipperary as the perimeter for searches relating to the Soloheadbeg ambush widen out from Tipperary town

Kilcruise, Laois

The local Thomas Ashe Sinn Féin Club denounces the continuing practice of fox hunting in Queen's County whilst Sinn Féin prisoners are still in English prisons

Maryborough

Lar Brady is re-elected as the President of Maryborough Sinn Féin Club

Ballinahinch, Tipperary

Sean Treacy and Seamus Robinson continue to be on the run from the RIC, as they stay with James Hewitt in his home in Ballinahinch. They stay for one week before moving on towards near Castleconnell

10th January 1919

Tokyo

Members of the Japanese Diet question the government as to the apparent policy of military retrenchment in the face of growing American influence. Reassurances are made that Japanese military might will grow to meet that of the USA

Berlin

Further Sparticist unrest in the German capital as 8 protesters are shot dead in the Alexanderplatz region of the city

Dublin

Controversy as details emerge of a large budgetary overrun on a publicly funded building project.....

£25,000 of extra funds will be needed for the construction of social housing in several sites in the city

Macroom

The apparent easing of restrictions a few days ago in the Macroom area are reversed as the proclaimed perimeter is extended from three miles from Macroom Town Hall, to six miles. Fairs in Dooniskey and Kilnamartyrs are prohibited

Mansion House, Dublin

Pictures are published of the All Ireland Trade Union Congress meeting. A universal demand for a 44 hour week is made, and for a 150% increase in wages compared to pre-war rates.

Dublin

The chronic problems of structure of RIC are outlined in a letter to the Irish Independent. The amount of RIC constables around the time of the famine was 9,500. Despite the population being millions smaller, there was almost the same amount of officers

11th February 1919

London

King George V delivers his speech to open parliament. He says that the position in Ireland caused him great anxiety, and he hoped that conditions improve so that a suitable settlement to the current difficult situation presents itself

Belfast

For the first time in 16 days, the trams begin to run in the city. The unexpected turn of events is greeted with cheers as the tram drive jovially smiles and receives his applause as he sets off from Royal Avenue

Ireland

Influenza has returned to the island, and there is grave concern over its potential spread. There are multiple outbreaks in Dublin, but the worst affected areas for the time being are in Newry and Enniscorthy

Greystones

In an interview with the Evening Standard, Sinéad de Valera said she only knew as much as papers on her husband's whereabouts. Speaking of her new home, she says that Greystones is almost entirely Unionist and they are strangers without friends there

Berlin

Friedrich Erber is elected the first president of Germany. By trade he was a saddler, and is a Socialist. He will earn £50,000 per annum for role, more than the Presidents of the United States and France combined (they earn £25k and £24k respectively)

12th February 1919

England

The flu threat increases in England, in the past week the following died; Liverpool - 55, Wigan - 29, Manchester - 28, Huddersfield - 25, Bradford - 37, London - 169

Cork

One theory proposed on renewed spread of the flu is offered by Dr. Donovan of the Public Health Committee. He thinks that clothes worn by soldiers in France are being sold unwashed and are spreading the disease. He urges for all such clothes to be burned

Belfast

After yesterday’s optimism, and the resumption of the trams, pessimism returns. The trams ceaseto operate again as all operations reliant upon electricity are forced to re-close

London

The out-of-work donation scheme has been in operation since November. The first utterances of grave misappropriation is brought up in the House of Commons. Sir John Butcher claims that is leading to idleness in Ireland

Curragh

Patrick Gavin, 45, is shot dead by a sentry near Tully Springs in the Curragh. Gavin was tending to animals when a 17 year old soldier, Private Jay, approached and asked him who he was. When little reply was given the inexperienced soldier shot him

Maryborough

A meeting is held in Courthouse to set up 'Comrades of the Great War' branch, Attendance was good, there were about 50/60 ex-soldiers there. However, it is noted that owing to apprehension as to the branch's purpose, public attendance was small

Dublin

Joseph McDonagh is granted a week's parole from Reading Gaol to visit his ill nephew, the six year old son of 1916 leader, Tomas McDonagh. He says that his fellow inmates are in good spirits despite health issues brought on by prison diet

Holloway, London

Kathleen Clarke, wife of executed 1916 leader, Tom Clarke, is released from Holloway Prison. She makes her way to the West-End of London to rest before making plans to return to Dublin.

Dublin

It is reported that Margaret Pearse is gravely ill. The military, despite recent protests, still occupy St. Enda’s in Rathfarnham

13th February 1919

Paris

As talks continue, there are rumours that the Germans will be forced to give up their Merchant Navy. Also, President Wilson states that failure on Germans’ part to adhere to armistice will result in renewal of war

Dublin

Thomas Fleming, Shillelagh, is courtmartialled. He is charged with having a pamphlet at time of election with image of a 1916 executed leader saying “are you going to send Irishmen to an English parliament ... that did this’. Verdict to be released later

Clonmel

The prestigious Tipperary Coursing Cup, organised by Clonmel &; Kilsheelan Coursing Club, reaches its semi final stage. One of this year’s favourites is this dog, owned by a Mr. W O’Sullivan from Kerry. His name is Commandant Pearse

London

As questions continue to arise over the handling of the out-of-work donation payment in Ireland, it is stated that so far, £550,000 has been given out to 82,500 Irish people

Enniscorthy

The flu continues to wreak havoc town. One man, Michael Dempsey, Kilcotty, has buried 4 children, 2 on the same day. Principal of Monageer N.S, Mrs. Sinnot also died. Several people that attended recent dance in Davidstown sick, 2 already dead

London

Kathleen Clarke continues to rest in flat of Eva Gore Booth. Clarke’s sister, Mrs. Daly, will travel from Limerick to meet her. Eva’s sister, Constance Markievicz, is the only SF woman imprisoned now, but remains in good spirits

Wicklow

Women are forced to queue throughout the night in order to secure their out-of-work donation payment in a building, formerly a shop, next to the 'Doctor's Steps' in the town. The queue stretched down the quays but the weather was relatively pleasant

Tipperary Town

Military continue to exercise tight control in Tipperary town. The pose for a photoin front of Fitzpatrick's in the townwhich is submitted to the national press

14th February 1919

London

Kathleen Clarke talks on her time in Holloway. She said that the Doctor, said to her that she had “Irish tongue and Irish wit’, but turning to Markievicz he said “you have neither’. She replied “that’s the drop of Sassanach in me!’

Belfast

A ballot of striking works to decide upon an offer made by employers is taken. 8,777 accept, but 11,963 reject the proposals.

Limerick

A strike in the Limerick City Asylum continues. Male and Female attendants, as well as tradesmen are striking over a number of matters, mainly pay and working hours

Clonmel

Rumours that swirled around the town that Micheal Ryan, County Councillor, Chairman of Clonmel No. 2 RDC, had been arrested proved false. Ryan is, in fact, on the run from the RIC

Paris

President Wilson presents the proposed consitution of a League of Nations; 'The miasma of distrust ... is cleared away, We are brothers and have a common purpose. We did not realise it before.This is our covenant of fraternity and friendship'.

15th February 1919

Belfast

The Lord Mayor, John Campbell White, issues a proclamation outlining how he had secured military protection for those people willing to work in municipal facilities. He urged upon anyone willing to work to make their presence known to authorities

Dublin

As de Valera is still at large, the Evening Herald summarises the different places he is rumoured to have been seen; Grimsby, Newcastle, Gravesend, London, Glasgow, Paris, Dublin, Skibereen, Queenstown. A very well travelled fugitive indeed!

16th February 1919

Cork

Quaker Oats places an ad in the Cork Examiner extolling the virtues of purchasing food with due consideration to their calorific content. They suggest that not to do so, would be like burning money.

Croke Park

Wexford defeat Tipperary by a single point to win the 1918 football championship, their fourth All-Ireland football title in a row

Newcastle West

The military have taken over the local Carnegie Library. When challenged over the sudden occupation, those in charge stated that they had obtained permission from the County Council. However, no such permission was sought or granted.

London

It is revealed from the Treasury that Ireland has contributed £26,865,000 to the UK economy in 1918.

Tullamore

When the police discover that a Gaelic League meeting, due to be held in the Forester’s Hall, is to be addressed by Fr. Michael O’Flanagan, they demand assurances that no seditious language be used during his speech.

Mountrath

Tom Farren, ITGWU Organiser, addresses a meeting in Mountrath of 150 men with a view towards establishing a branch. A similar meeting in Borris-in-Ossory has 100 attendees. In nearby Castletown, Farren addresses another large meeting of 110

Wicklow

A Parish Priest in Wicklow town, in his Sunday sermon, speaks out against the women of the town queuing all night for their unemployment benefit. He does not see purpose in them beginning their vigil at 9.30pm on a Thursday, to receive payment at 9.30am

17th February 1919

Greenane, Tipperary

Two boys, Jack and Tom Connors are arrested as part of the Soloheadbeg Ambush investigations. They are subsequently released without charge. Authorities also search a graveyard in the district for the stolen gelignite

Dublin

Kathleen Clarke returns to Dublin. She arrived into Kingstown on the morning mail boat. The crossing was rough and little fuss was made as she entered a taxi waving to well-wishers that had gathered to welcome her back

Dublin

Gerard Norman Reddin, of Reddin &; Reddin Solicitors, takes possession of St. Enda's School, Rathfarnham, on behalf of Margaret Pearse. The school had been in the military's hands for several weeks

18th February 1919

Belfast

It is reported that the strike in Belfast may be coming to an end. This morning, several thousand men returned to their posts in various engineering works, and the Rope Factory re-opened too

19th February 1919

Liffey St., Dublin

The Gaelic Press offices are raided for the fourth time since the start of the year by police. Nothing is seized, but owing to the past raids, and forcible dismantling of the printing presses, the Press is forced to close

Dublin

The Court Martial of James Greene, Bernard Harte, John Doyle, and Michael Hegarty. They are charged in connection with the incident on 3 Rock Mountain, when 2 policemen were bound and relieved of their arms

Kildare St., Dublin

Maple’s Hotel burns down. At the turn of the Century, under the stewardship of Frederick Maple, the hotel was one of Dublin’s finest. But since his death, in 1906, its fortunes became mixed.

19th February 1919

Paris

The French Prime Minister, Georges Clemenceau , is shot. His condition is described as “dangerous’ as he suffers gunshot wounds to the back and shoulder. Despite this he walks home from scene of shooting where he was treated. Emile Cottin, a 22 year old anarchist, is tackled by police and bystanders and is eventually arrested. His mugshotshows his swollen face, a result of his rough handling by onlookers and police alike

Dublin

Charles Cameron, the Ireland’s chief physician, gives advise as the flu continues to get worse. He urges people who feel ill to isolate themselves, and for persons that must enter room of a sick person, to wear a garment that does not leave the room

Glasnevin Cemetery

21 people are buried in Glasnevin, most of whom have succumbed to the flu. During the same period in 1918, only 13 people a day were being buried. A similar spike is also being reported in Mount Jerome on the south side of the city

Kilkenny

Mid-week “gaiety’, if not “frivolity’ in Kilkenny as hundreds of people go against medical warning and attend two dances in “the gay city’. One of the dances was hosted by Richard Smithwick in Birchfield House.

The Wicklow YMCA, on the other hand, decide to postpone their dance to St. Patrick’s Day owing to the prevalence of the flu in the town

Bray

One of the most prominent victims of the current outbreak of flu is the Town Clerk of Bray, Denis Mullally. The 41 year old is laid to rest in the town today. He had been Clerk since 1914, and had recently lost his wife tragically

Dublin

After 2 failed trials, the trial venue of John, Patrick, and William O’Brien is moved to Derry. They are charged with the murder of George Sheehan, Silvermines, in a raid for arms in Jan '18. The court are told SF were having influence on jurors in Cork

South Tipperary

Brigadier General Prescott Decker announces Martial Law in all of South Tipperary outside of Clonmel and Carrick-on-Suir. All public assemblies, markets and fairs are banned

Tipperary

There are multiple arrests, including relatives of Sean Hogan and Dan Breen, who are still missing. John Connors, 1 of the boys arrested a few days ago, is lifted in secret and conveyed to Dublin by train. His mother is very anxious for his well being

Late-February 1919

Seumas Robinson, 1 of the leaders of the Volunteers that instigated the Soloheadbeg ambush grows angry at Crown Forces’ treatment of people of South Tipp. He drafts a proclamation threatening death to any supporter of the forces. GHQ rejects his suggestion.

Tipperary

There are multiple arrests, including relatives of Sean Hogan and Dan Breen, who are still missing

Late-Afternoon, Kilmacanogue

Liam McMahon, leading member of Manchester Republican movement, and prominent figure in the Lincoln Prison escape, stays in a house in Kilmacanogue, near Bray. Whilst there he receives word from Michael Collins to travel to Dublin

Evening, Dublin

Liam McMahon meets with Michael Collins in Vaughan's Hotel. Collins tell him to travel immediately back to England to retrieve de Valera from hiding. An issue has arisen between Arthur Griffith and Cathal Brugha, and de Valera was needed to resolve

Night, Dublin

Liam McMahon boards a boat. He has a letter from Collins to give to de Valera who is required in Dublin immediately. McMahon travels through night en-route to home of Mary Healy, Cumann na mBan, in Victoria Park, Manchester, where de Valera is in hiding

20th February 1919

9am, Victoria Park, Manchester

Liam McMahon, who has travelled all night from Dublin, arrives at home of Mary Healy to speak with de Valera, who is in hiding there. McMahon gives de Valera Collins’ letter. He asks when is he to go. McMahon replies “today’!

Liverpool

De Valera is brought by a taxi by Mary Healy, Kathleen Talty (both Cumann na mBan) and Paddy Donoghue. From there Neal Kerr and Steve Lanigan make arrangements to have him smuggled on to a ship bound for Dublin

Unbeknownst to most in attendance, de Valera is en-route to Dublin on a boat from Liverpool

Mansion House, Dublin

At the first Sinn Féin Ard Comhairle meeting of the year, was convened. Fr. Michael O’Flanagan, Sinn Féin VP presided. A letter from de Valera is read out aloud. It states he escaped prison to do the country’s work, and he is doing it.

Paris

When questioned for attempted assassination of French Prime Minister, Emile Cottin replies “well, there are red-letter days in a man’s life. [Yesterday] was my red-letter day!’. Meanwhile, Clemenceau is said to be recovering well

Nenagh

Frank McGrathis released from prison for two-weeks parole on health grounds. He is accompanied to Nenagh by Art O’Connor

Miltown Malbay

Nine young men are arrested in the dead of night and are conveyed by military to Ennis. They are charged with driving cattle off the land of a man currently in Crumlin Rd. Prison for reading a Sinn Féin manifesto

Dublin

Edward Nicholson is sentenced to six months in prison for illegal drilling in Finglas. Drilling, and general Volunteer activity is so bad in Finglas, it is reported, that the DMP have moved to establish a permanent increased presence there

Dublin

Eamonn de Valera returns in secret to Dublin on a boat from Liverpool. He is quickly taken away into hiding once more and no overt suspicion is raised

Dunshaughlin

The Ward Hounds met, but were met by a crowd of protesters armed with sticks. After being told they could not conduct hunt owing to the SF prohibition, the Master ordered it off. As they left there was a scuffle and a valuable horse was shot

Raphoe, Donegal

In the Royal School, 27 rifles, and 7,000 rounds of ammo are seized. They are the property of the Ulster Volunteers.Their seizure has caused consternation from local unionists

Castleterra, Cavan

3 masked men break into the home of Rev. D.M.W Hamilton and seize a rifle. They gained entry through a trap door at the rear of the house

21st February 1919

Munich

Kurt Eisner, the Premier of Bavaria, is assassinated by Lieutenant Anton Arco Valley. As the assassination is denounced in the Bavarian Diet shots ring out from the public gallery killing a deputy and wounding another

London

The Daily Chronicle reports that de Valera spent the weekend in Balbriggan where his sister-in-law owned a business

Philadelphia

On the eve of the 3rd Irish Race Convention, final preparations are made for the arrival of 5,000 delegates to the event organised by the Friends for Irish Freedom movement.

22nd February 1919

Dublin

Three schoolboys from Donnybrook, Francis, James, and Roland Redmond are charged with breaking into the unoccupied Ardmore House on the Stillorgan Road (now on @ucddublin ) and stealing 2 carbine rifles.

Paris

At the Peace Conference, it is suggested that the entirety of the German navy be sailed into the deep Atlantic and sunk. It is noted as being a deliberately dramatic possibility, and would show the world the detest to which the German navy is held

Philadelphia

The 3rd Irish Race Convention discusses the Election, the meeting of Dáil, imprisonment of Sinn Féin leaders. De Valera’s escape from prison was feted. Although, official programme spelt his first name as “Eamow’.

Bavaria

After events in Munich, the German state falls into chaos as trade unions announce a Soviet Republic. As the confusion grows there are reports that Kurt Eisner had been shot as he was on his way to resign to the parliament

Derry

A vacancy arises in the North Derry constituency. The by-election will see Unionist, B.T Barrie, take on Sinn Féin candidate, Patrick Magettigan

Dublin

A party of Dublin Castle Intelligence Officers raid Quinn and Co. premises in Abbey Street and seize copies of a song called “Erin, Remember 1916’

Paris

Sean T. O’Kelly writes to French Premier, Clemenceau, seeking recognition for Ireland as independent. Clemenceau, who was shot 3 days ago, was bedridden as doctors urged people to stop visiting. O’Kelly's letter received no reply

23rd February 1919

Philadelphia

At the concluding day of the Irish Race Convention, the delegates pledge to raise $1 million in 6 months for Irish cause. Cardinal James Gibbons, Baltimore, leads resolution seeking President’s recognition of independence of Ireland

East-Limerick

There are rumours abound that certain areas of Limerick, on the Tipperary border, such as Oola, Galbally, Pallas, and Cappamore are to be made military areas in the coming week

Dublin

Robert Barton, who was arrested last week, is moved to Mountjoy Prison

Glen of Aherlow

The local amateur dramatic group put on a performance of Charles Kickham's 'Knocknagow'

North London

At a meeting of London Irishmen, a letter from de Valera is read. After summarising the state of republicanism in the various cities in Britain, it concludes; 'Ireland beyond the seas is waking up, and freedom is within our grasp'

Cork

The American ship, Bavaria, sends a wireless message to shore stating that they needed to alter their course and land to get medical attention for Edward Lyons, the ship's carpenter, who was ill with influenza

Dublin

At a meeting of the Irish Women's Franchise League, the ongoing imprisonment of Countess Markievicz is debated. It is noted that she is now alone in the Holloway, following Kathleen Clarke's release.

Hollywood, Rathgate

A meeting of the Ward Union Staghounds is eventually held without protest. They had experienced virulent opposition in the past few weeks from Sinn Féin supporters

Dunmore Park, Kilkenny

Owing to technical difficulties, an aeroplane forced land in Dunmore Park, outside city. It is a source for great curiosity as people travel far and wide to look at it. It is hoped that engineers from the Curragh can fix it by week's end

Tullow

Up to 600 people attend a meeting in Town Hall in Tullow with a view towards of establishing a branch of the ITGWU. Tom Farren, who was organising several branches all over the midlands in past fortnight, was chief speaker

24th February 1919

Dublin

An inquest into the death of Frances Phelan, Foley St., held. A doctor entered the flat to find Frances in bed huddled with her husband and baby. Frances was dead from flu, and the other two died soon after. A Sister-in-law who also lived there died too

Lauriston Estate, north of Cork City

The Northern Harriers hunt meet successfully, without interruption from Sinn Féin protesters. The strategy of opposing bloodsports seems to be waning across the island

Boston

President Woodrow Wilson returns to the United States aboard the Steam Ship, Washington. He makes an stirring address in which he states that the world pins their hopes on America as being a friend to mankind

Dublin

Chief Secretary gives speech to deputation from Municipal Association of Ireland outlining how the fate of Ireland was in hands of Irish people, but that political/economic disturbances would 'retard the realisation legitimate industrial ambitions'

Kilkenny

The shop of Miss A. Brophy, High Street, is raided by RIC Officers. Several pamphlets relating to the proceedings of Dáil Éireann last month are seized

25th February 1919

Dublin

The circumstances that led death 4 members of Phelan family in Flat 85C of the Corp.Buildings,Foley Street again discussed in Boardroom of Dublin Workhouse. Details poor management of the hospital ambulance, poor decisions on doctor’s part were discussed

Boston

Reports emerge of the foiling of the assassination of President Wilson as he moved through the streets of Boston. Andrew Rogosky, from Worcester, is arrested and had a revolved seized from his following suspicious behaviour

Dublin

Oxo, in an ad in the Evening Herald, claim that their produce, when taken 2-3 times a day, will prevent influenza

Wicklow

The townspeople of Wicklow were treated to an unexpected airshow when 4 biplanes undertook a series of loops, and spirals over the town. One of the pilots was Edgar Hodgson and he took the opportunity to land nearby and visit his parents

In a remarkable day for early fans of planes in Wicklow, news also broke on 25/2/19 of an application to Bray Town Council from the Northern Aerial Coy., Liverpool, for option to construct aerodromes on the shore at Bray. Prospect of Bray hosting a future Irish airport grows

Kill

Five fully armed troops accompany RIC Officers to Kill Quarry to oversee the blasting of rock with gelignite. This is part of increased security around County Council owned explosives since the Soloheadbeg Ambush

Dublin

Maud Gonne McBride and Hanna Sheehy-Skeffington speak at a meeting of the Women's Franchise League on the deplorable state of women's prisons in England and, once again, call for the release of Constance Markievicz from Holloway Prison

Kenmare

John Lyne, Gamekeeper to the Earl of Kenmare, who was shot yesterday is recovering well. He was shot in thigh by 2 masked men who broken in, possibly for acquiring arms. Lyne said he let off a shot towards the men but does not know what affect it had

26th February 1919

Thurles

Drombane Volunteer, Thomas Ryan arrested for drilling. Before court, D.I Hunt says he caused a lot of trouble. When charges put to Ryan, he says “We were Bolshevicks I suppose. I don’t recognise this court, and only recognise authority of Dáil Éireann

Kenmare

Patrick Casey, 25, from Blackvalley is found dead on roadside, with part of skull blown away. Casey is found 30 yards from where John Lyne was shot two days ago. Lyne had said that he shot at his 2 attackers but was unsure if he had injured either man

27th February 1919

Paris

Georges Clemenceau, French Prime Minister, returns to work at the Parisian War Office after an assassination attempt on him

Dublin

Owing to the flu epidemic, all National Schools in the city closes. The worst affected areas are reportedly Grangegorman, North King Street, Drumcondra, and Glasnevin

Belfast

“Moist’ weather conditions have led to a worrying spread of the flu in Belfast. The North, and East of the city are worst affected. 90 men working on the tramways were off sick yesterday

Ireland

Flu is reportedly spreading in Wicklow, Waterford, Carlow, Waterville, Listowel, Tralee, Mallow, Charleville, Mullingar, Newry, and parts of Donegal

Dublin

As the flu epidemic threatens to grow into as big a crisis as it did last year, there are calls for the government in Westminster to create a dedicated Irish Health Ministry to adequately manage health services in Ireland

New York

Daniel Cohalan, Chairman of the Irish Race Convention, sends a telegram intended for de Valera. In it he states that he will work tirelessly to solidify American opinion behind Ireland’s insistent demand for complete self-determination

Paris

Considerable interest is growing in Sean T. O’Kelly’s delegation in Paris. Several French newspapers are approaching him for comments on the Irish position, and on the whereabouts of de Valera

Thurles

William Loughnane, Quarry St., is arrested and brought before Petty Sessions Court. He has been on the run for over a year

Batterstown, Meath

Another meeting of Ward Hunt is abandoned following protest from local Sinn Féin supporters. The Earl of Fingall, James Plunkett , the acting Master, decides to call it off to prevent trouble

Gloucester

10 Irish prisoners are removed from Prison suffering from flu. Among the men removed are 3 MPs; Paudeen O'Keefe, Thomas Hunter, and Pierce McCann. They are moved to a nursing home in Beaufort Buildings, Spa Road

28th February 1919

Dublin

Charles Cameron believes that the current flu epidemic in Ireland will peak this week before going into decline in March. He also prohibits all visitors to Crookslings Sanatorium and the Pigeon House Hospital in Rialto

Owestry, Shropshire

Of the 140 people that attended a dance in Owestry hall last week, 122 have contracted the flu, and 12 have died

Paris

At the Peace Conference, the issues of creating a Jewish state, with an influx of 2million Jews, without infringing on Palestinians’ rights is discussed. It is noted that it should not be a problem if undertaken by “an enlightened government’

Gloucester Prison

Arthur Griffith telegrams from Gloucester Prison on the condition of the removed prisoners. He notes that there is no need for any relatives to be overly concerned

Maryborough

Kevin O’Higgins gives a talk in the town hall to hundreds of enthusiastic supporters. Speaking on the Irish deputation at the Peace Conference he says “it embarrasses the enemy, the protectress of small nations, has her heel on a small nation’

Kells

It is reported that Kells has the highest rate of unemployment in Ireland by virtue of fact that is has the highest pay-out of out-of-work donation payment per capitaof any urban area on the island

Dublin

The Irish Independent publishes full-page ad for a SF collection to be taken at masses across country following day. The ad says “in the year that the map of Europe is being recast the map of the United Kingdom [must] be recast’

1st March 1919

Dublin

Sean T. O’Kelly gives interesting account of de Valera’s escape to French journalists. He said that Irish girls were used to flirt with guards whilst the three prisoners made their escape. When asked where was he, O’Kelly said he’d ‘be on time when wanted’

Washington D.C

The White House issues a statement denying that Wilson told the Congressional Foreign Affairs Committee that Ireland’s issue was with England alone, and that they ought not to have any voice at the Peace Conference.

Dublin

Kathleen Clarke is reportedly gravely ill. Recently released, she has been bed-bound since reception in Gresham Hotel when she arrived from Holloway. She is being tended daily by Dr. Kathleen Lynn, Easter Rising and ICA Veteran

2nd March 1919

Nenagh

In Nenagh, as elsewhere, money collected during the conscription crisis is returned, but people are urged to give the money to Sinn Féin's self-determination fund which had its collection today across the country

Ireland

At Sunday masses in churches across country, bishops deliver their Lenten pastoral sermons. Many of them refer to the ongoing mis-management of affairs in Ireland, and in Tipperary diocese, the ongoing martial law in the south of the county is criticised

Kellistown, Carlow

Demonstration on the division of land from the Doyne estate. Those in attendance demanded that land be divided among the descendants of those who were dispossessed. The Ballon Fife &Drum Band, and the Myshall Players added music to the occasion

Curraghboy, Roscommon

As the GAA Season gets under way, the challenges faced in organising games at the time is epitomised in the cancellation of a football tournament in Curraghboy. Not one of the teams turned up owing to inability to secure transport

Dublin Castle

The RIC County Inspector's Report for February 1919 in the King's County arrives for review. He states that the county is in a peaceable condition, but discusses the ban on hunting by local Sinn Féin clubs as a sign that disaffection is growing. He also mentions that Piaras BÉaslaí and J.J Walsh were in the county during the month on Volunteer duty. He concludes by stating that the most active organisations under watch in the county in February were Cumann na mBan (3 branches, 140 members), the Women's Workers Union (1 branch, 60 members) and the ITGWU (11 branches, 1,337 members)

Dublin Castle

The RIC County Inspector's Report for February 1919 in the Queen's County arrived for review. He notes that it has been relatively quiet politically, and that only thing of note happening is growth of the labour movement, and some agrarian unrest such as the case in Cuddagh, Castletown, where a farm of 65 acres was purchased against wishes of locals who wanted it divided

Dublin Castle

The RIC County Inspector's Report for February 1919 in Westmeath arrived for review. He discusses 3 incidents of note in connection with the Volunteers. The first was a raid for arms on the Roscommon side of Athlone in which 4 men were arrested, and remain in Mountjoy prison. Another incident involved the seizing of literature in 2 stationary shops in Mullingar. The 3rd incident was at the funeral of a Volunteer on 4th February in Ballynacargy. Michael O'Connell, Draper from the village, ordered 4 other men to fire revolvers over the coffin, 3 of whom were known to police. Subsequent searches of the men's homes yielded nothing

Dublin Castle

The RIC County Inspector's Report for February 1919 in North Tipperary arrived for review.

Whilst the county is in a peaceable condition, 'the community appear to be in a great sense of anxiety as to what will happen. The Sinn Féin party is maintaining a very careful silence as to its intentions'. A clear illustration of the attitudes towards proto-social welfare schemes from British authorities in Ireland is shown when he states that the out-of-work donation scheme is 'a scandalous and incomprehensible scheme [that] has greatly demoralised the county'. On 24th February, the police came upon 30-40 men in field near Drombane. When discovered they all fled. RIC believe they were preparing for illegal drilling. The County Inspector notes he has requested military help in patrolling the south of his jurisdiction to end such activity. The first official mention from the area of what would become Sinn Féin courts is mentioned in this dispatch. It is noted that at a meeting of the mid-Tipp Executive in Thurles, the setting up of arbitration courts to settle disputes was brought up...

3rd March 1919

London

It is reported that a meeting of an organisation called the 'Ultra-Irish Society' held a midnight meeting in London, during which a letter from de Valera was read. The letter concludes with 'prove to the civilised world that you are Paddies evermore'

The report is met with confusion in Sinn Féin HQ as Harry Boland prepares a statement denouncing it as a hoax

Westminster

Sir Maurice Dockrell, Unionist M.P for Rathmines ‘ takes to the floor and asks Bonar Law the following question about a radical infrastructural project connecting Ireland and Britain; 'In view of the advantage to both GB &Ireland which would accrue from a closer connection between the 2 countries, has any recent estimate been made of cost of connecting them by tunnel; and will this question be considered in conjunction with any scheme for tunnelling Channel?'

Gloucester

Arthur Griffith telegrams an update on the condition of prisoners with flu. He states that no body is in a serious condition, and that no family members should be concerned. Among those who are recovering are, Griffith states, Pierce McCann

Dublin

In an effort to curb the continuing spread of flu, all concerts in the Mansion House are postponed indefinitely

Dublin

The condition of Kathleen Clarke is said to be improving

London

The Evening Standard Newspaper continues to offer their opinion on where de Valera is hiding. Their latest theory is he is in Spain, or maybe Portugal....but most likely Spain, near the French border, awaiting news that the Peace Conference will receive him

Sydney

As the flu spreads in Australia, controversy erupts as clergy men are prohibited from entering quarantined areas to administer communion. Waterford-born Archbishop of Sydney, Micheal Kelly, makes a personal appeal ‘ for admission

South-Kildare

A severe snow storm hits the south of County Kildare and surrounding areas. Several inches of snow falls in the fist heavy snow in the area of the winter

4th March 1919

Dublin

The Evening Herald is 1 of a number of prominent newspapers forced into acknowledging report they published yesterday on a meeting of the 'Ultra-Irish' in London was a hoax. The Herald places the blame on PA (Press Association) who disseminated the report

The report, when read closely, was clearly high farce, with references a Mr. Bouchaleen Lynch, as the man who delivered the letter from de Valera, which was also fabricated.

He added that the only genuine correspondence from de Valera, was the letter that was read out at the Sinn Féin Ard Comhairle in which he stated that he escaped Lincoln Prison to do the country's work

Sinn Féin HQ, Dublin

Harry Boland denounces yesterday's publication of a hoax meeting in London, and questions the newspapers in question as to their standards. Boland suggests that the hoax was the latest in a string of anti-Irish propaganda coming from Britain

Washington D.C

The US House of Representatives votes in favour of a resolution calling for self-determination for Ireland by a majority of 216 votes vs. 41 votes

Mansion House, Dublin

The final event in the Mansion House before closure owing to flu takes place. The star guest at the Robert Emmet memorial concert was Sean McGarry, one of the three men that escaped Lincoln Prison

Dublin

Piaras BÉaslaí, M.P for West Kerry, is arrested in Dublin at 11.15pm on his way home from the Robert Emmet Memorial Concert in the Mansion House. As BÉaslaí is being arrested by Sergeant Smith, 33 year old James Foley, a demobilised Royal Marine, approached the officer and shouted at him that he could not arrest this man. Foley then punched the officer and grabbed him by the throat. He was arrested, along with BÉaslaí

New York

President Wilson confidently announces in speech before his return to Europe that ‘I am convinced by unmistakable evidences from all parts of the country that the United States favours a League of Nations. No party, in the long run, will care to oppose it’

Wilson was annoyed as during his speech, and a reference to small nations, a body of people interrupted him by shouting 'what about Ireland?' Wilson animosity towards Cohalan stretched back several years. In 1912 Cohalan had criticised his nomination at Democratic Convention

New York

A delegation from the Friends of Irish Freedom seek to meet with President Wilson in the Metropolitan Opera House where he was making his League of Nations speech. Wilson refused to meet them until Judge Daniel Cohalan left the room.

There was also Cohalan's ooposition to the States declaring war on Germany.

There was also the purportedly forged 'Bernstorff Correspondence' ‘ which perpetuated Irish and Imperial German links

Wilson reportedly expressed little interest in what the 23 members of the Friends of Irish Freedom had to say. One account from a recent study states that he was tempted to tell the Irish-Americans to go to hell

5th March 1919

Cork

J.J Walsh was arrested in Cork, and brought to Dublin to the Bridewell. It is stated that he, and Piaras Béaslaí are arrested due to their activities in Offaly, which were mentioned in the RIC County Inspector’s Report a few days ago

Dublin

James Foley, who was arrested yesterday at the scene of the arrest of Piaris Béaslaí for punching an officer, is brought before court. It was stated he had drink taken but was well able to handle himself. He was remanded until later in the week

Gloucester

A telegram is sent to Dublin indicating that Pierce McCann is gravely ill. A solicitor from Belfast, on business visiting other prisoners, calls in on McCann in the Nursing Home where he was being kept. He did not believe he would survive the night

His parents travel from Tipperary to be at their son's side

6th March 1919

2.30am

Beaufort Buildings Spa, Gloucester

Pierce McCan, M.P for East Tipperary, dies. He succumbs to influenza contracted whilst an inmate in Gloucester Prison

Sean Nunan, originally from London, is sent by Sinn Féin to organise the bringing home of the remains

Late-morning

Sinn Féin H.Q

Rumours reach the Sinn Féin Headquarters of the death of Pierce McCan, They are confirmed by a telegram from Patrick O’Keefe, M.P for North Cork and fellow inmate in Gloucester

Westminster

The Chief Secretary, Ian MacPherson announces that all Sinn Féin prisoners in English prisons are to be released. The release only applies to prisoners in England and Wales. Any Sinn Féin prisoners in Irish prisons will remain behind bars.

Dublin

A telegram to the Governor of Gloucester Prison from the Irish Independent asking into the circumstances of McCann’s death is replied to with the following; ‘No Inquest Necessary. Died Nursing Home.'

Dublin

Robert Brennan said that initially McCan’s illness was considered least threatening in beginning. But that he suddenly developed pneumonia &temperature of 104. He revealed that he had complained that authorities were not doing enough prevent spread of flu

Dublin

Preparations are made for small receptions for the returning prisoners. W.T Cosgrave and Laurence Ginnell are expected to land in Kingstown in the morning. However, given the death of McCan overt celebrations will not take place

Kinmel Military Park, North Wales

15,000 Canadian troops were stationed in cramped conditions in the camp awaiting repatriation. After a number of weeks of rising tensions, a full scale mutiny breaks out. Five people are killed in ensuing riots

Ballymacarbry, Waterford

Micheal Ryan, Tipp South Co. Councillor, and Clonmel U.D.C Member, continues to evade arrest. 2 attempts were made to apprehend him today, at 3.30am and 8.30pm. But he slipped RIC on both occasions, the second from the home of Mr. Condon

7th March 1919

Kingstown

W.T Cosgrave and Laurence Ginnell arrive in Kingstown following their release. They are pictured below, sitting beside Bridget Burke, W.T’s mother. Behind them are (L to R) Thomas Burke (W.T’s step-father), Alice Ginnell, Ald. Tom Kelly, Fr. Flanagan

Among the prisoners awaiting release from English prisons are;

  • Peter Hughes, Chairman Dundalk Urban District Council
  • Paul Galligan, M.P for Cavan West
  • Desmond Fitzgerald, M.P for Dublin Pembroke
  • Arthur Griffith, Founder of Sinn Féin, M.P for East Cavan
  • Walter Leonard Cole, Founder of the Sinn Féin Printing and Publishing Company
  • Dr. Brian Cusack, M.P for Galway North
  • Sam O’Flaherty, Donegal Volunteer
  • William T. Cosgrave, M.P for North Kilkenny
  • Sean Milroy, Easter Rising Veteran
  • Robert Brennan, Sinn Féin National Director of Elections
  • Darrell Figgis, Hon. Secretary of Sinn Féin
  • Thomas Hunter, M.P for Cork East
  • M.J Lennon, Editor of Young Ireland
  • Rory Haskins, Belfast Volunteer (gravely ill)
  • Joseph McBride, M.P for Mayo West
  • Joseph McGrath, M.P for Dublin, St. James’
  • Dr. Richard Hayes, M.P for Limerick East
  • J.J Clancy, M.P for North County Dublin
  • Art O’Connor, M.P for South Kildare
  • Frank Lawless, M.P for North Dublin
  • and Frank Drohan, South Tipp. Volunteer
  • Sean O’Mahony, M.P for Fermanagh South
  • Peadar O’Hourihan, Cork Volunteer

Dublin

Both Ginnell and Cosgrave spoke out against their treatment in prison. Whilst at times, they were treated reasonably fairly, the continued poor food and cramped conditions left their toll upon them

Gloucester

Several of the Sinn Féin prisoners in Gloucester Prison are too ill to be released. Arthur Griffith is said to be worst off, with Patrick O’Keefe badly off too. Rory Haskins has improved somewhat, and his life is no longer in danger

England

Several of the imprisoned Sinn Féin members in other rare too ill to be released too. Among them is Art O’Connor, M.P for South Kildare. 13 prisoners are fit to be released across various prisons

Holloway Prison

Countess Constance Markievicz is released from prison at 5pm, after 10 months incarceration

Gloucester

The remains of Pierce McCan are removed from the Nursing Home in which he died. Amidst pouring rain a small crowd Irish mourners walk behind the hearse. As the procession passed by, locals removed there caps and bowed for the coffin draped in tricolour

Kilkenny

Kilkenny People reports Thomas Burke, W.T Cosgrave’s step-father, has telegramed William O’Meara, Treasurer of the City’s Sinn Féin club informing them of Cosgrave and Ginnell’s return. They are unsure of when the Lord Mayor, Peter deLoughry is returning

Ballinlough, Meath

A very successful ceilí is held in the primary school in Ballinlough in aid of St. Enda’s School, Rathfarnham, which recently was vacated by the military and was handed back to the Pearse family

8th March 1919

Kingstown

The mailboat, Ulster, from Holyhead docks in Kingstown Harbour. Aboard are the remains of Pierce McCan. Accompanying him are several released prisoners including Dr. Richard Hayes M.P, Patrick O’Keefe M.P, and Peter deLoughry, Lord Mayor of Kilkenny

Kingstown

On the pier to receive the remains are Fr. O’Dwyer from Thurles, Harry Boland and Michael Collins representing Sinn Féin, and Mrs. McGuinness and Ms. Smith representing Kingstown Sinn Féin Club and Kingstown Cumann na mBan respectively

Kingstown Train Station

The coffin, draped in a tricolour, is placed on a train bound for Westland Row. Accompanying them are two large wreaths, one with a note ‘Comrades in Gloucester Jail’ and another ‘Wives of Gloucester Prisoners’.

7am

Westland Row Train Station

The train arrives into Westland Row. The remains are then brought to the Pro-Cathedral for Requiem Mass, celebrated by Rev. Fr. John G. O’Reilly

11.05am

Pro-Cathedral

The chief mourners, McCan’s parents (centre with beard and head bowed), Josephine Aherne, McCann's fiancÉ and McCann's mother lead the procession towards Kingsbridge Station

Dublin

The procession, which took two hours to reach its destination, moves down O'Connell Street, Westmoreland Street, Dame Street, Parliament Street, and finally down the South Quays past Guinness to the train station

Dublin

The procession contains thousands of Volunteers, Cumann na mBan, Dáil Éireann members, and members of the general public.

Wellington Quay

As Procession passes Grattan Bridge, 2 lieutenants and sergeant of the RAF, Collinstown, in a motorbike with carriage attempted to cut through. They are surrounded by crowd, who take motorbike and throw it in the Liffey. The Officers flee the scene

12pm

Kingsbridge Station

Michael Collins, Harry Boland, and Sean O’Muirthile carry Pierce McCan’s coffin into the train station. It is placed upon the train bound for Thurles. Accompanying the remains are Cathal Brugha, W.T Cosgrave, and Darrell Figgis.

Leinster

The train passes through Sallins, Kildare, Portarlington &Ballybrophy. At each stop the train is met by local members of Sinn Féin and Cumann na mBan giving tribute to the late McCan. There are also large displays in Monasterevin, Maryborough &Mountrath

5.30pm

Thurles

The train is met by two columns of 500 local Volunteers who lead the procession to the Cathedral in Thurles. Thousands more Cumann na mBan, and the general public also join the march, led by the Thurles Brass and Reed Band

Thurles Cathedral

Archbishop of Cashel, John Harty, receives the remains in the cathedral. He says ‘Now Pierce McCan is dead, and beyond the tyrannical power of the British Government’. McCan lies in state for the night as thousands of locals file past

Paris

German Officials at the Peace Conference refuse to give up their Merchant Naval Fleet unless they receive a guarantee of 2 million tons of food aid to be supplied between now and the harvest to stave off a potential summer famine in the country

Tipperary

On the same day that the remains of Pierce McCan are brought to Tipperary, ten men are arrested in relation to the Soloheadbeg ambush. They areArthur, Matthew, and John Barlow, Shrough; Joseph and Patrick Callaghan (workers on Barlow’s farm), Patrick Power (worker at Matt. Barlow’s sawmills), Denis Noonan, Maurice Crowe, William Hartnett and Patrick Maloney (son of P.J Maloney, M.P for South Tipperary)

Tipperary

The whereabouts of John Connors, the boy arrested on 19th February, is still unknown. His family are frantic with concern as authorities refuse to share information with them amidst ongoing military area precautions

8th March 1919

Cliftonville, Belfast

The second Irish Cup Semi-final takes place between @Glentoran and Belfast Celtic before 16,000 supporters in. In a ferocious encounter, Glentoran take a 2-0 lead, before scenes in the stands turn ugly. Bottles begin to be thrown as one group of fans begin to sing the ‘Soldier's Song’. The excitement in the stands then shifted to the pitch as several fouls began to break up the play. With 5 minutes remaining large group fans burst on to the pitch and began to chase the players. The referee abandons game as bottles and stones fly across the pitch.

Damage is done to Cliftonville Pavillion. However, the hefty gate receipts (the price of tickets having been raised for the game according to the Belfast Newsletter), £712, were secured.

9th March 1919

Dublin

The Sunday Independent publishes a cartoon of Erin knocking upon the Gates of Liberty seeking the right to self-determination

Dublin

The role played by Lord French, Lord Lieutenant of Ireland, in the release of the prisoners is discussed. It is stated that the main factor in the release was not the conditions that they faced, or the death of McCan, rather it was French's threat to resign

Oxford University

The prestigious Oxford Union declares its sympathy for Sinn Féin and their efforts for the self-determination of Ireland by a majority of 18 votes

2.30pm

Thurles Cathedral

The remains of Pierce McCan are removed, led by the Thurles Confraternity Brass and Reed Band playing the Dead March. The procession marched at a slow pace out of the town, but sped up to Horse and Jockey before slowing once more to Dualla

Dualla Graveyard

After passing by Ballyowen House, the home of the McCan's, the procession reaches its destination after a 3 hour journey. There are thousands of people at the graveyard, and the remains are received by scores of clergy at the graveside. Cathal Brugha delivers the graveside oration. He states that there are creatures among them spying on them and sending reports to Dublin Castle. He reminds them that these creatures exist owing to the goodwill of the people present in Dualla

Dublin

The Irish Independent reports that one of the three boys that were lifted by authorities in Tipperary, and whose whereabouts is unknown, Matthew Hogan, has a brother, John (Seán), who has been missing for two months and is wanted by police...

Kingstown Harbour

28 Sinn Féin members, that had been imprisoned in England, return Irish soil. Among them is Arthur Griffith who spoke about the lack of fresh air that they had access to in Gloucester Prison and he speculated this had a detrimental affect on McCan

New York

The Freeman's Journal reports on the death of Dr. Thomas Addis Emmet. He was grandson of United Irishman of same name, and grand-nephew of Robert Emmet. He is recognised as the founder of modern-day plastic surgery andwas a pioneer on women's health

Washington D.C

The Washington Daily News publishes a photo of President Wilson &his wife aboard deck of the George Washington, the ship the is bringing him en-route to France. Wilson is said to be ill with flu in the mid-Atlantic and his health is being monitored

Washington D.C

Ahead of their highly anticipated World Heavyweight Title bout in July, Jack Dempsey and Jess Willard are busy training

10th March 1919

New York

The perils of international journalism are shown in the reporting of a speech by former President, William Taft. It was reported yesterday that Taft said 'The Irish question should be settled by the Peace Conference'. However, Reuters telegrammed today .. stating that Taft had actually said 'The Irish question should not be settled by the Peace Conference'. Quite the correction! Taft's comments were met with a mixture of cheers and hisses in New York

Mansion House

Lord Mayor of Dublin, Laurence O'Neil ‘ proposes a vote of sympathy to the family of Pierce McCan. He says 'it is difficult for moderate men to control their words when faced with such an act of infamy, an act arising from mis-government ... 'by which our tyrant masters hope to destroy the spirit of our race, by persecuting our men, by endevouring to break the hearts of our women, and frighten the love of our country from the breasts of our children'

'Do they think that the sight of Pierce McCan's corpse going through the streets of Dublin, and carried to its last resting place in the golden vale of Tipperary will make Irish people more loyal to their enactments? What fools they are! What fools they will remain!

Kingstown

As further Irish released prisoners return, James Nolan, M.P for Leitrim, returns to the news that his sister is ill with pneumonia in the Meath Hospital. He immediately makes his way there, where he meets just before she dies

Liverpool

Samuel MacFarland, a 23 year old quartermaster, is charged with desertion. He assumed the identity of a dead comrade called Lawson and fled the War using his assumed name.

London

The Star interviews Constance Markievicz. When asked does she know where deValera - 'of course, we all do.' 'What a lovely fairy tale that was about his escape, I drew a sketch of it'. She then produces a cartoon of a guard making love to a woman ... by the prison wall, and deValera and his two co-escapees had a giant key opening the front door of the prison. She also states that she replied to Lloyd George's letter of invitation to parliament, but the censor spared his blushes and did not deliver it to him

11th March 1919

Paris

Terms for a future German army are discussed. It will be proposed to them that they are not permitted a naval war fleet. They will not be permitted to have any tanks. Their army shall consist of a maximum of 100,000 men each on 12 years service

Paris

A Committee finds that it is not possible to bring charges on the Kaiser and his advisors for starting the War under international law

Dublin

The general theory among the medical community in Dublin is that influenza is on the wane, and that the current wave has reached its zenith. The death toll from the flu in the city, whilst still high, has been reducing about 30% week on week

Westminster

Frustrations are expressed in the House of Commons at the recent passing of a resolution in the U.S House of Representatives on self-determination for Ireland. It is felt that interference from a foreign legislature was not appropriate.

Durham Prison

8 Sinn Féin prisoners are released from Durham Prison. Among them are PádraigSiochfhradha (An Seabhac), Seamus O’Neill, Rockwell College, and Eamonn Morkan, Birr. They were greeted with celebration at the prison gates, and also in Manchester

Durham Prison

Frank, and Eamon Bulfin, Birr, are not among those released, however. There is confusion as to the reasoning behind their ongoing detention

Durham Prison

Art O’Connor, M.P for South Kildare, remains too ill to be released and he is still recovering in the prison hospital

7.30pm

Optic Lodge, 146 Richmond Road, Dublin

Alfred Pearson, the occupier of the Optic Lodge ‘, is shot dead. A party of up to four men enter the house, and after a brief struggle shot Pearson. He staggers outside and dies on the footpath

10pm

Kilkenny

There are jubilant scenes in Kilkenny, as the city welcomes home its Lord Mayor, Peter deLoughry ‘ Out of the respect of the late Rev. M. Walsh, Adm., whose remains were lying in state in St. John’s Church, opposite the train station, there was no cheering when he emerged from the carriage, but the welcome was none the less warm. Having been greeted by Alderman Nowlan and other members of the Corporation, the Mayor and Mr. William T. Cosgrave (the Lady Mayoress, Mrs. de Loughry accompanying the former) took their places in a motor car in a procession to the city centre. Nowlan addressed the crowd ... 'Fellow citizens, at special meeting of the Corporation I was appointed welcome Peter deLoughry on their behalf. As you are all aware he was, 10 months ago whipped away out of the country by the emissaries of King George of England and kept in a British Dungeon up to this night.

DeLoughry, in his reply, said 'He and his comrades had come back to Ireland when the greatest cloud that had ever darkened the world was lifting and when the English Government and the English people in the delirium and delusion of triumph, were clapping themselves on the back .. and shouting form the rooftops; Behold, we are the masters of creation. The Turk we have beaten to her knees, the Austrian Empire annihilated, and the once proud German people are now before us looking for terms’, but they had overlooked one fact ...which stood out clear and indisputable and that was the fact that they had not yet beaten the Irish nation.' W.Cosgrave also addressed the large crowd saying that Ireland was ready to take her place among the nations of the earth. Below is the enthusiastic

12th March 1919

Dublin

Laurence Flanagan dies. He is Sinéad de Valera’s father. Defying expectations that Eamonn de Valera would come out into the public for the occasion, he remains in hiding.

Dublin

Considerable intrigue is generated by the Optic Lodge shooting. It emerges that there were 2 women in house at time of death, Kate Doran and Kate Orr. They state that they met Pearson in a pub in Ballybough, before returning to his home

New York

Statistics published from the city’s army recruitment department, show that proportionally, around 45% of eligible Irish American men joined the army, the highest among the ethnic groups in the city. 41% of Italian Americans enlisted

Dublin

At the King’s Bench Division, a request is made to have the trial of the O’Brien brothers, charged in connection with the Silvermines murder, to be held before a special jury. The request is granted

Canningstown, East Cavan

An Orange Hall is opened in the small village of Canningstown. A representative of the Order states that they are every bit entitled to self-determination as anybody else

13th March 1919

Dublin

Inquest into the death of 46 y/o Alfred Pearson is held. One of the women in the house at the time stated that merely 5 minutes after arriving there was a knock on the door, followed by a scuffle. A masked man appeared brandishing a revolver before fleeing

East Berlin

Reports emerge of extraordinary violence in the German capital between Spartacist insurgents and Freikorps. The death toll from the past few days is said to be over 1,000

Dublin

An announcement is made regarding plans in two day’s time for a public reception welcoming home Constance Markievicz to Dublin

Birr

Eamonn Morkan receives warm welcome from Birr following his return from Durham Prison with a torchlight procession led by Volunteers from Birr, Eglish, Killyon, Shinrone, and Banagher. Frustration is expressed at the continued imprisonment of the Bulfins.

Wolfhill, Laois

Eamonn Fleming is welcomed home from Reading Prison. In a speech to his well-wishers he speaks about the poor health he had whilst behind bars, but had nothing but kind words to say on prison officials

14th March 1919

Kingstown Harbour

Harry Boland &Michael Collins greet 7 more released prisoner. They include Thomas Hunter and Sean McEntee. 5prisoners remain. Art O’Connor, Rory Haskins, and Willie Loughran are all too ill to travel. The 2 Bulfins are still not at liberty

Washington D.C

Communications come from the U.S stating that de Valera will only be allowed enter the country with a valid passport amidst speculation that he is either already en-route to, or will soon depart from Ireland for America

Dublin

The Irish Independent publishes a front page ad for the Gaelic League reminding readers that the Irish language was under threat, and that Lloyd George’s assertion that the Irish had no language to claim nationhood was false.

Paris

President Woodrow Wilson arrives in Paris for the conclusion of the Peace talks.

United States

In newspapers all over America, an article by Ralph F. Couch on the Irish situation is printed. It features legitimate quotes from de Valera, as well as Boland and Fr. Flanagan. It is a great coup for SinnFéin propaganda.

Dublin

Ahead of St. Patrick’s Day celebrations, the main national newspapers print Irish translations of the main Catholic prayers. The Irish translations are phonetically spelt to allow people to pronounce the words easier

14th March 1919

7.15pm

Liberty Hall, Dublin

Countess Constance Markievicz arrives for a public reception in honour of her return from imprisonment in Holloway Prison

She arrived to Liberty in a car accompanied by Michael Collins, Madame Gonne MacBride, Mrs. Wyse Power and other members of Cumann na mBan. Markievicz moved in procession down Eden Quay, Westmoreland Street, Dame Street, Lord Edward Street, Cornmarket, and Francis Street, to New Street where she gave a rousing speech.. Large bodies of the Dublin Metropolitan Police were present at various points of the procession, but the events passed off peacefully.

16th March 1919

Wexford

Just over one year since the death of John Redmond, a massive day of commemoration takes place. A procession of over 5,000 people pass through the streets of Wexford town to listen to a speech ‘ by Joseph Devlin, leader of Irish Parliamentary Party

Wexford

The procession of 5,000 is lead by Devlin in a motor car, accompanied by the Mayor of Wexford, William Archer Redmond, and the Mayor of Waterford, David McDonald

Wexford

The procession is made up of the remaining supporters of the Irish Parliamentary Party, which is mainly concentrated in pockets of nationalist Ulster and, especially, Redmond's own south-east of Wexford and Waterford

Dublin

17 members of the G Company, Dublin Volunteers, assemble to hear of plans of a mission they are to carry out that night. Peadar Clancy and Rory O'Connor outline details on a blackboard. The mission; to break Robert 'Bob' Barton out of Mountjoy Prison

Michael Collins had smuggled a file into Barton, who had sawn away the bars of his prison cell window. The escape plan involved Volunteers throwing a rope ladder over the high prison wall, and Barton leaping to freedom once at the top

Mountjoy Prison

Once the Volunteers move into position, Mick Downs, from Clara, tosses the rope ladder over the prison wall. Barton eventually begins to climb the ladder, Downs' strength providing a counter-weight for the climbing prisoner. Once at the top of the wall, Barton jumped into a taut blanket, held by four volunteers. However, Barton's weight was to great and he hit the ground hard. He was, however, uninjured, and he entered a car and was taken to refuge in Donnybrook

17th March 1919

Dublin

The main national newspaper publishes a genuine letter from Eamonn de Valera on their front page. The letter is published by the Gaelic League, who reminds its readers to keep the page as it will become historic

Dublin

The letter begins with reminder that saving the Irish language is special duty of the Irish people; whilst the struggle for independence is reliant upon the will of other nations, saving Irish is entirely up to Irish people

Dublin

De Valera starkly warns, 'the language is dying, tomorrow it will be too late. shall we not save it today, when we may?'

Dublin

The English section of the letter concludes with de Valera pointing towards President Wilson claiming to Clemenceau he spoke 'American', and how Wilson would have loved to have had a true language of its own for his nation..

Dublin

Clery's Department store run a highly-stylised ad in the Irish Independent for their Irish products. The ad has the crests of the 4 provinces in the corners, and 2 'Déanta i nÉirinn' (Made in Ireland) logos on either side

New York

At a special dinner in his honour, the tenor, John McCormack, officially becomes a naturalised American citizen. The Westmeath man marks the occasion with a rendition of the 'Star-Spangled Banner'

8pm

Killahurk, Leitrim

John Hand, a 45 y/o father of two, sits down to St. Patrick's Day supper in his farmhouse. A masked man bursts into the house and shoots Hand dead at the kitchen table. Local animosity over litigation over a right-of-way is possible motive

Paris

Despite recent comments to the contrary, the strong opposition to the League of Nations, especially among Republicans, is causing alarm among Peace Conference delegates. The prospect of the League being established without the U.S as a member grows

Cairo

Following the arrest of Saad Zaghloul ‘, leader of Egyptian independence movement, protests against British rule of Egypt and Sudan escalate into widespread violence. Below, three women, holding a Sultanate of Egypt flag, protest against British rule

Dublin

News breaks of Robert Barton's audacious escape from Mountjoy. He leaves a letter behind for the Governor in which he saysowing to discomfort he left, and he asks for him to keep his baggage safe until he sent for it

Dublin

The National Holiday is celebrated vigorously in Dublin. The Irish Language Fund sells miniature tricolours outside every church service, as every major business in the city closes. Scenes are reminiscent of pre-war holidays

Baldoyle

The main attraction in Dublin #OTD in 1919 was the Baldoyle Horse races. It is estimated that over 10,000 people made their way to the Northside venue to witness the spectacle

Waterford

The exception to the peaceful enjoyment of the day was in Waterford City. One day after the Redmond Anniversary in Wexford, there are widespread riots between Redmondites and Sinn Féiners.

London

Field Marshal Lambart, the 10th Earl of Cavan, presents shamrocks to members of the Irish Guards to celebrate St. Patrick's Day

Kilkenny

Lord Mayor, Peter deLoughry, leads the St. Patrick's Day procession through the streets of Kilkenny, cheered on by thousands of people. It is the largest such event in the City's history for many decades

2am

Macroom

The RIC Patrol of Macroom is set upon by a large group of young men and are beaten. One officer, who became separated, discharged his revolver into the air several times, but was charged at by the group. A nearby wake was subsequently raided by police

18th March 1919

Mountjoy Prison

Officials in the capital's largest prison are left embarrassed by reports on Robert Barton's escape. Rumours as to how Barton fled wildly vary, and some weight is given to rumour that he fled in an aeroplane!

Phoenix Park, Dublin

After much condemnation in British and Irish press, the whereabouts of the children that were taken by military forces in connection with the Soloheadbeg Ambush investigation is confirmed; they are in the military depot in the Phoenix Park

19th March 1919

Washington D.C

Republicans in Senate threaten President Wilson, that if he does not negotiate a satisfactory agreement in Paris, Congress will vote to terminate the War with Germany. They argue that as Congress has the power to commence a war, they can end it too

Harcourt St., Dublin

At 5.30am, a party of British soldiers walk up Harcourt St, making a lot of disturbance, and allegedly firing rifles into the air. A window in Sinn Féin HQ is broken by a missile. Police are investigating

Belfast

The Belfast Newsletter reports that at a meeting in London it was announced that wireless messages had been successfully exchanged from Canada to Ireland

Belfast

After several days of rain, Belfast is hit with significant flooding. The worst affected area was around Donegall Road.

London

As agreement nears on emergency food supplies for Germany, Punch magazine publishes a cartoon commenting upon the acute food crisis in Romania, and how the Allies are seemingly feeding their enemies before their friends

Parnell Square, Dublin. Approx. 10pm

At least 25 Volunteers, mainly from the 1st Battalion, Dublin Volunteers, meet in Parnell Square. Some were dressed in British Army Uniforms. They await transport for a massive arms raid upon Collinstown Aerodrome, near Swords

20th March 1919

Midnight

Parnell Square

The 25 members of the Dublin Volunteers leave for Collinstown Aerodrome. They depart in four cars. They all depart towards the Santry Road, before splitting; two head toward Ballymun and two heads towards Swords

Approx 1.30am

Collinstown Cross

The Volunteers congregate at Collinstown Cross and go towards the Aerodrome on foot under the light of a bright moon.

The dogs that guarded the perimeter were asleep, having been knocked out with morphine-laden meat given to them by two Volunteers that worked there as they left work the previous day

The Volunteers surprised the guards and easily disarmed them. Tying each of them up. They proceeded to raid the strong-room and take 75 rifles and 16,000 rounds of ammo

2am

Collinstown Aerodrome

Commandant of the 1st Battalion, Paddy Holohan, dressed as a British Officer approached the perimeter hoping to surprise a sentry. Frustrated at finding none, he shouted ‘Come on, lads!’ and the Volunteers charged the hut

Collinstown Aerodrome

The sentry, that should have been guarding the perimeter, was in hut warming feet by fire when the Volunteers burst in. Fearing strong reprimand, he called to the Volunteers as they were leaving ‘for the love of Jaysus, don’t leave me here! So the Volunteers took him outside, and rolled him around in the mud, with his permission. They then brought him back inside and tied him by the legs to a rack completing the illusion that he put up the strongest fight

North Dublin

The Volunteers make their getaway. One Ford Model T car carried 12 Volunteers back to the city centre. Another car’s tyres burst under the weight of the rifles. The driver, Owen Cullen, proceeded with the burst tyre to the arms dump at the Nag’s Head, The Naul. When the guns were taken out, he tried to drive back to the city, however it made too much noise so they abandoned it. The car belonged to ‘Alderman’ Paddy Corrigan, who was, among other things, an undertaker in the city. He had ingeniously anticipated that something might happen. He had arranged, prior to lending the car to the Volunteers, to have it transformed into a motor hearse. When hearing that car was abandoned, and being guarded by the RIC, he went to the mechanics and asked for an update on how work was going. The mechanics, Callow’s of Westland Row, said they hadn’t got the car from him. Corrigan insisted he had given it to them the previous day. The mechanic lined up some of his employees and asked Corrigan which one of them had taken his car the previous day. Corrigan immediately raised a fuss and said that it was none of them and he reported the car stolen to police. Naturally enough, the RIC, having possession of the car anyways, safely returned the car to its owner and nobody was any the wiser of its gun-running role the night before

Dublin

The evening press report on the raid on Collinstown Aerodrome. The Evening Herald notes that it was the most daring and sensational raid for arms in Ireland to date. They save their best line of their report for the end; they reliably inform readers that no aeroplanes were missing.

21st March 1919

Paris

Discussions turns towards German reparations at Peace Conference. It is apparent, despite fact there is universal agreement Germany should pay hefty price monetarily for War, they are unable to pay a penny. The prospect of payment of over 50 years is raised

Korea

Riots ‘that commenced at the start of the month across Korea subside. It is the first violent expression of Korean calls for self-determination. The peninsula has been under Japanese rule since 1910

Dublin

Reaction to yesterday’s massive arms raid on Collinstown Aerodrome continues. In interviews with press, Aerodrome guards speak of how the Volunteers moved about silently like ghosts ‘or those Japanese dummies that ye sometimes see doin’ tricks on a stage’

Dublin

Fr. Michael O’Flanagan ‘, Vice President of Sinn Féin, is refused a passport to travel to Americ

Egypt

The situation in Egypt continues to deteriorate; riots spread in opposition to British rule. Turkish flag, as seen below, is being flown several towns and villages in the west of the country. British reinforcements are expected in Cairo in the coming week

Rathfarnham

Margaret Pearse receives a telegram in St. Edna’s from Eamonn Bulfin. The past pupil of the school assures Mrs. Pearse that he is being deported from England to Ireland. His uncle, Frank, is also expected back in Dublin in a few days

Dublin

In the wake of raid on the RAF guards, Collinstown Aerodrome, Crown Forces are now ordered to shoot individuals should they refuse to halt when commanded to do so. This is the first such order of the present conflict and is seen as a significant escalation

Paris

The La Gazette Franco-Britannique comments upon the situation in Ireland. It comments on how 700 years of occupation have not been able to diminish her noble sentiments. It urges the Peace Conference to hear from Sean T. O’Kelly.

Bagnalstown

All of the mill hands employed with Brown and Crostwaith Mill are dismissed. They refused to handle produce that was to be sent to Graig where fellow ITGWU men are on strike. The development has caused significant consternation in the area

Navan

In between Liscarton House and Batchelor’s Lodge, Navan, a ‘large and powerful two seat plane with gun’ landed owing to engine trouble. It rested there for a few days before being fixed. It was subject much local attention from townspeople of Kells &Navan

Kilkenny

Labour tensions continue to rise in the city. A procession is held of workers in support of striking clerical workers in Stathams Ltd. in the city. It is decided to postpone a mass meeting in the city centre until Sunday evening

22nd March 1919

Dublin

The national press reports that Eamonn de Valera will return to Dublin in five days time. It is reported that the Lord Mayor will greet him at the City Gates and bring him to a reception in the Mansion House

23rd March 1919

Piazza San Sepolcro, Milan

Former member of Italian Socialist Party, Benito Mussolini, speaks at gathering demanding all to oppose the ideals of socialism. The movement that grew from the meeting became known as Sansepolcrismo, precursor to Italian Fascist Party

Pembroke, Wales

Colm O'Donovan, prominent Sinn Féin organiser in Bandon, whilst being escorted back to Hereford prison, escapes from the custody of his escort in the railway station. Authorities are carrying out investigations

Collinstown Aerodrome

All 800 employees in the Aerodrome are let go. They include carpenters, electricians, fitters, masons, and labourers. An obvious rumour spread that this was due to last week's arms raid. However, this is likely not the case ... It becomes clear that the contractor working on the site had been asked by the RAF to complete by 1st Feb. An extension was granted, but when the contractor admitted there was still 3 months work left, the contract was terminated. The hope is that those let go will be re-hired

Dublin

Mass protests, after mass, take place at the treatment of prisoners in Belfast. Below is image of protest outside the pro-cathedral. The image shows Fr. Flanagan seconding the resolution, read by Fr. Bowden

Dublin

Lieutenant K. V. Dan seeks £150 compensation for his motorbike that was tossed into the Liffey by mourners marching in Pierce McCann's funeral procession. Dan, drove the motorbike into the procession to which the mourners took grave exception

Thurles

Toomeva, led by the great Widger Meagher, defeat Boherlahane to win the 1918 Tipperary Senior Hurling Championship. Toomevara were scoreless at half time, but a strong 2nd half saw them win on scoreline of 6-0 to 3-4.

Kilkenny

A strike of clerical workers in Sthatam's Motor Works in the city is causing a great deal of strife in the city. At a large public meeting in the city centre today, Mr. Power, of the Waterford Clerical Workers Organisation, accuses the Kilkenny People ... of refusing to support the strikers by not printing some material for them. The newspaper responds firmly. They confirm that they did not print one particular piece of literature as it could easily be construed as a document of boycott, and should not be printed in the city

Mullagh, Cavan

On her way from Ballyjamesduff to Bailieborough Workhouse, the baby of a traveller named Rose McKenna died in her arms. She presented herself to the RIC Barracks in Mullagh seeking help as no one would take her in ... The Officers took her in and gave her food and shelter before escorting her to the Workhouse. The tragic case illustrates the harshness of life for members of the traveller community in Ireland at the time and the struggles that they faced on a daily basis

Budapest

The Hungarian situation continues to deteriorate. Two days ago a Socialist Republic was declared in Budapest , which led to communists streaming through the streets in celebration ‘Today, Vladimir Lenin orders Béla Kun, de facto leader of the Hungarian Communists ‘, to remove the Social Democrats from power

24th March 1919

Dublin

Mary Kate O’Kelly, wife of Sean T., is refused a passport to America. She is the latest in a string of prominent members of Sinn Féin, or associates, to be refused documentation

Dublin

Sinn Féin advertise further details of De Valera’s homecoming in a few days. The event is being viewed as potentially very significant. It is the first such reception in Dublin since the visit of Queen Victoria 19 years

25th March 1919

Paris

The situation in Hungary highlights a perceived fear of the Bolshevik menace in Eastern Europe. The Peace Conference discussions are viewed as a race between Peace and Anarchy

Dublin

Military authorities issue a proclamation prohibiting all public gatherings in Dublin. This puts tomorrow’s prominent homecoming event for de Valera in grave doubt

Cork

RIC Constables Cornelius Cadogan, and M.L. Rogers are found guilty of robbery of the American naval base in Aghada. They receive 9 and 3 months imprisonment with hard labour respectively

Late evening

Dublin

Eamon de Valera makes an official request to cancel his homecoming tomorrow. This is in the face of the prohibition of public gatherings in Dublin and the potential for bloodshed should the event take place

26th March 1919

Dublin

Alarming stats on Irish mortality rates during final quarter of 1918 are published. 20,006 babies are born, but 26,656 people die. The death rate in Leinster is 29.8 per 1,000 whilst birth rate is only 19.2 per 1,000. The starkest stat is that of infant mortality rate in urban areas; 128 per 1,000 versus 61 per 1,000 for rural areas

In total, 87,563 people were born in Ireland in 1918, and 78,685 died

Dublin

The Irish Times publishes a letter which considers the potential impact of the possible introduction of PR-STV voting in Ireland for General Elections. It’s stated 10 Anti-Catholic Orangemen, 14 Anti-Protestant Hibernians, 18 Rational Unionists, 27 Rational Nationalist, and 33 Sinn Féiners would be elected. This is in keeping with rising commentary in the press of the fact that Home Rule sentiment/policies may not be totally dead

Dublin

Businesses in O’Connell Street were boarded up in anticipation of violence surrounding de Valera’s planned return. Despite de Valera’s own request the night before, crowds of people began to gather at Mount St. Bridge and the Mansion House

Dawson Street became overrun with onlookers, and the military had to use forceful means to regulate the flow of traffic. After a few hours, it started to rain heavily and the crowds dispersed in disappointment

Dublin

A massive military operation commences from the early morning in Dublin with thousands of troops and DMP Officers taking position at key positions in the city. 100 Cavalry patrolled the North Circular Road. Several machine gun units were also set up. Sean O’Duffy, Dublin Volunteer was escorted among the heavy military presence by DMP Detective Officer Cavanagh by way of warning to Sinn Féin not to have de Valera enter the city. O’Duffy raced to Sinn Féin HQ and relayed this information

Nenagh

W.L Hodgins is awarded £3,100 in damages for the burning of his property, Derrycastle House on 22nd January. Malice was proven in proceedings; Hodgins had only acquired the property a week before its destruction

27th March 1919

Dublin

John Harney, from Curragh, Athlone, is court-martialed. He was charged with being in possessions with two documents. One was entitled ‘Ruthless Aggression’ and described how anybody that aided conscription in Ireland should be treated as a foreign enemy

The other document, titled ‘The Leinster Outrage’, asked why there was never a proper inquest into the sinking of The Leinster. It mentions how ships sailed through the debris and ailing passengers in the water, one such ship had former Chief Secretary, Edward Shortt on board

3pm

Dawson Street, Dublin

Eamonn de Valera steps off a tram with Cathal Brugha and makes his way to the Mansion House for a low-key meeting with the Lord Mayor

28th March 1919

Paris

Marshal Ferdinand Foch, the Commander of Allies in War, is summoned to meeting of Council of 4. Other senior Allied military leaders also called in. Despite curtain of secrecy upon agenda, it is assumed that deepening crisis in eastern Europe was discussed

Aintree Racecourse, Liverpool

Poethlyn wins the 78th Grand National. The horse won the unofficial National the year before, and came in at 11/4, the hottest favourite to ever win the race. Poethlyn was ridden by Ernest Piggot father or Keith,grandfather of Lester, great-grandfather of Tracy

Transcaucasia, Russia

There are reports of a famine in the Transcaucasia region of famine with people resorting to desperate means to secure food

Dublin

The court-martial of J.J Walsh, M.P for Cork City, commences in Ship-Street Barracks. He is charged in connection with a speech delivered in Edenderry, King’s County, in late February

When asked was he going to represent himself, Walsh said ‘I refuse to recognise this farce’. When Chair listed names of all officers present, and asked Walsh had he any objection to anybody, he said ‘I am not in the least bit concerned’. When summing up evidence, the Chair said ‘it might seem unfortunate to court that here in the 19th Century, anyone should hold these medieval sentiments which the accused honestly maintained’. Walsh replied, ‘you are a century out!’ The verdict is to be announced at later date.

29th March 1919

Paris

An Associated Press journalist interviews Sean T. O’Kelly. O’Kelly indicates that if the question of Ireland is not brought up immediately, then Irish Americans will block the ratification of the League of Nations in Congress

2.30pm

Drumcondra Road

A large number of Volunteers make their way by bike to Cotter’s Cycle Shop on the Drumcondra Road, near the Royal Canal. They park their bikes and make their way inconspicuously towards the walls of Mountjoy Prison. They assume position without being noticed and await the clock to chime 3pm

2.55pm

Mountjoy Prison, Exercise Yard

Sinn Féin prisoners go about their afternoon’s exercise observing the positions of warders in preparedness for the chiming of the clock for 3pm

3pm

Mountjoy Prison, Exercise Yard

When the clock strikes 3, Mick Downs, the same man that had thrown a wooden rope over the same wall less than two weeks ago when Robert Barton escaped Mountjoy, throws another rope over the wall. Inside, several prisoners assault warders and hold them up with imaginary guns. Amidst the chaos, about thirty Volunteers make their way towards the rope and begin climbing. The first two to escape are Piaras Beaslai and J.J. Walsh. At least 18 other prisoners follow them, all aided in their escape by a growing crowd of supporting onlookers. One man, pausing on wall, quoting ‘To Althea, from Prison’ shouts ‘Stone walls do not a prison make, Nor iron bars a cage’. The escape ends when reinforcements arrive.

The escape lasted for 10 - 15 minutes in all. Several policemen were engaged in the Phoenix Park races which helped them to get away to safehouses. The instigator of the escape, Laois man Padraig Fleming, fled to the home of Louise Gavan Duffy, where he stayed for several weeks

The break-out was the largest ever from an Irish prison. Some of the other escapees were Henry Morgan, Sean Forde, Martin Fleming, Liam Tannan, Dermot O’Shea, and Stephen O’Connor

Ireland

Ireland enters Daylight Savings time for the third time since its introduction in 1916

Washington D.C

It is confirmed that passports have been issued to 4 prominent Irish Americans to travel to France. They are official representatives of the Irish Race Convention, and they hope to make known Ireland’s cause at the Peace Conference. They are ...

  • Michael J. Ryan, former City Solicitor for Philadelphia
  • Edward Fitzsimons Dunne, former Governor of Illinois and Mayor of Chicago. His father was a prominent Young Irelander who fled after the failed rebellion
  • And Frank P. Walsh, prominent lawyer and champion of American working classes
  • John W. Goff, born in Wexford, former member of New York Supreme Court

New York

William Taft, former American President, givesspeech at public forum in Church of the Ascension, New York. He is heckled by the crowd shouting ‘Ireland’. Taft’s position on not supporting Ireland’s call for a voice at the Peace Conference is well-known

Kilkenny

In an extraordinary escalation of the labour strife in the city with striking workers of Stathams, the Kilkenny People newspaper announces it is to cease operation in two weeks time. It says that striking workers interfered with the papers' sale last week. The Kilkenny People had refused to print some handbills for the striking workers as they felt that to do so would be an act of supporting a boycott, and they believed such a document should be printed by somebody outside of the city

11pm

Newport Road, Westport

John Charles Milling, the Resident Magistrate in the town, leaves his wife, Katherine, in the drawing room of his home to go to another room to change the clock to daylight savings ... As he moved across the hall four shots are fired at him through the window, two of which hit him. He crawled along to another room, another shot is fired, narrowly missing Katherine. Milling slumps to the floor and Katherine faints. When she comes to, she raises the alarm.

Doctors immediately come, but his condition is grave. A massive military operation commences in the Westport area once the alarm is raised

Sinn Féin Headquarters, Hardcourt St.

Eamonn de Valera takes up his office in HQ for the first time since his escape from Lincoln Prison. He gives numerous interviews to journalists and sets out the movement’s aspirations for a totally free and independent Ireland

30th March 1919

Westport

John Charles Milling, Resident Magistrate, shot yesterday in his home in Westport, dies. His murder is the first political assassination of the War of Independence

Dublin

It is reported that ten of the men that escaped from Mountjoy Prison yesterday were among the twelve men sentenced in connection with Volunteer Drilling in a hall on the Clonliffe Road on 29th January

3am

Western Road, Cork

Two RIC Constables are on patrol when they happen upon a suspicious looking man. The man refuses to answer their questions and he produces a revolver and fires 3 shots in their direction. 1 of them strikes Const. Hayes in the hip. His colleague, Const. Creed attempts to grab the man but he makes his escape towards Cross Street. Hayes is in a serious but stable condition in hospital. This is the most serious incident to date in Cork City this year

Whitehall, Rathfarnham

17 young men, the oldest of whom is 19, are arrested in a field and charged with illegal Volunteer drilling. They were surrounded by RIC Officers as they marched around the field and could not flee

Cootehill, Cavan

In one of the largest public gatherings in Cootehill's recent history, over 10,000 people gather to welcome Arthur Griffith to the constituency for the first time since his release from prison

New York

The New York Times produces a special commemorative issue for the massive homecoming parade through 5th Avenue for the official returning of the 27th Infantry from the War. Over 2 million people lined the streets on 25th March to welcome the troops home

31st March 1919

Dublin

The Irish Times publishes a scathing editorial on the state of the Irish prison system and states how ‘the sanctions of the law are dissolved more swiftly and utterly by laughter than any other agent’. This is in response to the Mountjoy prison break-out

London

The Times, in reporting on the shooting dead of J.C Milling in Westport, says that the situation in Ireland is making the Irish executive look ridiculous

London

In its report on the Mountjoy escape, The Times comments that the escape of Sinn Féin prisoners has become so commonplace that that it excites little wonder, ‘though much disgust in the minds of the public’.

1st April 1919

Dublin

Dáil Éireann meets in private. Cathal Brugha, outgoing President, nominates Eamonn de Valera as President, a motion which is unanimously supported. The session is attended by 52 elected members. They conclude by agreeing to meet tomorrow again

Mountjoy Prison

Patrick Daly, one of 12 men arrested in a hall on the Clonliffe Road in connection with Volunteer drilling is released on parole following the death of his wife. There is now only one of the twelve in prison, following the escape of 10 of last week

Westport Courthouse

An inquest into the shooting dead of J.C Milling is held. The local RIC District Inspector, a brother-in-law of the deceased stated that Milling whispered to him on his death-bed 'they have got me at last'

2nd April 1919

Westport

Amidst an influx of military following the shooting, for only the second time in Ireland, a plane is used to search the area as part of investigation. At noon, there are reports of machine gun fire over the town from the circling plane

Dublin

The Dáil meets for the fourth time. The first order of business is the nomination of ministers.

Secretary for Defence

Cathal Brugha

Proposed by J. MACGUINNESS (Longford).

Seconded by PIARAS BEASLAI (East Kerry).

Secretary for Home Affairs

Arthur Griffith

Proposed by LIAM DE ROISTE (Cork City).

Seconded by P. O MAILLE (Connemara).

Secretary for Industries

Eoin MacNeill

Proposed by CATHAL BRUGHA (Waterford Co.).

Seconded by SEAN MACENTEE (S. Monaghan).

Secretary for Labour

Countess Constance Markievicz

Proposed by LIAM DE ROISTE (Cork City).

Seconded by S. ETCHINGHAM (East Wicklow).

Secretary for Foreign Affairs

Count George Noble Plunkett

Proposed by A. GRIFFITH (East Cavan).

Seconded by P. O MAILLE (Connemara).

Head of Department of Propaganda

Laurence Ginnell

Secretary for Local Government

William T. Cosgrave

Proposed by JOHN O'MAHONY (S. Fermanagh).

Seconded by R.C. BARTON (W. Wicklow).

Secretary for Finance

Micheal Collins

Proposed by A. MACCABE (South Sligo).

Seconded by H. BOLAND (S. Roscommon).

Head of Department of Agriculture

Robert Barton

Dublin

Dáil Éireann, meeting in private, decide to set up a select committee to look into the following;

  • Imprisonment of absent Deputies and other POWs
  • The Tipperary children 'kidnapped by English agents'
  • The 2 internees in Reading and prisoners in Scotland

3rd April 1919

Ireland

All upcoming local Guardian and Council elections are postponed owing to the introduction of proportional representation system of voting to Ireland

Cork

Arthur, Matthew, & John Barlow, from Shrough, Tipperary, who were arrested on same day that Pierce McCan’s remains were brought to the county, are court-martialled. John, who was 17, was released without charge. Verdicts on other two will be made known soon

Dublin

Bovril takes out a large ad in the daily papers responding to claims that they were engaged in profiteering during the War years. They say that their produce is the same price now as it was in July 1914

Westport

The first arrest in connection with the murder of J.C Milling is made. Thomas Connor, Drumindoo, is arrested when a rifle is found buried in his garden

Listowel

Daniel J. Flynn, a member of the local Urban District Council, is arrested in connection with the sale of seditious literature. In default of bail, he was sentenced to three months in prison

Berlin

The Irish Independent publishes a photo from Berlin illustrating the recent chaos that engulfed the city. It shows a scene in a street as a Spartacist controlled aircraft fires upon soldiers below who are attempting to flee

Westminster

The 1st Irish Debate of 1919 takes place in House of Commons. The London Times notes novelty of Ulster Unionists being largest Irish representatives in the House for generations, but that they could not match fire and humour of absent Irish nationalists

4th April 1919

Dublin

Dáil Éireann meets again in private. One of the first things discussed is the establishment of law courts for arbitration matters. Sean O’Mahony raises the question and Arthur Griffith replies that a committee had been set up to look into the matter

Dublin

Dáil Éireann discusses the children that were taken from Tipperary by British forces on 19th February, including Seán Hogan’s younger brother, Matthew. They decide to make case to various foreign Consulates and Child Protection Societies throughout Europe & U.S

Dublin

At the private meeting of Dáil Éireann, Michael Collins and Laurence Ginnell announce that they will commence a Dáil loan scheme where members of the public can purchase bonds in value up to £1,000

6th April 1919

2pm

Limerick Workhouse Infirmary

A large group of Volunteers from the 2nd Limerick Battalion commence an operation to rescue one of their own. The operation would leave two men dead and spark off an extraordinary period in the history of Limerick City. Micheal 'Batty' Stack visits fellow volunteer Bobby Byrne, who was under RIC custody, in recovery from illness in Limerick gaol. Stack informs Byrne that an attempt to rescue him was about to begin. Stack quietly leaves the ward and loops around by a different route. Whilst Stack was making his way back around, other volunteers, including Jack Gallagher entered the ward under the premise of visiting other patients. Gallagher and Stack were the only armed Volunteers in the operation

3pm

Stack re-enters the ward and blows a whistle. The unarmed Volunteers rush at the RIC Officers guarding Byrne. A melee breaks out and Const. T. Spillane shoots Byrne, Stack shoots Spillane in response. As Byrne is being freed Stack also shoots Const. Martin O'Brien

Constable Martin O'Brien dies of his gunshot wound. He is the third member of the RIC to die in the War of Independence. When Workhouse Officials made their way to the ward and discovered O'Brien in a grave condition Canon O'Driscoll, chaplain, administered Last Rites

Byrne is taken to a horse drawn carriage and is given a disguise by Cumann na mBan member, Mary Giltinane. They make their way to home of John Ryan in Knockalisheen. Bobby Ryan dies of his gunshot wound at 8.30pm. He is the first Volunteer to die in War of Independence.

Other wounded officers include Constable Spillane, Constable Goulden, Constable Fitzpatrick, and Constable Tierney. They all make recoveries

Limerick

On hearing of the events in the Workhouse, Bobby Byrne's mother and aunt make their way towards the house that Byrne is taken to. They are preceded by military and on arrival both women are arrested and kept in custody for several hours

Croke Park

Wexford and Tipperary face each other in a repeat of 1918 All-Ireland attended by over 25,000 people in aid of Irish Republican Prisoners' Dependencies Fund. The game, refereed by Harry Boland is very poor, Wexford winning 0-2 vs. 0-1.

The game is the first such exhibition since the general release of Sinn Féin prisoners in England a few weeks ago. It is attended by significant members of Dáil Éireann. De Valera threw in the ball to commence proceedings. Arthur Griffith, Eamon De Valera, Lord Mayor Laurence O'Neill and Michael Collins sit pitch-side enjoying the game.

Dublin

Gordon Brewster, one of the Sunday Independent's main cartoonists, has his cartoon on self-determination published. It depicts Yankee pointing out to John Bull that Irish question needs to be sorted before matters can proceed in Paris

Athletic Grounds, Cork

Galway University take on UCC in the Ashbourne Cup Camogie final. Galwa are defeated heavily by their southern opponents 7-0 to 0-1.

Dublin

Hanna Sheehy Skeffington writes a letter to the Editor of the Freeman's Journal on the plight of the Tipperary children held in custody in the Phoenix Park. She appeals to all Irish women to protest until the boy's release is secured

Athy

Art O'Connor is welcomed to the town for the first time since his release from prison. He addresses a crowd of thousands and thanks them for their continued support

Nenagh

In summarising the state of North Tipperary during March 1919, the RIC County Inspector says that despite the fact that there is outward appearance of peace, 'there is an anxiety among the respectable classes as to what tragedy may happen'

10pm

Great Brunswick St. D.M.P Station, Dublin

Eamon Ned Broy, a clerk, begins his shift in the Intelligence Branch of the Dublin Metropolitan Police, known as 'G' Division. He anxiously goes about his work awaiting a phone call at midnight.

11.50pm

Sergeant Kerr, a colleague of Broy, eventually leaves Broy's office and retires to his quarters to sleep for night. A relieved Broy sits by his phone awaiting a call from a man who would call himself 'Field', and ask for 'Long'. Field was none other than Michael Collins

Vaughan's Hotel

Collins hangs up his phone. Collins' had had a busy day with the I.R.P.D Fundraiser in Croke Park and an IRB meeting that had just concluded in the hotel. He had asked Sean Nunan to hang back after the meeting and he suggested that they take a stroll

7th April 1919

Midnight

Great Brunswick St. D.M.P Station, Dublin

Ned Broy's phone rings. In his own words; 'At twelve o’clock, Mick rang up, saying, ‘Field here. Is that Long?’ I said: ‘Yes. Bring a candle.’

1am

Great Brunswick Street

After walking around city for some time Collins and Nunan reach the D.M.P station. Collins had filled Nunan in on his plan; they were to trawl through secret records for the identities of the leading DMP intelligence officers in Dublin

1.45am

Great Brunswick St. D.M.P Station, Dublin

Ned Broy lets Collins and Nunan into the building, pointing out the back entrance to Townsend St. should they need to make a quick getaway. Just then a drunken soldier threw a stone through a window. Shaken by the interruption the three men wait until the soldier is arrested and taken to the main section of station. They then proceed to office of Inspect Neil McFeely. Broy opens a steel safe. Collins and Nunan look through files for almost four hours and leave at dawn

Limerick

The Military authorise the publication of the following in all newspapers;

'In consequence of the attack by constables and the brutal murder Limerick on yesterday, the Government has decided to proclaim the district as a special military area'

Dublin

James Greene, Bernard Harte and John Doyle, all arrested in connection with the Three Rock incident on 19th January, are sentenced the three years penal servitude

Sligo

William Parkinson is sentenced to six months in prison in connections with two speeches given on the day of the Robert Emmett Anniversary and St. Patrick's Day. He refuses to recognise court and pay bail

Meanwhile, recently released M.P, John J. Clancy does pay bail after his arrest in connection with seditious literature. He says he does not recognise the court either though. These contrasting cases show a shifting attitude in Sinn Féin with regards main members paying bail

Ballyfin, Queen's County

A grim reminder of the social stigma, and near absence of understanding of mental health is shown when a man from rural Laois 'attempted suicide'. The case is reported in a number of regional newspapers. He is committed to local asylum

Kilkenny

Ahead of Easter festivities in two weeks, the cinema in Kilkenny shows the 1914 American film 'The Sign of the Cross'

Roscrea

Patrick O'Byrne, son of Count O'Byrne, Corville, is among four men summoned before Major Dease R.M in Roscrea Court in connection with collecting money for the Irish Language Fund on St. Patrick's Day. The case is dismissed

8th April 1919

Mansion House, Dublin

At a meeting of Sinn Féin Ard Fheis, President Eamon de Valera makes his first major public speech since his escape from prison.In a wide-ranging speech he asked supporters not to back President Wilson himself, rather his principles. If President Wilson did not stand by his principles the Irish race would stand by them, and if no other people would lead the way the Irish people would do so, and see that justice and right were done

Referring to the Volunteers, he said ‘The Volunteers had placed themselves at the disposal of the elected Government of the Irish people. They would stand by that Government, and would do exactly as that Government commanded them’.

Referring to Germany, he said ‘The men who met England's army here a couple of years ago in order to vindicate the spirit of Irish nationality would have equally well stood against Germany if Germany were cutting in here’

Carrowreagh, Roscommon

Reports of an extraordinary episode in rural wooded area. People have heard an eloquent voice in woods, with high-pitch, preaching in Irish proclaiming that a great war is approaching, but voice is apparently emanating from invisible source. A few days ago 00s of people from neighbouring areas flocked to the wood to hear the voice. The local RIC sent armed officers to the wood to keep the peace. After waiting for some time nothing happened, but high-pitched voice came from another part of wood saying rosary in Irish. The crowds rushed to the part of the wood the voice came from, but upon reaching its apparent source nobody could be seen. A search by RIC officers yielded nothing either. The case is a mystery, many locals feel it was a visitation by a higher power

Limerick

Tensions are extremely high as military parties scour the area as part of their investigation into the death of Constable O’Brien. 5 people are in custody, all apprehended in vicinity of the house that Robert Byrne died in

Limerick

After an inquest into the death of Robert Byrne, Byrne’s body is brought to St. John’s Cathedral in a cortege of 10,000 Volunteers. His funeral will be held tomorrow

9th April 1919

Mansion House, Dublin

At the concluding day of Sinn Féin Ard Fheis, George Nesbitt comments that £50,000 was raised during election campaign for Sinn Féin, and it is separate to Anti-Conscription Fund. However, Sinn Féin has only £688 in the bank, and £1,000 cash

Birr

RIC Constable Martin O’Brien’s funeral takes place in Birr. A large funeral cortege passed through the town. In the cortege was District Inspector for King’s County, D.I Knox, as well as many local members of the Sinn Féin party

Mansion House, Dublin

A very revealing debate takes place at the Sinn Féin Ard Fheis on the application of Proportional Representation Single-Transferable Voting (PR-STV) to Ireland. Laurence Ginnell and Pádhraic MacEnri oppose the system. They say that the introduction of the PR-STV will harm them electorally. Ginnell states that for all that they will gain in Ulster by removing the first-past-the-post system, they would lose in the other three provinces.

Ginnell and McEnri are opposed by most of party. Hanna Sheehy Skeffington said ‘if a man had only 1 vote he would never throw it away on a woman. It was important women should be represented at local elections, and under of proportional representation they give women a chance’. Danny McDevitt, Belfast, pointed to Labour, who gained a third of the vote in Belfast for a generation, but had never won a seat. He said the opposite of Ginnell; they could afford some losses in the south to get a gain in Ulster. Ginnell and McEnri’s resolution is defeated

Dublin

Cadbury’s publish an idyllic ad for their chocolate and cocoa products with a scene from their production base in Bournville

Amritsar, India

The Hindu festival of Ram Naumi is celebrated. There are unprecedented levels of cordiality between the Hindus and Muslims in the city. This is interpreted as a political act by the authorities. The Lieutenant Governor of the Punjab, Michael O’Dwyer, born in Limerick Junction, Tipperary, orders the arrest of two leading figures in the city; Dr. Saifuddin Kitchlu and Dr. Satyapal

Delhi, India

Separately, a 49 year old activist from Gujarat, Mohandas K. Gandhi, is also arrested for defying an order not to enter Delhi to organise a peaceful protest

Eyeries, Cork

3 RIC, Sergeant O’Connell, Constable Cummins and Constable Ronan are shot by unknown assailants as they made way back to Castletownbere. Wounds are not serious, seem to have been weak pellet shots. The local RIC are very concerned at the incident

Dublin

A habeas corpus motion is brought before King’s Bench into continued holding in police detention in Phoenix Park of Timothy Connors, a young boy arrested several weeks ago in connection with Soloheadbeg shootings. The motion will be passed to RIC

Limerick

Military authorities announce, ahead of the Byrne funeral tomorrow, they do not wish to interfere, but that they accept no responsibility for consequences of the public not obeying an order banning any military shows during the funeral.

Limerick

Joseph Keane, Chair of the Limerick Guardians, who had authority over the Workhouse where the shootings took place, condemned the arrest of Mrs. Byrne as she sped to her dying son’s side

Dublin

Following the motion of habeas corpus, 11 year old Timothy Connors is released from custody in Phoenix Park. He joins Matthew Hogan, younger brother of Seán (still at large), who was also recently released.

10th April 1919

Paris

It emerges that a telegram that was sent by President Wilson to the American warship, George Washington, to return to Brest, to bring him back to America, was held up in London and never reached its destination. It is the latest in a series of wild rumours around Paris suggesting that peace talks are nearing collapse

Mansion House, Dublin

The second public meeting of Dáil Éireann convenes. Those in attendance are (pictured on the day below) EAMONN DE VALERA, ARTHUR GRIFFITH , PAUL GALLIGAN, BRIAN O'HIGGINS, RICHARD MULCAHY, PATK. O'MALLEY, SEAN DE ROISTE, T. McSWEENEY, P. O'KEEFE, PROF. EOlN McNEILL, J. O'DOHERTY, P. WARD, S. McSWEENEY, S. O'MAHONY, DR. CUSACK, P. O'SHANAHAN, P. BEASLAI, D. O'BUCKLEY, ARTHUR O'CONNOR, WM, MAC COSGAIR, S. O'MARA, SEAN O'DOLAN, W. P. COLLIVET, DR. HAYES, C. COLLINS, JOSEPH McGUINNESS, SEAN O'KELLY, E. O'DUGGAN E. BLYTHE, SEAN McENTEE, DESMOND FITZGERALD, KEVIN O'HIGGINS, COUNT PLUNKETT, ALASDAIR McCABE, J. McGRATH, M. STAINES. MADAME MARKIEVICZ, ALD. THOS. KELLY, S. A. BURKE, JOSEPH McDONAGH, P. J. MOLONEY, CATHAL BRUGHA, L. GINNELL, SEAN ETCHINGHAM

In his first public speech to the Dáil, De Valera announces publicly details of the Dáil Loan. He says ‘The Minister of Finance is accordingly preparing a prospectus, which will be shortly published, for the issue of a loan of one million sterling. £500,000 to be offered to the public for immediate subscription, £250,000 at home and £250,000 abroad, in bonds of such amounts as to meet the needs of the small subscriber’

Greenane, Tipperary

Margaret Connery, representing the Women’s Franchise League, gives details of how Timothy Connors had been surrounded by military forces and forced into a vehicle on his way home from school in February. She also gives an account of Daniel McGrath, Grantstown. Military came to farm where he lived and forced him into outhouse and questioned him on Soloheadbeg ambush whilst other troops held his mother. It took intervention of a local woman of social standing to end child’s ordeal

Glengarrif Parade, Dublin

10.30pm

Detective Officer O’Brien, walking back to his home, is set upon by group of six masked men. He is bound and brought to an alleyway and searched. When they found nothing the retreated. O’Brien is a member of the G Division, DMP

Norfolk Road

Meanwhile, another G man, Detective Sergeant Halley is attacked by a man just outside his home. Halley produced his pistol and discharged shot to warn off his attacker. Several other masked men, who were trying enter Halley’s home, retreated at the sound of the shot

Both events come mere days after Michael Collins and Sean Nunan’s search through top-secret personnel files in the Great Brunswick St. Station, accommodated by Ned Broy

Limerick

Thousands of people line the streets of Limerick City for the funeral of Robert Byrne. There is a heavy military presence in the city, but the procession passes off peacefully. Sections of soldiers with fixed bayonets were stationed along funeral route

Dublin

A front page ad in the Irish Independent urges readers not to forget about ‘Loyal Russia’ who gave more lives in the War than any country. The organisation called ‘Russian Liberation Committee’ urges people to write to it to help defeat bolshevism.

Amritsar, India

Following yesterday’s arrests, protesters throw stones at British troops as tensions in the city mount. The soldiers respond by firing on the protesters, killing 20 of them. A hartal is declared in the city - a mass protest - and rioting spreads. Up to five Europeans are killed. The Superintendent of the City Mission Schools, Frances Sherwood, defies warnings of her Indian friends and cycles into city alone. She runs into a group of young men who attack her, beating her with their own shoes. She is left badly wounded

11th April 1919

Tipperary

Timothy Connors, the boy released from RIC custody, speaks to journalists on his experiences. He was brought to Dublin Castle three times a week and questioned about Soloheadbeg ambush. Each time he told them he was in school and knew nothing about it. He said a policeman slept in the same room with him and accompanied him for daily walks in the Phoenix Park when the weather was fine. He was given plenty to eat and the police were kind to him and frequently played handball with him

Mansion House, Dublin

For the first time, Dáil Éireann meets in public for two days in a row. The League of Nations is discussed. De Valera says Ireland would join provided that the principle of equality of rights among nations great and small is upheld.

Seán MacEntee was most ardent critic of America. He said ‘President Wilson had a deep and secret purpose when he hoped to impose a sham League of Nations on prostrate humanity, and that it was meant to make easy subjection of small peoples at hands of huge commercial empire.

He added ‘We must try and save France from herself. If there is a Peace imposed on Germany now, there will be a desire for revenge on the part of German people later on. The new Treaty will be violated like the Treaty of Versailles, and another war of revenge must surely follow.

Alexander McCabe said Wilson could not think of admitting the yellow races on terms of equality, and there could be no real world League without equality. A powerful, self-respecting, and ambitious nation like Japan would never come in on any other terms, and who could blame her

Amritsar, India

Brigadier General Reginald Dyer arrives in Amritsar to take command of British troops in the city. Fearing a rebellion similar to that of 1857 he begins planning for a military crack down on protests in the Punjab Province

12th April 1919

London

The Morning Post newspaper publishes a story stating that De Valera is willing to accept dominion status for Ireland and he will abandon the Sinn Féin party. De Valera rubbishes the report and says it is 'too ridiculous to discuss'

Hull

For the third time in as many weeks, the Conservative half of the government coalition are heavily defeated in a by-election, losing almost a third of the vote they had gained in December. Joseph Kentworthy takes the seat.

13th April 1919

Jallianwala Bagh, Amritsar, India

20,000 men, women, and children gather in the walled enclosure of Jallianwala Bagh, many of whom to celebrate the Sikh festival of Baisakhi, others part of the non-violent satyagraha group. The enclosure had only one entrance. Brigadier-General Reginald Dyer had issued a decree the day before prohibiting all public meetings. When hearing of the gathering in Jallianwala Bagh he brought 90 men to area to break up the gathering. The entered the narrow entrance lane and blocked the only way in or out.

Dyer then orders his men to shoot indiscriminately into the crowd. The British troops fire upon the unarmed crowd for ten minutes, and expend nearly 1,700 rounds of ammo. After the shooting stopped, the troops largely left the dead and dying in the enclosure. The official death toll of the shooting was 379. In reality well over 1,600 people are believed to have lost their lives. The atrocity would have a lasting impact upon the history of India

Grafton Street, Dublin

Celebrating 100 years in operation, Barnardos Furriers advertise some summer wears including Ostrich and Marabout feathered throws and capes.

Limerick

The Limerick City United Trades and Labour Council decide, after lengthy discussions, to call a general strike to commence tomorrow

44 Parnell Square, Dublin.

Cumann na mBan HQ

Members of Cumann na mBan are informed by a sympathetic DMP officer that their HQ was to be raided that evening. They immediately removed all sensitive materials and literature. The raid, at 6pm, yielded nothing

Westport

The special proclamation of the town as a military area continues. Loads of turf and/or potatoes are not permitted into the town, and fears are growing of a food and fuel crisis among the town's poorer residents

14th April 1919

Limerick

A general strike of workers commences in Limerick. All businesses in the city close, among them Cleeves Condensed Milk factory, the largest of its kind in the world

Westport

The Westport Sinn Féin hall is seized by the military. They lock up the building, and deface the front display with tar, and cover all of the windows on the ground floor with tar too. Also, an armoured car sped through the town on several occasions

P.J Doris, editor of the Mayo News newspaper is forbidden to leave the town by military authorities to conduct his journalistic work around the county

The commencement of the strike in Limerick is causing the pilots concern, however, as they have 600 gallons of fuel stored in the city. Should it be necessary, the military may be called upon to requisition the fuel for the plane

London

The race to complete the first transatlantic flight continues. Captain J.C.P Wood, and his co-pilot, Captain C.C Wylie, intend on flying their plane from London to Limerick where they will commence their attempt from Bawnmore

15th April 1919

Limerick

As the general strike in the city continues, the supply of food begins to be curtailed. Queues of people formed outside the city's bakeries that were allowed to open on special permission of the strike committee.

St. Joseph's Asylum for the Blind, Drumcondra

Seven RIC Officers enter the Blind Asylum in Drumcondra and conduct a search for over an hour, raiding every building and room of the complex. It is believed they were searching for stolen arms

Limerick

Five men remain in custody in connection with the Workhouse Hospital shootings; John Hurley & Tom Crowe (both cousins of Robert Byrne), Michael Dogherty (a servant in the house where Byrne was found) Arthur Johnson & Pat Bray (both from Limerick)

Dublin

J.J Walsh, M.P for North Sligo, is sentenced to 3 months imprisonment for unlawful assembly on the night of March 26th

16th April 1919

Limerick

The jury at inquest of death of Robert Byrne finds that he died ‘by revolver bullet discharged willfully by either Constable O’Brien or Constable Spillane’. The doctor who treated Byrne as he was dying said he had been wounded by ‘the man that was shot’.

As he was being treated Byrne asked his doctor ‘this is going to do for me doctor? I am not afraid to die, in any case’.

Patrick Lynch, representing Byrne family, posed the question ‘How was it that this semi-military force did not turn their revolvers upon the attacking party of healthy men, but killed patient in the bed? He was killed by a revolver bullet fired by a man intent to kill’

Amritsar

3 days after shooting dead of 100s of people by British troops, Lieutenant Governor of the Punjab, Tipperary-born Michael O’Dwyer, writing, Lord Chelmsford, says there is ‘an improvement in demeanour of city rabble’ but that many still ‘hostile or sullen’

Dublin

News of the events in Amritsar have not yet reached Ireland. The Freeman’s Journal, reporting on the ‘Indian revolt’ reports that the military are taking ‘necessary steps’ in Amritsar and Lahore

Paris

French newspapers begin to report on the situation in Limerick. Le Petit Parisien reports, under the headline GRÁVES EN IRLANDE (Strikes in Ireland), that if the strike is prolonged the impact could be devastating

17th April 1919

Dublin

British military forces continue to portray an Indian state in open revolt against British rule. The Evening Herald reports that normal conditions are expected to resume soon as ‘the methods adopted in Amritsar’ were having desired effect

Paris

As rumours spread that peace talks could conclude soon and a treaty by signed by 2nd May, tensions continue between the USA and Japan. However, it is hoped that these issues can soon be overcome to ensure a lasting peace between the two nations

St. John’s, Newfoundland

Despite treacherous conditions moving up from United States, and continued storms on Atlantic, an attempt to cross the Atlantic is about to commence. Other attempts, flying in the opposite direction are hoped to take off soon from Limerick

Athy

A meeting of the local branch of the ITGWU is held with a view towards establishing a workers’ co-op store in the town. An organiser from Belfast, Mr. Knox, spoke to a very attentive audience and was warmly received

18th April 1919

Holyhead, Wales

Captain J.C.P Wood’s brave endeavour to cross the Atlantic in a single flight begins with their first leg from Kent across the Irish Sea and on to their take off point in Limerick. The plane crashes into the sea six miles off the Welsh coast.

18th April 1919 -Good Friday

O’Connell Street, Dublin

Staff at Gresham Hotel strike work in early afternoon forcing effective closure of hotel. Other hotels affected by a strike include Wicklow & Central Hotels. All guests have left and all window blinds are drawn.

Ennis

At a meeting of Clare County Board of GAA, a discussion is held on whether civil servants that have taken oath of allegiance to King should be expelled from organisation. It is decided to allow county’s delegate to national executive to use his judgement

Dublin

The first major news reports of the Amritsar incident are published Ireland. The Freeman’s Journal reports that ‘200 casualties’ came about as a result of ‘the mob defying the proclamation of public meetings’

19th April 1919

Dublin

The Evening Herald reprints a cartoon originally published in an American newspaper highlighting the sheer futility of war and how it has led to the re-mortgaging of entire nations as the Roman God of war stands by with a bucket of blood

Limerick

As the Limerick Soviet continues, an American journalist in the city for the transatlantic flight attempt that came to an abortive end the day before was granted permission by the Strike Committee to buy a new shirt

Holyhead

Captain Wood and his co-pilot are reportedly safe and well after the fiasco of their attempt to fly across the Atlantic. Their plane, the Shamrock remains in the water.

The plane would remain in the water for a number of days until the fuselage it is towed into Holyhead. The wings were dismantled and given away in pieces as souvenirs.

20th April 1919 -Easter Sunday

Cork

A proposed bill to allow for University College Cork to leave the National University of Ireland and become an independent University is published.

Dublin

Over 1,000 hotel and restaurant workers are now on strike in Dublin. Over 30 hotels are closed as tourists flocking into the city for the Easter holidays are turned away in disappointment

Mansion House, Dublin

The Annual GAA Conference is held. The President, Alderman James Nowlan (below), Kilkenny, brings forward a resolution stating that any civil servant that takes the oath of allegiance be barred from the organisation

An amendment is made to ensure that any person that took the oath under duress up to November 1918 be allowed to remain a member, but that in future any person that takes the oath be barred. This amendment is defeated by 19 votes and Nowlan's original motion is carried

Mansion House, Dublin

A representative of the Limerick Strike Committee attended the GAA Convention seeking support for their cause. Harry Boland proposed that the GAA pledge £100 from their funds to be donated. He also proposed 4 fundraising games for the cause. An on-the-spot collection was then called for which realised £33 which was immediately given the to Limerick delegate.

Overall, it is announced that the GAA has £2,437, 19s. in their bank account

Araglen, East Cork

The first Volunteer raid on an RIC Barracks during the War of Independence takes place in Araglen. Mick Fitzgerald, prominent Volunteer in the Fermoy area, led the raid. They struck when all but 1 officer was at mass

Dublin

The Sunday Independent publishes cartoon of Britain observing demands of India and Egypt saying 'Blimey! They look ugly, I wish this Peace Conference would get a move on'. The following week would bring events in Paris to the forefront of everyone's mind.

Toomevara, North Tipperary

A local community hall is formally opened in Toomevara. A concert is held that draws large crowds from neighbouring Nenagh, Roscrea, and Cloughjordan. The editor of the @NenaghGuardian expresses disappointment there were no songs in Irish

New York

Ahead of the introduction of the Wartime Prohibition Act which will prohibit the sale of any beverage with an alcoholic content of over 1.28%, the New York Tribune publishes a cartoon depicting Americans streaming over the border to Mexico for alcohol

Paris

There is surprise and dismay among Allied representatives at the Peace Conference as Germany announces that the delegates they will send in the coming days will not have plenipotentiary powers, and can only review terms of Peace Treaty. Furthermore, the delegates, described as ‘Diplomatic Dust’ by Le Petit Journal, may propose counter-proposals to Allied demands and should they not be considered, Germany may not sign the treaty

Limerick

It is announced special Treasury Notes for use in during the ongoing soviet will be printed as legal tender. They are to range up to 10 shilling, and around border of each will be printed the words ‘General Strike Against British Militarism, April 1919’

Avoca, Wicklow

Motor cars carry hundreds of people to the Vale of Avoca for a scenic day out. It is reported that all of the local businesses and hotels were packed with visitors from Greystones, Bray, and Dublin

21st April 1919

Paris

After a great outcry from Allied Nations, a few hours after Germany announced that their delegates would not have plenipotentiary powers, they accept Allied terms and agree that their delegates would have the power to sign any treaty put before them. The German delegates will be Count Brockdorff Rantzau, the German Minister for Foreign Affairs, Johannes Giesberts, Minister of Posts, Carl Melchior, Financial and Economic Advisor to the German Government, Herr Leinert, President of the Prussian Assembly, and Professor Walther Schucking, an academic in International Law

22nd April 1919

London

The London Times publishes a note commenting on how they are receiving more letters on the Irish situation than letters on any other subject. Gerald Villiers-Stuart, of the noted Anglo-Irish family in Waterford, writes ‘Ireland has fallen backwards into the middle-ages because English politicians dangled Home Rule before Irish eyes and then allowed a hereditary enemy snatch it away

Eyeries, Cork

Following the wounding of 3 RIC Officers nearly a fortnight ago in Eyeries, a force of military move into the quiet village and seize three houses belonging to Patrick O'Neill. They then proceeded to remove all furniture from the house before leaving

Kilross, Tipperary

Maurice Crowe, and Patrick Moloney, most recently arrested on 8th March, are re-arrested and held in custody. It is not clear on what grounds the arrests have been made

Weyhill, Hampshire

Five RAF Officers are killed when their Handley-Page plane crashed into a telegraph pole on take off. The deceased were trapped in the plane when it crashed into a sleeping quarters and burst into flames

Limerick

As the Limerick Soviet continues, most of the people that had been refused entry to the city without military permits have made their way home by either boarding a train, or crossing the Shannon by boat.

Skibbereen

The local trades and labourers of the town agree in a meeting to fall in line with 'the workers of Ireland, and the world' and observe 1st May as a national holiday for the working classes

Limerick

General Frederick Shaw, Commander in Chief of Crown Forces in Ireland, visits Limerick. He states that the proclaimed area has a population of 38,000 and that 21,000 military permits have been issues (under 16s not requiring a permit)

Thomastown, Kilkenny

For the first time since his release from Lincoln Prison, Sean O'Mahony pays a visit to his native town. He is warmly welcomed by the local Sinn Féin club and is entertained by the prominent locals and the clergy

Kinvara, Galway

Florimund Quinn, and his herd, Tom Diviney, are shot at whilst they farmed in Kinvara. They are wounded and are recovering from their ordeal. It is believed that they were shot at in connection with the means Mr. Quinn had acquired the land

23rd April 1919

Cork

Arthur & Matthew Barlow, from Shrough, Tipperary, who were arrested on 3rd April, are sentenced 2 years imprisonment with hard labour. Their younger brother, John, who had initially been released, is given 6 month prison sentence, which is suspended in full

Paris

Hopes for the nearing end of the Peace Conference negotiations are hit by a significant blow - the apparent withdrawal of Italy from talks. The Italian PM, Vittorio Orlando, demands autonomy over the city of Fiume (modern day Rijeka in Croatia)

President Wilson believes that Italian sovereignty over Fiume and the immediate area would bottle up the emergence of a new nation, and could sow the seeds of a future war. Lloyd George is desperate to seek Wilson and Orlando to meet before the former departs Paris altogether

Cahir RIC Barracks, Tipperary

A woman called Alice O’Mahony of Kilmoyler presents herself to Cahir RIC Barracks claiming that she has killed her husband with an iron bar. RIC Officers and medical staff rush to the O’Mahony home to make the grim discovery of Alice’s husband, Edmond, on the floor, conscious, but in a grave condition. He died before being removed to hospital

Salthill Bay, Galway

There was considerable aerial excitement in Galway today as a plane descended over the city at a rapid pace. It was apparent, given the speed of the descent that something, was wrong. The plane, piloted by Arthur Brown (below without cap) and John Alcock (below with cap) crashes into the sea. The plane crashed into the sea after a mid-air somersault followed by a nose-dive into the water. Alcock made it out of the plane immediately, but Brown was initially trapped as it sunk under the water. He eventually escaped and both men survived to tell the tale and continue their aeronautic careers.

Mansion House, Dublin

T.J Ryan, Premier of Queensland, arrives in Dublin for a visit. He meets Lord Mayor in Mansion House (below) where he says Irish question was now one of international importance. Later that day he travels to Greystones to meet with de Valera

Arklow

Two RIC Officers, on sentry duty at Kynock’s Explosive factory, are attacked as they returned to their barracks. They are gagged and bound with rope and relieved of their rifles and bayonets. One of them eventually got loose from ropes and raised the alarm.

Arklow

Thomas New and Thomas Furlong, who had recently been released from prison in Belfast on health grounds are welcomed into the town by a crowd of 3,000 people headed by the local brass band. They were entertained in the local Sinn Féin rooms

Dublin

Charlotte Despard, prominent suffragette and sister of Lord French, is welcomed to a reception of the Irish Women’s Franchise League.

Limerick

7pm

Three men approach the military blockade on the way into Limerick City. The sentry requests military permits. Two of the men produce their permits and are permitted entry, the third man is turned away. A little while later, the sentry notices a man trying to enter the city through some fields. He was told to halt, at which the man began to run. In keeping with the policy put in place after the Collinstown Aerodrome Raid, the sentry fired at him, but missed. The sentry fired two further shots. However, the man evaded the shots and made his way into the city and safely took shelter in some houses.

24th April 1919

Notre Dame Cathedral, Paris

Irish Independent reports on special service in Notre Dame commemorating the 3rd Anniversary of the Easter Rising. The service, organised by Sean T. O’Kelly, was officiated by Monsignor Connolly, Chaplain-in-Chief American Armed Forces.

Paris

Tensions between American and Italian delegates take a drastic turn. Orlando makes good on his threat and withdraws from talks altogether. The disagreement arises over Italy’s insistence on keeping the city of Fiume on the Adriatic

Rome

American opposition to Italy’s claim over Fiume leads to anti-American protests in Rome. American, British and French Embassies are all guarded heavily to prevent damage from angry crowds. Italian King announces support for Orlando’s stance against Wilson.

Dublin

Blatant profiteering among dairy suppliers in the Dublin region becomes apparent. The cost of milk in Dublin is currently 9 pence per quart. In Cork, milk is 5 pence per quart

Islandeady

Two natives of the Mayo parish of Islandeady are sentenced to prison terms. Michael Staunton, president of West Mayo Sinn Féin, receives 6 months. Patrick Jordan receives 18 months in prison. Both sentences had a slight remittance upon them

Arklow

RIC Officers raid the Ancient Order of Hibernians hall searching for arms following a busy day in the town yesterday which involved a large SF event and an attack on 2 Officers. No arms are found, but a search of a house in Pound Hill yields a revolver

Fethard, Tipperary

A dance in the Town Hall in aid of the local marching band is prohibited by the military

Limerick

Thomas Johnson, Irish Labour Party, announces to press that all workers that can resume work in Limerick without a permit should do so tomorrow. He adds that workers that need a permit should refuse to work under such terms of slavery and subjugation

25th April 1919

Rome

As protests continue in the Italian capital over the stance of President Wilson on Italian claims over the city of Fiume, it is reported that the calling cry of the crowds is 'Long live America and down with Wilson!'

26th April 1919

Ballinagoul, Ring, Waterford

A fight breaks out in a small shebeen in the fishing village of Ballinagoul. Michael Walsh, a young fisherman runs to the local RIC Barracks for help in suppressing the row. Seeing a man running towards them, he is shot in the neck. Walsh is shot by a young Officer called McCarthy, who panicked at the sight of a young man running towards them. However, there was no indication that Walsh was given any sort of warning before the shot was discharged. Walsh's condition is said to be grave.

Bray

James Cleary, Main Street, is brought before court for selling butter with a water content of 19.3%. Legally, unadulterated butter contains no more than 15% water. Cleary claimed he was told when he purchased it from a local farm that it was fine to sell.

Limerick

The Limerick Soviet is all but over as businesses re-open across the city. Thomas Johnston has left the city. However, some workers are bitterly disappointing at the fizzling out of the stand that they had successfully taken.

Dublin

Dublin's Mater Misericordiae Hospital issues its first appeal for funds in three decades. The ad reveals that only about 2% of their expenses are funded by public funds from Dublin Corporation (£475 out of £23,894).

Soloheadbeg, Tipperary

Two small white crosses, erected in the memories of the two RIC Officers shot dead there in January, are removed by unknown assailants.

27th April 1919

Dublin

Sunday Independent publishes cartoon of John Bull (Britain) in bed, a mounted machine gun and other weapons on his locker covering a document ‘Cherished Principles of Liberty’, being woken up by Africa, Egypt, India, Ireland all demanding self-determination

Limerick

The Limerick Soviet officially ends. Strike Committee issues proclamation calling upon all workers to resume work tomorrow. They thank all who helped bring about the Soviet for the past fortnight, which was a ‘dignified protest against military tyranny’

Abbeyleix

Several showers of unseasonable snow disrupt a hurling game between Rathdowney and Kilcotton in the Leix and Ossory Hurling Championship. The game eventually ends in a draw

Arklow

The Wicklow area is badly affected by the winter storm that hit Ireland. Around the town, several trees were uprooted, and people were forced indoors due to heavy snow. In the rural hinterland, there are reportedly several cattle dying for want of fodder

Kells

Darrell Figgis gives a talk in the St. Vincent de Paul Hall in aid of the local Sinn Féin Club. During speech, he referred to the state of the banking system in Ireland. He spoke of how Irish banks were lending out too much Irish money to English investors

Ballinagoul, Ring, Waterford

The local District Inspector of the RIC visits the rural fishing village to question his men on the shooting of Michael Walsh yesterday. The area, described as one of the quietest in the country, resided in the main by Irish speaking fishermen, is in complete shock at the incident. Walsh’s condition continues to be very serious.

Aughnacliffe, Longford

An Aeridheacht is held in Aughnacliffe in Longford, near the Cavan border. Afterwards, Matt Brady and William McNally accompany a friend to his home. Given the late hour, both men return to the village hurriedly. 2 RIC Officers, emerging from a house, seeing men running, shoot them. Some Gaelic Leaguers, who were gathered in the village hall after the Aeridheacht emerge to see what has happened. A bullet grazed McNally's head and he was bleeding, but Brady is more seriously wounded. The local curate, Fr. Manning, rushes to the scene and administers the last rites, before Brady is taken away to Longford Infirmary where his condition is grave. It is the second incident of RIC Officers firing on civilians falsely perceiving a threat in as many days.Decades later, Michael Murphy, in his Witness Statement to the Bureau of Military History, states that Brady is paralysed for life following the incident. He identifies one of the RIC Officers as Sergeant McClean, an 'Orangeman', whose card was marked by local Volunteers

Vatican

Pope Benedict XV sends his blessing via telegram to the Archbishop of Dublin, William Walsh, who is very ill in his home in Drumcondra

Wicklow

The Wicklow Town Sinn Féin Club confirm that they have asked every newsagent in the town to stop importing any Sunday papers in future and to only stock Irish papers

Kilkenny

In a significant sign of changing political attitudes in Kilkenny, the previously popular United Irish League branch comes to an end. The Kilkenny People, in a scathing satirical account of its final meeting, says that only 7 attended 'the funeral'

Croke Park, Dublin

8,000 people attend hurling game in aid of Irish Republican Prisoners fund between Tipperary & Dublin. Dublin win by 6 points.

London

The unseasonable snowstorm that hit Ireland also causes havoc in Britain. The Times notes that snow began to fall in London around 1pm and did not cease for the rest of the day.

28th April 1919

Dublin

The Evening Herald publishes Ireland's 14 Points, that have been handed to the Secretary to President Wilson. The Points were entrusted the Irish American Delegation by Dr. Patrick McCartan, Dáil Éireann's envoy to America.

The headings of each point are;

  • 1.Ireland desires impartiality in the Peace Conference
  • 2.Ireland demands independence as a sovereign State
  • 3.Ireland’s record of services to mankind entitles her to recognition
  • 4.Ireland has a distinctive national individuality
  • 5.Ireland has adequate man power to maintain separate nationality
  • 6.Ireland’s economic and financial position is sound
  • 7.Ireland's industry and trade are sufficient to sustain separate statehood
  • 8.Ireland’s preparations for statehood are sufficient to guarantee stability
  • 9.Ireland has the right to self-preservation †the right to resist extermination
  • 10.Ireland demands that England now fulfill its international promise
  • 11.Ireland’s intentions towards the world are essentially peaceful
  • 12.England is disqualified as unfit to rule Ireland
  • 13.Ireland demands reparation from England to guarantee future security
  • 14.Summary of Ireland’s rights demanded of the Conference
  • 15.The Points, according to reports in New York, is prepared by Laurence Ginnell

As part of Ireland's demands, £500,000,000 is sought in reparations from Britain to secure the Irish State financially (Approximately €6.6 billion in modern terms).

Bridewell RIC Barracks, Dublin

The two men that were arrested yesterday in Beresford Place in connection with organising a socialist meeting are named as John Burns and Dermot O'Leary

Westport

P.J Doris, the Editor of the Mayo News newspaper, continues to be refused a permit to leave Westport and conduct his journalistic work around the county.

Longford

There is widespread confusion as reports reach Dublin that Matt Brady, the rate-collector that was shot and seriously wounded by RIC Officers in Aughnacliffe, has died. Reports to the contrary only were received in Dublin at 11pm

Swords, Dublin

Armed RIC Officers and military officials arrive at the home of Frank Lawless, M.P for Dublin North, and seize his piano in connection with an unpaid expenses bill for the Balrothery guardians.

33 Grattan Street, Cork City

8pm

As business wraps up after a busy Monday in Andy Aherne's Showmakers on the ground floor of 33 Grattan Street, opposite St. Francis' Church, 3 Cork City Volunteers frantically move about the kitchen behind the shop. The kitchen behind the shop has been used for several weeks as a bomb-making factory for the Volunteers. They had obtained a large quantity of gelignite, for use in quarry blasting, and they were using a motorised pestle and mortar to grind the chemicals into finer powders. The fine powder was stored in biscuit tins for future placement in shells.

The Volunteers received word that RIC Officers were about to carry out raids in the Grattan Street vicinity. Dick Murphy, local Company Captain, Micheál Tobin, and Sean O'Connell raced to the premises. They proceeded to empty the biscuit tins of their contents into thick linen bags. O'Connell was carefully emptying one of the boxes into a bag held by the other two when, suddenly, a huge explosion blew the three men several feet away and destroyed the kitchen. O'Connell was blown clean through a window, whilst Tobin and Murphy were badly burned. Two further Volunteers, and a local Cumann na mBan member, Mrs. Hegarty, were just about to enter the room and narrowly escaped injury. The kitchen's back wall was blown away. The building was a tenement, and contained 5 flats, housing up to 15 people. One tenant, washing Mary McMahon, who was washing clothes in an upstairs room, fell through the floor along with a considerable amount of debris but was miraculously not seriously injured.

RIC Officers rushed to the scene. Upon initial inspection they immediately suspected that there it was illegal explosive material that caused the disaster. They set about speaking to all of the injured. Murphy, who had been taken to North Infirmary was removed by Volunteers. As was O'Connell from the Sisters of Mercy that night. However, Micheál Tobin was too badly injured to be removed and the Volunteers were forced to leave him. Tobin's condition was worst of the three Volunteers by far and his wounds are life-threatening

Westport

A replacement, as Resident Magistrate for Westport, for J.C Milling who was shot dead a few weeks ago is announced; R.W Glass, a barrister from Banbridge

29th April 1919

Paris

Peace Conference delegates agree that the former Kaiser, Wilhelm II, will not face execution as a result of war provocation, but they reserve the right to reprimand him over same.

Dublin

It is reported that Soviet Council of People's Commissars, headed by its Vladimir Lenin, has decided to commit monthly sums abroad from Bureau of General Foreign Propaganda. The first month's payment of half a billion roubles is allegedly sent to Sinn Féin

Dublin Port

A report from the Port confirms that in 1918, Ireland imported 1,066,541 tons of coal. Other totals include 2,400 tons of wine, 4,100 tons of rum, 8,500 tons of soap, 1,700 tons of tobacco, and 6,200 tons of rice

Newtown Sandes, North Kerry

What the Kerryman calls, the 'wage-craze' among the farming classes of North Kerry manifests itself if an extraordinary assembly at 7.30am in the otherwise quite village of Newtown Sandes. 140 farmers marched through Main St. with pikes. The march was sparked amidst rumours that two local creameries were about to be dismantled amidst increased labour unrest in the region

Limerick

Arthur Johnson, the final man held in custody in connection with the Limerick Workhouse shootings is released. He had been arrested in the house where Robert Byrne had died.

30th April 1919

Dublin

John Pentland Mahaffy, Provost of Trinity College for the past five years, dies at the age of 80.

1st May 1919

Westminster

Captain Willie Redmond, M.P, queries exact number of children that had been detained by crown forces in Ireland since the beginning of the year. Nobody was prepared to answer Redmond, to which he asked was the post of Irish Minister effectively abandoned

Dublin

No newspapers are printed in Dublin as part of observance of Labour Day. Below shows people eager for their daily dose of news when the Belfast newspapers arrive into Amiens St. Train Station around noon

Dublin

The Irish Independent, not known for its support of Trade Unions historically up to that point, in a summary of May Day, says that the day, conceived as a holiday for the working people, was a failure

Westminster

Austen Chamberlain, Chancellor of Exchequer, announces Britain’s first ever budget that anticipates revenue in excess of 1 billion pounds. Although, little mention is made specifically of Ireland, it is expected that the island will contribute at least fifty million pounds.

Dublin

There is a general closure of business in the capital as part of May Day celebrations. All building and tradesmen downed tools, all public houses closed, as did chemists, draperies, grocers and all of the major factories. An obvious exception to this was all public bodies, and banks. The Under Secretary for Ireland had issued a decree that any person not presenting themselves for work would be liable to dismissal.

College St., Dublin

Two women called Kearney and Clarke were arrested for selling red Labour Day flags on College Street without permission. They are remanded to the nearby DMP Station in Great Brunswick St.

Croke Park

A large Aeridheacht is held in Croke Park to celebrate Labour Day. Some of the festivities are curbed, however, following notification to the Secretary of the GAA, Luke O’Toole by the DMP that military would observe proceedings ‘in readiness’

Nenagh

A thousand workers march through the streets of Nenagh as part of May Day celebrations. Members of Trade Unions from Newport carried a red banner with an image of James Connolly upon it.

Tullamore

Up to 5,000 workers marched through streets of Tullamore. Like in most towns, warnings not to carry red banners were not heeded. All of the marchers assembled to hear an address by James Connor, Chair of the King’s County Trade Union Council

Enniskillen

The inclusivity of May Day demonstrations was noted by Mr. Nethercott, local Trade Union organiser. He noted how Labour was beyond party politics and commended Orangemen and Sin Féiners alike for working together in interest of the working man

Cleveland, Ohio

There are major riots as part of May Day demonstrations in which two people are killed. Violence broke out when police insisted that marchers stop displaying red Labour flags

Nenagh

For the first time, in his Monthly Report to Dublin Castle, the North Tipperary County Inspector, Ernest Mulliner, writes that ‘the state of the [area] has not been satisfactory’ and that there is a strong undercurrent of disloyalty

2nd May 1919

Paris

It is announced that three members of Irish American delegation, Frank Walsh, Edward Dunne and Michael Ryan, are to visit Ireland upon invitation from de Valera. They will land in Dublin tomorrow and intend on visiting the west of the country to view conditions

Paris

German plenipotentiaries formally hand in their credentials to the allied negotiators. The five minute meeting is the first between the Germans and the Allies of the Peace Conference. It is reported that they will be given 15 days to sign the treaty

Belfast

Ten Republican prisoners are moved from Belfast prison to a facility in Manchester. Among them is Austin Stack. There is much frustration at this move, given the release of Irish prisoners from England following the death of Pierce McCan

Westminster

Sylvia Pankhurst is arrested at entrance to House of Commons. She is arrested with another suffragette, Amelia O’Mahoney. Both charged with obstructing police from duties to which they said they were perfectly entitled enter House and conduct business

Aghadavoyle, Armagh

The home of Robert Turner, a large farmer in the district, is raided by 8 armed and masked men. They get away with only a single shotgun. This is the third such raid for arms in the area in as many weeks

Kilkenny

The Kilkenny People report on story of a night out for 2 returning soldiers. They were both ‘helpless with drink’, but with a mutual effort at bringing one another home, they managed to propel themselves forward but not without rubbing shoulders with most of windows of street. When charged the following day one of the men said he had been in France for 3 years and had been gassed & wounded. When he took drink it affected his head and that stout made him giddy. They were fined 5s. each

3rd May 1919

Paris

The French press reports that Peace Treaty is nearly drafted. Some of guarantees underpinning Treaty are that Germany must not seek an alliance with Russia, Austria must not seek an alliance with Germany, and that Alsace-Lorraine will remain in French hands

Kingstown, Dublin

The mailboat, Connaught, pulls into Kingstown Harbour. Aboard are the Irish American delegation to the Paris Peace Conference, Frank Walsh, Edward Dunne, and Michael Ryan. They are greeted by De Valera on the pier

Borrisofarney, North Tipperary

The RIC conduct a raid on the premises of Hugh Kelly, a local farmer. Kelly is arrested after a revolver is discovered and brought by armed guard to Nenagh. From there, he was removed to Cork for courtmarital.

4th May 1919

Dublin

The Sunday Independent publishes the 'Rainbow Chaser' cartoon depicting the ordinary man in his futile efforts to grasp world peace, depicted as a rainbow on the horizon. The cartoon emulates the uncertainty that Peace Conference will secure a lasting peace

Paris

It is reported that the delay in handing the Treaty over to the Germans is due to the desire of Britain, France and the United States, that Italy should be present at the Conference for final stages. An invitation is extended to the Italian Government to return

Annamoe, Wicklow

The Irish American Delegation, accompanied by de Valera, en route to a tour of Glendalough, stop in to the Barton home in Glendalough House, in Annamoe. They are entertained by Robert Barton's sister, Dulcibella

5月4日1919 (4th May 1919)

北京 (Beijing)

As rumours grow that Shandong Province is to be granted to Japan as part of the Peace Treaty in Paris, thousands of student protesters congregate at The Tiananmen, the entrance to the Forbidden City. Up to 4,000 protesters demand that the Treaty be revised, and that China receive the Shandong. They burn Japanese goods and denounce 'traitors at home' that have weakened China on the international stage. The event is seen as one of the seminal moments in modern Chinese history

5th May 1919

Limerick

The evening press contradicts earlier reports that the special military area of Limerick had been lifted. In reality, the military area restrictions remained in place, albeit restrictions on entry into the city have been lifted

Belfast

Michael Ryan, and Edward Dunne, two members of the Irish American Delegation visit Belfast. They were accompanied to the North by W.T Cosgrave and Richard Mulcahy, in a train from Amiens St. Station. Prominent Belfast Sinn Féiner, Denis McCullough, organised the trip, and met the delegation on their arrival to Great Victoria St. Station. They dined in the Metropole Hotel and spoke with locals. However, the Lord Mayor, John C. White, refuses to meet the delegation

Bailieborough, Cavan

A concert, during which Laurence Ginnell, was due to speak at, is forcibly prohibited by the military. Crown Forces with fixed bayonets and armoured cars with machine guns prevented entry to the hall. Ginnell (below), during the melee that ensued, shouted out comparing the treatment of the Irish as 'British Prussianism'. No injuries are reported.

Delvin, Westmeath

6 men are charged with making an illegal collection after mass on Easter Sunday last. When questioned had they a permit, one of the defendants, Laurence Ginnell (nephew of M.P) said they had, from de Valera, the highest authority in the land

Grattan St., Cork

RIC Officers inspecting the scene of last week's explosion make a startling discovery underneath the damaged floorboards of the ground-floor kitchen; a trunk containing 64 partly completed bombs, and 75 live bombs, and a stick of gelignite

Castletownbere, Cork

As part of ongoing military restrictions in the area, all licensed public houses are prohibited from opening. Patrols of the area of military and RIC Officers ensure that no alcohol is sold to any parties

Eyeries, West Cork

A dance, being held at a crossroads near Eyeries RIC Barracks, is broken up by RIC Officers charging at them with batons. One onlooker is badly wounded with a blow to the head in the incident

China

Following yesterday's protests in Beijing, a general strike of students begins in several cities across China. They are joined in their protest by several sections of workers sympathetic with the students' ideals

6th May 1919

London

Morning Post newspaper in London issues a scathing editorial on visit of the Irish American delegates. The say; 'The British people are likely to resent the intervention of Americans, whether Irish-American, or even the President of the American Republic in British affairs. These affairs are our own business, and the business of nobody else. And if Mr. Lloyd George should sink so low as to have any truck with this attempt by foreign emissaries to intervene in our domestic affairs he is betraying the sovereign powers entrusted to him by his King and the nation.'

Dublin

John Cotter, Belvedere Court, is courtmartialed in connection with a speech that he made on the Iona Road, Glasnevin, on treatment of prisoners in Belfast. During the speech he referred to deaths of Coleman, Ashe, and McCan and how His Majesty was responsible

Rome

King Victor and Vittorio Orlando agree that Italy shall return to the Peace Conference. It is agreed that Fiume is to come under the jurisdiction of the League of Nations for 16 years, after which it would be handed over to the Italians

Paris

Marshal Ferdinand Foch, the Commander of Allied Forces, expresses grave concern over the finalised terms of peace treaty and potential lack of securities in place for the future safety of France. He recommends that the Treaty is not signed

Dublin

Agricultural labourers in Clondalkin, Lucan, and Palmerstown continue to be on strike over conditions. The Irish Farmer's Union decide that they will lock out any members of the ITGWU unless the labourers resume work by the end of the week

Maryborough

11am

When the train arrives in the main station in Queen's County, they are greeted with a great display of tricolours and American flags and a guard of honour formed by Laois Volunteers, Cumann na mBan and na Fianna

7th May 1919

9am, Kingsbridge Train Station, Dublin

Two of the Irish American Delegates leave Dublin en-route to Cork. They are accompanied by Richard Mulcahy and W.T Cosgrave

Limerick Junction

1.30pm

After passing through Emly and Knocklong Stations, the train stops in Limerick Junction. There were very large crowds, with the military keeping a close eye on proceedings. Edward Dunne spoke of the ideals of a Republican form of government

Thurles

1pm

Local members of Sinn Féin formed a welcome party as the train briefly stopped in Thurles. A large tricolour, draped over an old castle wall caught the attention of the duly impressed delegates

Cork Train Station

4pm

When the Delegates' train arrives, they are greeted by the Lord Mayor of Cork, William O'Connor. They make their way through the city in a car decorated with American flags. The crowds throng the South Mall in the Delegates’ wake

That evening, the Delegates are special guests at a mass gathering on Grand Parade which was presided over by Liam de Roiste. At the meeting, Michael Ryan reiterated his desire to ensure that Ireland governs herself in the same republican way that the United States governs itself

Cork City Hall

4.30pm

As the American flag is hoisted over Cork City Hall, the Delegates arrive where they sign the Visitors' Book. After lunch a meeting of the City Council convenes and hears from the 2 Delegates

8th May 1919

Cork

Before their Departure for Limerick, Edward Dunne, one of Irish American delegates, attends an exhibition hurling game between North Mon. and Farranferris. He meets with captains of teams afterwards along with Liam de Roiste & John McCarthy, Chairman Cork GAA

Limerick

The Irish American Delegates, Frank Walsh having re-joined them following his return from a brief business trip to London, receive the Freedom of Limerick City from the Lord Mayor

Waterford

Another American politician is also in Ireland at present, in private capacity. James P. Glynn, Congressman from Connecticut, is on holidays in Waterford. He gave a speech in Waterford Volunteer Hall, and honoured George Murphy, who was released from prison

Corporation Street, Belfast

A Canadian soldier, on leave in a premises on Donegall Street, becomes strange in demeanour and walks out onto Corporation Street when he proceeds to begin running and attacking people with his service knife. 5 people are wounded

9th May 1919

Liverpool

Eamonn Bulfin, Birr, is deported from England to Argentina. He is placed aboard the Reseada bound for Buenos Aires. Bulfin was former leader of UCD Volunteers, and raised green flag over GPO 3 years earlier during Rising

Mansion House

The Irish American Delegates arrive to Mansion House for special sitting of Dáil. As they entered they are greeted by huge crowds of well-wishers. Such was volume of crowds, Volunteers linked arms to allow traffic to proceed along Dawson Street

Round Room, Mansion House

In welcoming the Delegates, de Valera says ‘Our friends have been but a few days amongst us, but in these few days I am perfectly certain that they have experienced and that they understand the warmth and the sincerity of their welcome.’

He added ‘Until recently, as John Mitchell said fifty years ago, England possessed the ear of the world, into which she poured her story. Today that is no longer true. England is no longer able to pour any story she wishes into the ear of the world, and we must tell the world that success meant Ireland's freedom’

Arthur Griffith begins his speech by referring to the Armenian people. The devastation caused by the Ottoman Empire was published widely in the English press, and led to a great increase in recruitment. When the Armenian people sought British help recently to create their own state, the British told them that they needed no state as they had been exterminated.

He goes on to say ‘Ireland has been cheated often she is not going to be cheated again, neither will she be deceived by promises. To some of us the saddest incidents of the war were deaths of Irishmen, who, believing England's promises, fought in England's army in the hopes that there is no nation in Europe which has suffered so much under an existing Empire as this nation of ours’

Thank God you have visualised to us that you have the direction. We are not here to give advice, because, thank God, you have been well advised by your own trusted leaders already; but we are here to ask our powerful Government to say to the other Governments of the world, that President de Valera, Count Plunkett and Arthur Griffith have been selected to represent the Government elected by an overwhelming majority of the Irish people; and to request that they be permitted, with all the dignity attached to that representation, to proceed to Paris.

In his speech, Frank Walsh says ‘I say, my friends, that we are returning to Paris. We came with a direct mandate; we are not here to give direction.

Michael Collins begins his speech by saying ‘The task falls to me of showing how, while this destruction was going on, we were at the same time paying enormous sums in over-taxation, and were, in addition, being drained of our Capital to an appalling extent.’

UCD, Earlsfort Terrace

As the Irish American Delegation emerge from the Mansion House, they enter a car with de Valera and proceed to a reception in UCD’s main building in Earlsfort Terrace. They are greeted on arrival by Sean O’Dea, President of the Student’s Body, and academics including Dr. Douglas Hyde

Shortly after Delegates leave building, 3 military motors speed up Dawson Street and pull up. Over 20 soldiers alight, along with several DMP detectives. The Lord Mayor demands an explanation as the men proceed to enter the building. They say they are searching for wanted men

St. Stephen’s Green

6.50pm

The Delegation make their way back to Mansion House. Dawson Street has been closed off for nearly 2 hours by military as they continue to search Mansion House. An airbound shot was also fired as military tried to contain the large crowds

The Delegation’s motor car is stopped. The Officer in Charge says the Delegates can proceed, but de Valera cannot. Frank Walsh takes exception and demands de Valera be granted entry too. After 30 mins, the military withdraw and allow them all to pass

10th May 1919

City Hall, Dublin

Noon

The Irish American Delegation are received by Dublin Corporation in City Hall (below). Afterwards the make a short visit to Mountjoy Prison before taking a train to Galway for the western leg of their Irish visit

11th May 1919

Waterford

The man who was shot by RIC Officer in Ballinagoul a few weeks ago, Michael Walsh, has died. He had been doing well for past days and doctors were confident of recovery. However, yesterday, Walsh contracted an infection which grew worse until his death

Shrough, Tipperary

Patrick Noonan, a farmer’s son, and brother to a man arrested several weeks ago, is arrested and is brought under armed escort to Cork prison

Ballyedmond Castle, Killowen

All companies of the Newry Volunteer Battalion mobilise in the town and proceed in groups to Ballyedmond Castle, home of Lieutenant Nugent, who fought in the Great War, on the banks of Carlingford Lough. When they arrived they found the premises guarded by only a caretaker, the Nugents having left for the weekend. Up to 90 Volunteers conducted a thorough search of the property and grounds. Newry Volunteer, Edward Fullerton, and three other Volunteers broke up concrete floor of the basement throughout the night, but found no storage unit underneath. As dawn broke, the Volunteers retreated. They left with a small quantity of arms, and used a boat in the lough to transport them to Louth

Waterford

13 RIC Officers raid the headquarters of the Waterford News newspaper. They begin to dismantle the printing press. When a reason was demanded by the Editor, Edmund Downey, he was told it was due to the printing of seditious material. The newspaper would not be printed again until August

Galway

At midnight, the Irish American Delegation’s train pulls into Galway Train Station. There, they are greeted by thousands of well wishers. They were escorted to the Railway Hotel, whose entrance was decorated with American flags

Knappagh, Mayo

The Irish American delegation are stopped at a military checkpoint in Knappagh, 3 miles outside Westport, their intended destination. They are accompanied by Father Michael Flanagan, W.T Cosgrave, and Eoin MacNeill. Frank Walsh demanded to speak with the leading military officer in the town. Whilst they all awaited the despatch rider to make his way into Westport, a crowd of locals had begun to walk out to Knappagh to meet the delegation waving tricolours and American flags. They were stopped by military with revolvers drawn and a major incident seemed imminent. Cosgrave explains to officers blocking their way that they had been issued with diplomatic passports, approved of by both President Wilson and Lloyd George. The Officer in charge responded ‘I know you were coming, but this place is under military control and my orders are that you cannot go through tonight’.

Once the military officer came and reiterated that there would be no entry a scuffle almost broke out, but eventually retreated and made their way to Castlebar.

Kilshennan, South Tipperary

Seamus Robinson, Dan Breen, Sean Hogan and Sean Treacy, the so called ‘Big 4’ á la the Big 4 at the Peace Conference, are still on the run from Crown Forces following their involvement in the Soloheadbeg Ambush. They have been harboured in safe houses across Tipperary and West Limerick for the past few months. They are in the vicinity of the Kilnamanagh Battalion of the South Tipperary Volunteers under the protection of Mick Davern. Mick is hosting a dance that night in Ballagh, and he asksthe four to attend. Robinson believes that they are in a very safe district and they decide to attend. Sean Hogan, a few days from his 18th Birthday, thoroughly enjoyed the dance and met with a young woman called O’Keefe. He accompanied her to another dance in Meaghar’s in nearby Annfield

12th May 1919

Annfield, South Tipperary

Sean Hogan eventually falls asleep in the kitchen of the Meagher’s farmhouse in Annfield. In the early morning, Hogan is awoken by cries that RIC Officers were approaching to raid the house. Hogan rushed out of the house with his revolved out the back door but ran straight into a group of officers who detailed him and brought him to Thurles Barracks

Kilshenane, South Tipperary

Seumas Robinson, Dan Breen and Sean Treacy are awoken by Paddy Kinane who informs them that Sean Hogan has been arrested. The three men rise instantly and process the news their comrade is in custody. Cursing Hogan’s insistence on going to the Annfield dance with the young woman, Robinson is reminded of Hogan’s own words ‘Ireland will never be free until she can produce a Robert Emmet who doesn't give a damn about women!’ They determine Hogan will be taken to either three places; Tipp Town, Dublin, Cork. Robinson believes that if he is taken Tipp Town they would have the ability to rescue him from custody, and if brought to Dublin he believes they could storm courthouse with sufficient numbers. However, as it becomes clear he will be taken to Cork, they decide that the must stop Hogan from reaching there and determine that they must mount a rescue attempt in Knocklong Train Station the following evening

Mayo

The Irish American Delegation depart Castlebar en-route to Dublin. They are sent on their way with music and an illuminated address by the local Urban Council. The train stopped again in Castlerea, where Michael Ryan said he knew several residents. On the train platform he gave a speech denouncing the rise of militarism in Europe and urged all Irish people to stick together in the cause of Irish freedom. As they passed through Balla and Claremorris, the train briefly stopped to allow the delegation give words of thanks to the hundreds of people gathered

Athlone

As Irish American delegation were changing in Athlone for train to Dublin, Frank Walsh apologised for not being able spend their final day in Athlone, but that they needed return to Paris to make their demands on behalf of 20 million of their ‘kith and kin’

Dundalk

Frank Walsh, the leader of the Irish American delegation, joined De Valera in travelling to Louth for an audience with the Primate of All Ireland, Cardinal Logue. Walsh and DeValera make a very short address to a crowd outside the Imperial hotel in the town

Rathfarnham

Edward Dunne and Michael Ryan, ahead of their departure for Paris, visit St. Enda’s in Rathfarnham, where they dine with Margaret Pearse and Áine Ceannt. Afterwards, they return to Fitzwilliam Square before heading to Kingstown Harbour.

Lower Fitzwilliam Street, Dublin

A very illustrative incident showing difficulties that Republican movement faced in maintaining order upon their supporters takes place in Fitzwilliam Square shortly after the departure of the Irish American delegation. As crowds departed Fitzwilliam Square following the Irish American delegation’s departure, a large Union Jack is spotted hanging from window highlighted below, in 8 Fitzwilliam Street Lower, currently home to European Movement Ireland. The crowd began to shout up at window demanding its removal. An elderly lady calmly looked out window at crowd of several hundred with a bemused expression, entirely indifferent to their demands. However, the crowd began to throw stones at the window and as it smashed the woman fled. Several more stones were thrown smashing other windows of the building before a young man appeared at the door demanding they stop, which they did. But just as peace settled, another woman, in No. 10 Fitzwilliam Sq., opened her window and folded her arms defiantly at the crowd. She wore British coloured ribbons on her blouse and her appearance gave cause to humour in the crowd. But some of crowd turned their stone throwing to this property. When 4 men approached No. 10 and demanded entry, a priest emerged and demanded they leave area.

13th May 1919

Morning

Seamus Robinson, Dan Breen, and Sean Treacy make their way to home of Danny Molony, about a mile from Knocklong Train Station. They keep watch upon each train as it pulled up into station and made plans for a rescue attempt of Sean Hogan

Emly Train Station

James Scanlon, JJ O'Brien, Sean Lynch and Ed Foley, all from Galtee Battalion of the East Limerick Volunteers board a train, whose next stop would be Knocklong Station. Their job is to identify the carriage within which Sean Hogan was being held

8pm

Knocklong Train Station

The Cork-bound train from Thurles pulls into Knocklong station. On the platform are a number of Volunteers including Seán Treacy and Ned O’Brien, of the Galtee Battalion. They receive a signal indicating which carriage Hogan is on and they immediately storm the train. The charging Volunteers come upon Hogan’s position. He is held by 4 armed RIC Officers. Constable Michael Enright, standing closest to Hogan, is shot dead immediately. A hand-to-hand scuffle ensues. Sean Treacy and Sergeant Peter Wallace tangle over a gun, which discharged leaving Wallace seriously wounded. Treacy, also injured with a bullet wound to the neck, is further injured along with other Volunteers when another RIC Officer, in a dazed state, Constable Reilly fires indiscriminately at the train from the platform. Dan Breen returns fire causing Reilly to retreat, but not before Breen is hit in the chest. Amidst the chaos, the Volunteers flee. The Volunteers rendezvous in a rural area outside Knocklong where Treacy and Breen are treated by sympathetic doctors.

Ballinagoul, Ring, Waterford

An inquest is held into the death of Michael Walsh, who died two days ago following his shooting on 27th April. In his official statement, Constable McCarthy, the young officer who shot Walsh, stated that Walsh had approached the barracks and shouted ‘You must give up your arms, and come out and fight me’. However, Walsh said that he had raced to the Barracks after a row had broken out in the Draper’s Bar between two naval officers in the local licensed premises. When asked what he wanted by McCarthy, Walsh said ‘a row on the bridge’. McCarthy then shot him. The Jury found that McCarthy had deliberately shot Walsh who was unarmed. The RIC Representative sought to have the word ‘deliberately’ removed from the verdict but his request was struck out

Berlin

Friedrich Ebert, President of Germany, denounces peace terms on offer. He reiterates that Germany cannot sign the treaty in its current format and that President Wilson’s desertion of his own 14 Points may incur the eventual wrath of the German people

Armagh

Frank Walsh has a lengthy meeting with Cardinal Logue. Walsh speaks about his relationship with Cardinal Gibbons, and how he had attended the Philadelphia Conference. Logue blessed Walsh on his journey to Paris and in his efforts on behalf of Irish people

14th May 1919

Ship Street Barracks, Dublin

Two Court Martials are held one of Pierce Beasly M.P, and the other of Daniel Pius Walsh. When charges are put to Beasley he replied that he did not recognise the court, and that the British Army had no right to try an elected representative and soldier for the people of Ireland

Paris

Marshal Ferdinand Foch is given power to militarily ensure that terms of Peace Treaty are maintained, even if Germany refuse to sign. It is reported President Wilson, yesterday told Foch ‘take all military actions necessary in case the Huns do not sign treaty’

Killmallock

5.30pm

Sergeant Peter Wallace, who received a gunshot to the stomach in a struggle with Sean Treacy yesterday on board a train in Knocklong Train Station dies. He is the second fatality from the rescue of Sean Hogan and becomes the fifth IRIC Officer to die in War of Independence. All five were Irish-born

London

King George V telegrams Lord French expressing his sympathy on the shooting dead of RIC Officers in Knocklong. Lord French’s reply notes thanks from all of his Loyal Subjects in Ireland.

Westport

In echoes of the recent case of two Tipperary children being held by Crown Forces without charge for weeks, Michael McLaughlin, father of John, wins a case of habeus corpus in connection with John’s detention by police. John was detained by police on 3rd April in connection with the shooting dead of J.C Milling. Despite giving his whereabouts on the night, police had been trying to get McLaughlin to amend his statement

Newport, North Tipperary

A party of fully armed soldiers from Nenagh patrol the village of Newport during a meeting in the Town Hall where Joseph McDonagh, M.P, was making a speech. It was McDonagh’s second event of the day, having already spoken at Kilcommon

15th May 1919

Galbally, Limerick

The Archbishop of Cashel, John Harty, denounces shooting dead of 2 RIC Officers in Knocklong. He said it did not matter that British forces were subjugating Irish people, 2 wrongs did not make a right, he urged young men turn away from bloodshed

Portmarnock, North Dublin

Play commences in the Irish Professional Golf Championship.

Knocklong

Authorities scouring countryside as part of investigation into Train Station incident. There are persistent rumours 2 of the raiding party, namely Dan Breen and Sean Treacy, are dead. In reality the 2 men have fled to rural West Limerick & are recovering

Cork

Frederick Murray, a mason by trade, is arrested and charged in connection with the shooting of two RIC Officers in the early morning of 30th March on the Western Road. The incident was, at the time, the most serious in the city since hostilities began

Westport

20 men are prosecuted in Westport by the new R.M in connection with being in the town without military permits. The men, mainly farmers, all stated they were in town purchase agricultural items and were refused permits when applied. Fines ranged up to 5 s.

Arklow

7 young local men are court-martialled in connection with illegal church-gate collection outsideChurch on 23rd March. The men smoke cigarettes during proceedings & had their hats forcibly removed. They're remanded in Mountjoy after refusing recognise court. They are James Walsh, Thomas Quigley, John Keyes, Robert Tyrell, Denis Keogh, J.J Kavanagh, and William Cleary. Several women are ejected from proceedings as they jeered the presiding magistrate throughout

Dublin

The Irish Independent publishes editorial ‘The Next War’ commenting upon how ink is barely dry on text of document designed to bring about peace and the great powers are making agreements to defend each other when inevitable occurs in a number of years time

Paris

German Delegates in Paris demand that an international tribunal be set up immediately into the question of responsibility for the Great War. Anxieties are continuing to run high in the French capital that the Germans will not sign the Treaty. He speaks about a man who stayed awake for three days batting as rats as his wife lay dying in the bed beside him. He urges to government to begin a scheme of social housing to commence immediately

Westminster

Sir Maurice Dockrell, Unionist M.P for Dublin Rathmines, and only Dublin representative in the House of Commons, gives a speech on the deplorable conditions of housing in the slums of the city

16th May 1919

North Infirmary, Cork City

11pm

A doctor, doing his rounds, comes upon a group of 3 young men. When he asks upon whose authority are they here one of them produces a revolver and says ‘this is our authority!’. They take Timothy Hegarty, a patient there, away. Hegarty was one of the people that were injured during the bomb-making explosion in 33 Grattan Street on 28th April.

Oldtown, North Dublin

Officers raid the home of Mary Adrien and seize her bicycle, sewing machine and hatstand. It is in connection with a similar payment to that which found Frank Lawless relieved of his piano on 28th April

17th May 1919

Paris

The Echo de Paris newspaper reports that the Ottoman Empire will cease to exist as part of the terms of the Peace Treaty. In its place the independent state of Turkey will be formed. The rest of the region will be divided into;

  • Palestine - Under British jurisdiction
  • Mesopotamia -Under British jurisdiction
  • Armenia - Under American protection
  • Syria - Under French jurisdiction
  • Anatolian Frontier - Under French jurisdiction
  • Adalia - Under Italian jurisdiction

Ballinrobe, Mayo

The first Republican Court, independent of the British judicial system, convenes in Ballinrobe

18th May 1919

Dublin

The Sunday Independent publishes a cartoon of America viewing a Kinetoscope of events in Ireland which he describes as resembling the Western Front. All the while, Britain urges his ally that there is nothing exceptional to see in Ireland at present

Berlin

Phillip Scheidemann, German Chancellor, denounces the terms of the Paris Peace Treaty at a public meeting outside the Reichstag in Berlin

Dolphin's Barn, Dublin

Una Nic Con Midhe, a member of the Dolphin's Barn Cumann na mBan, is sentenced to a weeks imprisonment in connection with non-payment of a fine she was handed for selling Irish flags without a license

London

In response to a question in the House of Commons, Military Authorities confirm that the total number of British troops in Ireland is 58,362 (in 2019 there are 8,898 soldiers in Irish Defense Forces, 13,751 members of Gardaí, 6,700 members of PSNI)

19th May 1919

12.30am

Mid-Atlantic Ocean

Harry Hawker and Kenneth Mackenzie-Grieve, are several hours and 800 miles into their first earnest trans-Atlantic flight attempt. Hawker is piloting a 32-foot long Sopwith Atlantic biplane. Trouble arises, however, when the water coolant in their radiator begins to boil for a second time. For a number of hours Hawker tries to amend his flying pattern to clear up to boiling water, but to no avail. As dawn approached the pilots faced a difficult decision

6am

850 Miles of Irish Coast

Harry Hawker comes to the decision that with his water coolant boiling away, to continue his attempt to cross the Atlantic would damage the engine and lead to him crashing into the sea. He, along with co-pilot, Kenneth Mackenzie-Grieve, zig-zag the plane in an attempt to find any passing ship so that they could attempt a water landing and be rescued. Miraculously, amidst heavy sea swell, the shape of the SS Mary, and old Danish ship came into view. Hawker landed the plane 200 yards from the Mary, and the Danish crew, en-route from Norfolk to Aarhuus, pulled the pilots aboard. The old ship was, however,was ill equipped for communication and lacked a radio. News of the rescue would not be possible until the ship docked somewhere

3pm

Dublin

Harry Hawker was expected to reach Ireland by early afternoon, and without any communication or sign of the plane, fears grow that the plane is lost at sea.

19th May 1919

London

Yesterday's Sunday Pictorial story on Sinn Féin is laughably dismissed in Dublin. The paper claims, under a heading 'Oriental Sinn Féiners' that De Valera is inviting Egyptian and Indian nationalists to be members of Sinn Féin and Dáil Éireann. The official Sinn Féin reply is 'How can any reputable correspondent write such stuff? It is, what he calls himself, political tomfoolery, written and published for purpose of causing a new sensation'.

Berlin

Senior German officials continue to denounce the terms of the Peace Treaty on offer. President Ebert says 'a cry of indignation rings through Germany at the peace conditions - this product of our enemies' revengeful hysteria'

Knocklong

During a visitation from the Archbishop of Cashel, Rev. Dr. John Harty congratulated the people of Knocklong for having nothing to do with the recent shootings, denouncing the incident as an imported crime.

Westport

The most extensive search of the Mayo town to date takes place as military forces raid practically every building in the centre of the town.

Kingstown, Dublin

Crown Forces prohibit all future lectures in the local Sinn Féin hall. The talks, which proved to be very popular in the area, had been organised by the local Sinn Féin leader, Fred Allan.

Feenagh, Limerick

Military forces prohibit the holding of an aeridheacht in the village of Feenagh as they occupied the area. The people, not deterred, moved to a remote field in the parish and held their aeridheacht there instead

Tipperary

North Mon hurling team defeat Mount St. Joseph's of Roscrea in the second Harty Cup Final. Dr. Harty, presented the trophy to the winning captain. The young men from Cork won by 3-2 to 2-2.

20th May 1919

Paris

With one day left for the Germans to sign the Peace Treaty, there are indications that an extension will be sought as the Germans continue to refute most of the terms put before them. Marshal Foch continues to assure the press that Allied forces are ready to re-engage should they decide to pull back altogether from negotiations

Paris

Reuters correspondent in Paris indicates American officials are considering seeking permission for de Valera to visit Peace Conference and put to them Ireland’s case. The correspondent adds, however, that such permission is likely to be denied by the British

Mercy Hospital, Cork

Micheál Tobin, who was injured during the Grattan St. Bomb Making Factory explosion, dies of his wounds. After, Robert Byrne, who died in Limerick during a rescue attempt, he is the second Volunteer to die during the War of Independence

Cork Lunatic Asylum

John Moylan, a Volunteer from Newmarket, escapes custody. He had been transferred there from Cork County Jail to stay in solitary confinement following a breach of prison rules

Kilrush, Clare

Five men from the hinterlands of Kilrush are sentenced following their courtmartial on May 8th. Arthur O’Donnell receives 2 yrs with hard labour. John Grogan, Michael Mahony, Joe Sexton, Thomas Howard all receive 18 months with hard labour

Enniskerry, Wicklow

Alfred H. Anderson is arrested in connection with an unlawful assembly a few weeks ago in Sligo. He is removed to Bray under an armed escort

Rathdrum, Wicklow

John Walsh, Market Street, Rathdrum, is arrested on a charge of illegal drilling in Avoca a few weeks ago.

Dublin

Four members of the DMP, all in plain clothes, carry out an extensive search of the home of Frank Fahy, M.P for Galway. Fahy was absent, but his wife, recovering from a serious illness, is left shaken by the experience. They seize some Gaelic League magazines

Mallow

8 men are brought before court in connection with illegal collection made on 16th March. RIC Officers testify that when asked for a permit, one of men produced a ‘permit’ signed by Eamon de Valera. The RIC refused to recognise it and began to arrest the men. They are Thomas Riordan, Daniel Lyons, Patrick Moynahan, Philip Archdeacon, Jer Crowley, John O’Donnell (all Kanturk), Charles O’Reilly, Patrick Connors, Thomas Cronin (all Newmarket)

Dublin

All of main newspapers are full of reports on apparent disappearance of Harry Hawker and Kenneth Mackenzie-Grieve. The Irish papers focus on dismissing rumours that a wireless message received from the plane indicated it had crashed on the mouth of Shannon.

London

The Times also dedicates much space to mysterious disappearance of the plane. In reality, Hawker and Mackenzie-Grieve are safe and well aboard a Danish vessel without a radio ensuring that wild rumours as to the fate of Hawker’s plane grow for the entire week

Kingstown

Amid increased naval manoeuvres off the Irish coast, the HMS Enchantress, with the First Lord of the Admiralty, Walter H. Long, aboard docks in Kingstown

21st May 1919

Dublin

There remains no news on fate of Harry Hawker’s attempt to cross Atlantic. Some speculation surrounds the possibility that the plane crashed and the pilots could have been picked up by any of the 50 Scandinavian fishing vessels in the area without a radio. In fact, this is exactly what happened and the pilots remain safe and well aboard a Danish trawler that has changed course for the Outer Hebrides

Berlin

Marshal Foch’s insistence that Allied forces ‘were ready’ should Germany not sign the Peace Treaty has enraged people in German capital. To add to this opponents of the fragile government are openly discussing seizing power adding to the tension in the city

Dublin

The case of the Westport boy, John McLoughlin, in police custody once again comes before a judge. One week ago, the boy’s father, John, a labourer from outside Westport, had won a case of habeas corpus for the child to be returned. Sergeant Matheson, appearing for the Crown, stated that they did not return the boy to his home after questioning, as they felt that he would not be safe given the ‘excitement that prevailed in Westport’, and that he would be in danger as he had been in police questioning. They were now anxious for the boy to be returned to his home. The judge asked that the boy be brought before court tomorrow so that the case could be finally settled.

Dublin

The bakers of Dublin are threatening to go on strike, leaving the city without bread from Saturday on. They demand a 44 hour working week, and a wage in the region of 79s. to 95s.

Versailles

Edith Wilson, President Wilson’s wife, becomes the first First Lady to fly in a plane, as reported in a Reuter’s Telegram. She flew over the district of Versailles and was said to be delighted with the event. Her flight pre-dates, by a number of decades, FDR, the first sitting president to fly in a plane

Bansha, Tipperary

Military authorities focus their attentions upon the rural area of Bansha in their search for Breen, Treacy, Robinson, and Hogan. They ask farmers if ‘any strangers’ had been on their property in recent days

Dublin

Claims first reported on on 29th April that Sinn Féin were to receive half a billion roubles from the Soviet Council of People's Commissars, headed by Vladimir Lenin, are finally officially denied. Sinn Féin rep says they have nothing in common with the Bolsheviks and are being sustain by donations from the Irish people

Paris

It is announced that the Germans have been granted an extension to sign the Peace Treaty. They now have until 29th May

21st May 1919

Kilmallock Courthouse

The inquests into the deaths of Constable Enright, and Sergeant Wallace, who both died during the Knocklong Ambush, are held in Kilmallock Courthouse. The building was thronged with interested parties as proceedings opened. In both cases, the jury found that the men had died from shock and hemorrhage caused by gunshot wounds from persons unknown. Mr. McClean, D.I in Bruff acted for the police and A.H Morgan acted as solicitor for family of Sergeant Wallace. Dr. M.R Cleary, of Hospital, held the inquest into Sergeant Wallace’s death. Dr. J.F Macnamara and Dr. William P. Lee carried out the post mortems on the two men. Dr. P.J Cleary, of Kilmallock held the inquest into Constable Enright’s death. Miss Jeanie Gallagher was a key witness in proceedings as she was in the same carriage as the affray during which Sean Hogan escaped from police and multiple shots were fired

Cork

The popularity of handball in the Cork area is shown in these photos printed in the Cork Examiner showing large crowds in attendance at the Cork Junior and Senior handball finals. The senior competitors are (below far right to left) C.J Clarke (Fermoy) and B. O’Driscoll (Mallow). The Junior competitors are D. Quinlan and J.J Barrett.

Mercy Hospital, Cork

The body of Volunteer Micheál Tobin is removed from Mercy Hospital below and is witnessed by thousands of Cork people. He is removed to St. Peter and Paul’s Church. The cortege is led by local Volunteers and Cumann na mBan.

22nd May 1919

Paris

News breaks of resignation of 9 members of American Delegation in protest at terms of Peace Treaty. They feel that peace ought to have been secured on basis of Wilson’s 14 points. Instead, they feel that terms are feeding into a European Imperialist agenda. Among resignees is William Bullitt. Part of Bullitt’s reasoning for resigning was failure of his mission to meet with Bolshevik leader, Vladimir Lenin. In one of histories great what-could-have-been scenarios, the Russians committed to honouring the debt of Tsarist Russia and pursue a policy of cooperation with the west. The endeavour failed, however, following pressure from the British. They held out hope that the Whites would win Civil War. Lloyd George’s Secretary for War, Winston Churchill was an anti-communist & exerted most pressure on pulling of support for Bullitt mission.

23rd May 1919

Paris

Count Ulrich von Brockdorff-Rantzau, one of the main German delegates at the Peace Conference, states that if they signed the Peace Treaty, they would be signing the death warrant of millions of Germans. The Allied delegates reply that the terms of the Treaty are warranted givenexamples of German aggression and destruction during the War such as the destruction of the coal fields of Northern France and the attacks on shipping by U-Boats

Dublin

The threatened strike by Dublin bakers is called off as they agree to enter arbitration process

24th May 1919

Kingstown

The HMS Enchantress, with First Lord of the Admiralty, Walter H. Long aboard, is visited by Lord French and Ian Macpherson. The increased naval activity on Irish Coast is picked up upon by the British Press who openly discuss the need to repress Sinn Féin.

London

The Morning Post publishes comments from the Lord Chancellor, Lord Birkenhead (below); 'The mind of England was inflexible, wrongdoing and crime would be put down with an iron hand'. He adds that Ireland is in a state of open rebellion against British rule

Lille

In a large munitions factory near Lille, a fire took hold and the explosives began to ignite. Explosions raged for several hours causing many casualties. It is reported that among the dead are Chinese labourers

31 Richmond Ave., Fairview, Dublin

The home of Kathleen Clarke is raided by DMP officers. The house searched but nothing taken away. Clarke, still recovering from an illness she contracted in Holloway Prison, was in house with her 3 children & Constance Markievicz

Terenure

As part of 'Ultan's Week’, a fundraising Camogie game took place between @UCDcamogie against Gaelic League team. The publicity it received made it possible the highest profile camogie game to date. St. Ultan's Hospital for infants had been set up a few weeks earlier by Kathleen Lynn and Madeleine ffrench-Mullen to address poor maternity conditions in the city. St. Ultan's week was a multi-faceted fundraising initiative including a full programme in the Abbey.

Queenstown, Cork

A flotilla of 8 Royal Naval destroyers return to port after searching west coast for any sign of Hawker and missing plane. They went out 300 miles from Irish coast in all directions to no avail. Hope is all but lost of discovering the men alive

Dublin

The Sunday Independent cartoonist gives his thoughts on the perception that the Royal Navy are not doing enough in their search for Hawker.

Washington

American newspapers, reporting on protests in Germany over the Peace Conference, surmise that the Germans are merely posturing and will be forced to sign the Treaty very soon. It is thought the protests are designed to gain sympathy from Allied states

25th May 1919

Butt of Lewis Lighthouse, Lewis, Outer Hebrides, Scotland

A ship gives a visual signal to the lighthouse; 'Saved hands, Sopworth Aeroplane'

The Lighthouse Keeper, in disbelief, replies 'Is it Hawker?'

The reply from the ship at sea was, 'Yes'

2 miles off Lewis Coast

The Royal Navy Destroyer, HMS Woolston, sails to the Danish vessel, Mary, and brings aboard Harry Hawker and Kenneth Mackenzie Grieve. Once aboard, Admiralty announces rescue of the two to the press amidst great public celebration

Paris

Representatives of Allied forces reiterate the attitude of the American press and state that the Germans will sign a Treaty by June 15th

Hellfire Club, Dublin Mountains

One of Dublin's most unusual organisations, The Pirates, said to be mainly comprised of professionals, make their annual 'cruise' to the Hellfire Club.

Scapa Flow, Scotland

Hawker and Grieve are transferred to another vessel, the HMS Revenge, to be brought ashore in Thurso, where a mass of journalists await. Aboard the Revenge, Hawker announces he would give no interviews until he spoke with the Daily Mail Since 1906, the pioneering age of aviation received a financial impetus from an unlikely source; the Daily Mail newspaper, and its proprietor, Chapelizod-born Alfred Harmsworth, Lord Northcliffe. He offered £10,000 for the first non-stop transatlantic flight. The most famous prize that had been successfully claimed in full to this point was of £10,000 awarded to French pilot Louis Paulhan, the first man to fly from London to Manchester. A slew of pilots were vying for another £10,000 on offer for the first transatlantic flight in 1919.

Thurso, Scotland

It is announced that the Daily Mail will award Hawker and Grieve £5,000 for their efforts in trying to cross the Atlantic. It is half the prize on offer for a successful crossing, but Lord Northcliffe recognised their brave efforts nonetheless

Fertagh, Moynalty, Meath

John Halton, a young farmer, is shot at from behind a fence near his home. Although wounded, he will recover. It is reported that Halton was recently involved in an issue with Moybologue Hibernian Hall, of which he is a trustee

Cullen, Millstreet

An aeridheacht is proclaimed by the military who occupy the area. The locals take themselves to Glashakinleen, a few miles away, and hold their festivities their instead unbothered by unsuspecting military

Red Square, Moscow

Vladimir Lenin gives a speech in Red Square celebrating 'the universal military training of the working people'. He concludes his speech by shouting 'Long live the world communist revolution!'

26th May 1919

St. John's, Newfoundland, Canada

News reaches St. John's at midnight of the rescue of Hawker and Grieve. There are great celebrations in the town in which their journey began. Locals urge the Royal Navy to patrol future transatlantic attempts more closely

New York

New York's only weekend afternoon newspaper reportedly sold out in minutes as people celebrated news of Hawker's rescue. The transatlantic race has been main news for several weeks as the public are invested in seeing who will be the first to cross Atlantic

Buckingham Palace, London

After having issues a telegram to the families of Hawker and Grieve a few days ago offering his sympathy, the Kind issues a new telegram congratulating families on bravery of their husband/son during their flight almost reaching Ireland

Paris

It is announced that 373,351 graves have been identified and registered around the battlefields of France as the clean up operation from four years of war continues. It is expected there are several thousand more graves to be registered

Belfast

Amidst an ongoing split in Ulster Unionism, that is threatening the integrity of Party, a by-election in East Antrim takes place. The leading candidates are William Moore (Carson Supporter) and George Hanna (Independent Orangeman). Race is too tight to call

Paris

William Bullitt, who resigned from the American delegation at Peace Conference a few days ago, leads growing calls for America not to join the League of Nations, blasting the proto-organisation as useless to intervene in international disputes

London

The Dublin correspondent of the Daily Herald reports that authorities in Dublin Castle have convinced the Government to proclaim Sinn Féin as illegal organisation. The recent docking of the First Lord of the Admiralty in Dublin is seen as a sign of this move

Parliament Square, London

Fierce rioting breaks out in front of parliament when recently discharged soldiers and sailors march in protest at the huge levels of unemployment among men that have returned from the war. They feel abandoned by the country they fought for

Khyber Pass, Afghanistan

As fighting continues between British troops & Afghan fighters, the Commander of Afghans writes 'British Officers commenced unlawful war without any declaration of war on any side'. He adds bombs from aeroplanes have caused heavy casualties

London

News emerges that Lord Northcliffe, Daily Mail owner, offered to split his £10,000 prize between Mrs. Hawker and Mrs. Grieve when is appeared they were lost at sea. However, Mrs. Hawker refused, convinced as she was that her husband was in fact alive.

Maryborough

A 'Cinemotor' arrives in the Laois town and shows some comedies for a crowd in the Town Hall. The travelling operation is run by a group of ladies and gentlemen 'thrift' advisors. They are keen to point out that they are not government appointed. It appears that they merely travel around the country advising people on how to save money. They advise people to cease buying children sweets and put the few pennies aside for future investment. An odd, albeit intriguing, means of financial advising 100 years ago today

Abbeyleix, Queen's County

An inquest is held into the death of 80 year old Richard Butler of Ballinakill, who was run over by a military car on Abbeyleix's Main Street. The evidence heard that an R.A.F Officer driving through the town slowly struck the elderly man

Moneygall

Jeremiah Collison returns home after a short stint in prison for illegal drilling. He receives a hearty welcome home from his friends and neighbours

Kilkenny

W.T Cosgrave receives the freedom of Kilkenny city from the mayor, Peter de Loughry. Speakers at the reception included Constance Markievicz andFr. O'Flanagan before several thousand appreciative Sinn Féin supporters

London

Hawker and Grieve arrive into King's Cross Station from Edinburgh. They are greeted by thousands of well wishers in one of the greatest outpourings of joy in the city since end of war. Below shows the two men (centre) struggling to get through the great crowd.

27th May 1919

Edinburgh

Hawker and Grieve arrive into Edinburgh. Hawker, the more recognised of the 2, was carried upon the shoulders of the crowd to the Station Hotel for breakfast. Grieve managed to quietly slip away and enter by a side door. They later departed for London

134 Foley Street, Dublin

The home of Phil Shanahan, M.P, is raided by DMP Officers. It is believed they were searching for arms, but left with nothing

New York

Dr. Patrick McCartan, M.P, James MacDermott, and Liam Mellowes are fined $50 for attempting to pass as American sailors in an attempt to go from the USA to Britain and/or Ireland. Michael F. Doyle, Casement's solicitor in 1916, defended the men

Jalalabad, Afghanistan

British planes bomb the palace of the Emir of Afghanistan, Amanullah Khan. Separately, a plane dropped 4 bombs atop of 2,000 Afghan troops that were on military parade. The barracks into which they sought shelter was next bombed

Java, Indonesia

The devastation caused by the eruption of Kelud Volcano three weeks earlier becomes clear. The eruption instantly boiled the lake in the crater of volcano, and subsequent mud flow killed thousands

Paris

Robert Lansing, American Secretary of State, tells Frank Walsh that there is no prospect of De Valera, Griffith, and/or Count Plunkett receiving passports to allow him to travel to Paris to present Ireland's case at the Peace Conference.

Westminster

The Local Government (Ireland) Bill, which will legislate for application of P.R, passes its third reading in the House of Commons. It is vigorously opposed by both shades of Irish representation, by Edward Carson and Joseph Devlin

Thomastown, Kilkenny

7 members of the local Sinn Féin club are summoned to court over the illegal collection of money for the Dáil Éireann Self Determination fund. They are to appear in court in one week

The seven men are Denis Murphy, Seamus McKenna, Daniel Fitzgerald (all Thomastown), William Forristal (Jerpoint), Thomas Ryan (Bonnybrook), Michael Callanan (Ballylowra), James Ryan (Castlegarden)

Dublin

A meeting to be held in the Mansion House is prohibited. The meeting was to protest the imprisonment of James Larkin's brother, Peter, in Australia, along with 11 others in connection with anti-conscription protests there a few months ago

28th May 1919

Paris

The Germans' opposition to the Peace Treaty terms are summarised in a telegram from Berlin; 'A dying philosophy of imperialist and capitalist tendencies is here celebrating its last terrible triumph'. They issue 8 counter proposals

St. John's, Newfoundland

A vessel docking in St. John's indicates that it was radio'd in open ocean by an American ship, the Lake Charleville, who indicated that they had picked up Hawker's plane and were bringing it to Britain among their cargo. All mails are saved

London

In one of the worst outbreaks of its kind, race riots break out in London's East End. Reports suggest that a great array of weapons were used in a prolonged battle between white and black residents in the Hoxton area

London

The Daily Mail continue to push idea to the British Public that all out rebellion is about to commence in Ireland and the government should act. Under a heading 'The next Rebellion in Ireland' an anonymous source writes about how the Irish public are afraid

Maginstown, Cahir, Tipperary

Nicholas Ryan, County Councillor, is approached by 4 men armed with revolvers at his home. Ryan escapes and reaches Clonmel to report the incident. He believes he is being intimidated into not declaring support for a new rate collector

Cork

8 prisoners are released from Cork Prison. They are all released on health grounds, and all of them have recently spent time in solitary confinement. See next tweet for details of released persons. Daniel Healy (Queenstown), George Lenihan (Dungarvan), Michael Foley (Eyeries), Timothy Cronin (Kerry), Thomas Reidy (Carrick-on-Suir), William Roche (Kerry), Art O'Donnell (Clare), Thomas O'Connor (Milltown), Partick Casey (Cashel), and Patrick Philips (Cashel)

London

Punch Magazine has its say upon the widely held belief that Germany, for all its complaints and posturing, will be forced to sign Peace Treaty regardless and is merely attempting to show its own people its reluctance to do so.

29th May 1919

Dublin

At a meeting of @DublinPortCo the issue of the amount of traffic in the city is discussed. It is proposed that the best way to overcome this was to build a subway underneath the Liffey to accommodate underground transit of commuters

Ireland

The island basks in a heat-wave. There as been no rain in Dublin for three weeks as a drought begins to take hold in Leinster

Ballsbridge, Dublin

It is announced that, for the first time since 1913, the Dublin Horse Show will take place on the grounds of the Royal Dublin Society. The Show will begin on 10th June

Westminster

Charles Barrie, M.P Banffshire, makes a strange claim in parliament that Ireland is now home to Yiddish speaking Jews that were travelling country as pedlars. Barrie's claims are dimissed on basis that Jewish community in Ireland were no threat at all

St. Joseph's Industrial School, Greenmount, Cork

Members of Corporation are invited to school, the only one run by Presentation Brothers. They are invited to observe the excellent education the boys are receiving in carpentry and physical activity. Greenmount would go on to become one of the most harrowing institutes in Ireland. The 2009 Ryan Report concluded that Greenmount 'residents were physically, emotionally and sexually abused by members of staff.

Naas

After lengthy discussions in the town among traders into the adherence of a weekly half-holiday every Thursday, after one week, the initiative collapses as most businesses remain open on Thursday afternoon

Killaloe

Hodgin's Circus visits the Clare side of the Shannon for a performance. One of the circus performers, a young girl minding horses, received a kick from a horse to the head. She is removed to Limerick Hospital where she dies of her injuries

30th May 1919

Amiens St. Train Station, Dublin

Laurence Ginnell M.P, is arrested as he alights train from Belfast. He had been accompanying home 5 prisoners that had been released from HMP Crumlin Road. It is believed it is in connection with a speech he made recently in Athlone

O'Connell Street, Dublin

The Irish Independent reports that of the 190 buildings that were destroyed three years ago during the Easter Rising, 58 have been re-built, 68 are still under construction, with 64 yet to begin

Dublin

Piaras Béaslaí, M.P for East Kerry, who was court-martialed a few weeks ago in connection with a speech made in Edend

31st May 1919

Belfast

17 year old Thomas Hayes, from Cork, who was released from prison, is rearrested as he punches a police man. He refused to walk to court, and was carried, and was wrestled to the ground during proceedings as he shouted 'Up the rebels, up Sinn Féin!'

London

The latest suspect article in a British paper comes from the National News which claims that the Bolsheviks and Sinn Féin are in cahoots 'to undermine the foundations of society'. The author of the piece is listed as a 'Special Investigator'

Dublin

The nurses in the new St. Ultan's continue their work despite a lack of funds. Funds raised during the recent St. Ultan's Week, whilst successful, need to be added to continue their work.

Belfast

17 year old Thomas Hayes, from Cork, who was released from prison, is rearrested as he punches a police man. He refused to walk to court, and was carried, and was wrestled to the ground during proceedings as he shouted 'Up the rebels, up Sinn Féin!'

1st June 1919

Greystones

Volunteer Joe Hyland races from Dublin to the De Valera home in Greystones where there is a small party ongoing for Sinéad's 41st birthday. Hyland tells De Valera plans were in place for his passage to America and that he must leave with him immediately

New York

Ruth Law (below) announces that she will join the race to become the first person to fly across the Atlantic solo. She is the most high profile aviatrix in America

Clonaheen, Rosenallis, Queen's County

An aeridheacht is held focusing on the Irish language. Father Dan Collier, Camross, tells the attendees that without the language, we are nothing - 'gan teanga, gan tír'. Collier was one a leading Irish Language enthusiast

Larch Hill, Monasterevan

A May Pole is erected in Larch Hill. The site was donated by Mr. Joseph Somers. Large crowds flocked to the formal opening on Whitsunday

Plymouth

It is announced that the first complete crossing of the Atlantic by an aeroplane has been successfully completed. The NC4 seaplane left Newfoundland and made its way across the Atlantic via Azores and Lisbon https://t.co/gNPKqjZxZC

Dublin

J.J Barnes (below) wins the 25 Miles Cycling GAA Race. Barnes is one of Ireland's elite cyclists and has won several championships and time trials. Cycling is one of the most important aspects of the GAA along with hurling, football, handball, and athletics. https://t.co/DYtLKBibHS

Strokestown

Martin P.R O'Connor is sentenced to three months imprisonment with hard labour for having three bullets in a pocket, a postcard 'of a threatening nature' and a Volunteer membership card

Coachford, Cork

An aeridheacht due to be held in the town is banned. Hanna Sheehy Skeffington and Tomas McSwiney were due to speak at the event. The organisers instead split the event in two and hold successful aeridheachts in nearby Crookstown and Clonmoyle

Dublin

J.J Barnes (below) wins the 25 Miles Cycling GAA Race. Barnes is one of Ireland's elite cyclists and has won several championships and time trials. Cycling is one of the most important aspects of the GAA along with hurling, football, handball, and athletics. https://t.co/DYtLKBibHS

Matchy, Iniscarra, Cork

A Gaelic athletics meeting is stopped by military. The competitors were ready to begin when troops arrived and ordered the field to be cleared. The Sports Committed passed a resolution condemning the military's mean-spirited heavy handedness

Toughiltra, South Armagh

RIC Officers discover a large cache of weapons and ammo in the thatch of a disused outhouse. Many of the weapons were among those stolen from the home of the Earl of Arran in Ravesdale House a few weeks ago

Kingstown

De Valera boards a ship bound for Britain. DMP officials, who were constantly trailing him for the past several weeks note that he has bought a return ticket to Manchester and allow him to proceed unheeded in anticipation of his return to Ireland

Queenstown, Cork

As part of American Memorial Day, a service is held (below) at the graves of the victims of the Lusitania sinking 4 years ago. 169 of the 289 bodies that were recovered are buried there in three large graves. 909 bodies were never recovered https://t.co/KawH7JCMpi

New York

On the same day that De Valera begins his journey to the city, the New York Times publishes a front page article dicussing how Frank Walsh's assertion that the American people recognised the Irish State had unjustly hastened hopes of a solution in Paris https://t.co/5vHtTNsE9h

Mohill

James Dolan, M.P for Leitrim, makes his first visit to his consituency since his release from prison. He is greeted by a huge crowd and a marching band.

San Giovanni Rotondo, Apulia, ItalyA special Daily Chronicle correspondent rep

orts on a mysterious young Franciscan friar who is said to have stigmata and is curing people of disease and ailments without medical explanation. His name is Padre Pio da Puetralcina https://t.co/JDkUwp93YT

2nd June 1919

London

Police strike is averted in Britain as Union agree postpone as officials consider ultimatum. Police officers voted 44,539 to 4,324 to go on strike. The Police Commissioner, Neville Macready stated any officer not presenting themselves for work would be fired

London

Police strike is averted in Britain as Union agree postpone as officials consider ultimatum. Police officers voted 44,539 to 4,324 to go on strike. The Police Commissioner, Neville Macready stated any officer not presenting themselves for work would be fired https://t.co/cEwja0SKAO

New York

In an article for the New York American, Herbert Asquith (below), former PM, writes 'The Irish have been too long denied the right to control their destiny and development.' He hints that Home Rule option needs to be explored once more https://t.co/laj5ebd102

Portmarnock, North Dublin

The Irish Ladies Golf Championship commences in the prestigious Dublin course. Below is last year's winner, Miss Janet Jackson, preparing for her first round. Last year's runner-up, R. Meldon, is pictured getting out of a bunker https://t.co/2OlH6iVrae

Janet Jackson (far right below) ends up winning the tournament for the third year in a row https://t.co/V7YDARkJzh

London

Marconi Wireless telegraphy company is suing British postal service for breach of contract. They had signed a deal for exclusive trans-Atlantic telegraphy. However, wireless technology has taken off over past two years and the need for wired comms has dropped

Liverpool

The Liverpool head of the IRB, and man that helped smuggle De Valera out of Britain upon his escape from Lincoln, Neil Kerr, is tasked with organising his passage to America. He kits him out in naval gear, albeit his height made him look unusual. Kerr was reluctant to hand over De Valeragiven how odd he looked and the possibility of him standing out in a group of hundreds of hunched and shaken Canadian soldiers. However, time was of the essence so he handed him over to Barney Downs, bosun of the S.S Lapland

Dublin

The first two compensation pay-outs to families of police killed in action in Ireland are made. Wife of Constable O'Brien, killed in Limerick, received £1,200. Father of Const. Enright, killed in Knocklong, received £455

Westport

The bodies of 2 naval officers that drowned off Westport coast are recovered. They were part of crew that was patrolling the area in connection with the special military restrictions. They are first naval officers to die as indirect result of War of Independence

Liverpool Port

The 'Lapland' prepares to depart port. Her destination New York, via Halifax. It was chartered to carry demobilised Canadian troops back home. The bosun of the ship was Barney Downs, and he would have main responsibility for De Valera's safe passage. As Downs and De Valera board the Lapland, Downs notices several detectives on deck. Fearing the worst, Downs asks the First Officer what is happening. He is relieved when told to that they are searching for soldier that killed a woman the night before. Downs brings De Valera down to the bottom of the ship and places him inside an empty tank. De Valera only has an overcoat, with a cheese sandwich in each pocket. The Lapland leaves the port and sails out into the Irish Sea on its nine day voyage

Terryglass, Tipperary

As the heat wave continues, temperatures in the sunshine reach 36 degrees celsius, and into the high 20s in the shade

United States

8 parcel bombs are detonated, almost simultaneously, by anarchists linked to Luigi Galleani. Some of the targets included the Mayor of Cleveland and a Federal Judge in Pittsburgh https://t.co/hx5bU8MoPR. The most significant bomb, and one that would change the course of American history, was intended for the Attorney General, A. Mitchell Palmer (below). Carlo Valdinoci, the anarchist that was planting bomb, died when it exploded prematurely just outside Mitchell's home (below) https://t.co/23hWqeRqB2. The American Assistant Secretary of the Navy Franklin Delano Roosevelt, and his wife Eleanor (below in 1919), were neighbours of Palmer and had walked passed the scene moments before the explosion. Body parts belonging to the anarchist landed on their doorstep https://t.co/xVFv9yPfsJ. In order to investigate the bombings, Palmer formed a special team within the BI (Bureau of Investigation) to investigate anarchists in America to assess their threat. Appointed to head the team was a 24 year old Justice Department lawyer, J. Edgar Hoover https://t.co/u0tzjPUY44

Maryborough

The Queen's County RIC County Inspector files his Monthly Report for May 1919 for Dublin Castle. He states that the 'novelty' of the Sinn Féin movement is wearing off and apathy seems to be setting in in the midlands county

Charles Yeldham adds, however, that trade unionism in the district was rising and the ITGWU was gaining increasing momentum

Nenagh

The RIC County Inspector for North Tipperary files his report for May 1919. He opens the report by stating that things are 'very unsatisfactory and give cause for serious anxiety'. https://t.co/SLvfErvlJd. He notes that notices are beginning to appear around the district asking people to shun the police, citing Sergeant Wallace, who died in Knocklong, as an example. The police in Thurles are extremely anxious and fear that an attack upon them is imminent. He states that Sinn Féin now dominates everything and has taken over all other bodies such as the GAA, the AIL, the Volunteers, and even the ITGWU. Referring to Knocklong he says that it has been seen as a victory and he sees 'Knocklong aboo (sic)' chalked on walls all over

SS Lapland, Western Edge of the Celtic Sea

The Lapland (below) is several hours out of Liverpool en-route across the Atlantic. The ship was built in Belfast 11 years earlier. She had brought the surviving crew of the Titanic back to Britain 7 years ago https://t.co/z0NzWEJXYr. Barney Downs checks on his guest in the empty tank. De Valera is okay, albeit rats had eaten his sandwiches out of his pockets. Downs gives him a flashlight to frighten away the rats as more comfortable quarters are sought

3rd June 1919

Howth

At a meeting of Howth Urban Council, a grave digger in Kilbarrack is complaining that the death-rate in the locality has fallen to such an extent that he cannot make a living any more!

London

Herbert Asquith continues to publicly discuss Ireland. This time, he rounds on Lord French and dismisses his recent columns in newspapers outlining his experiences of the War, and says he should focus on the Irish situation instead https://t.co/TuZlPJCI9c

New York

Michael J. Ryan, part of the Irish American delegation, that had visited Ireland, and the Paris Peace Conference has arrived back in the United States. Edward Dunne and Frank Walsh remain in Paris

Paris

Frank Walsh and Edward Dunner present their report on the condition of Ireland following their recent visit to the Paris Peace Conference

Paris

The Austrian Chancellor, when handed terms of Treaty states 'We understand that we are at your mercy, but beg you in the name of humanity to give us a peace on the lines of President Wilson's principles, which will permit of our living in security.'. The Treaty is said to formally end the existence of the Austrian Empire leaving it without a coast, a navy, an air force and reduces its size and population.

Royal Dublin Society, Dublin

200 demobilised soldiers are busy reconstructing RDS for the Spring Show. Below shows them constructing perimeter walls and fences for horse jumping. The Horse Show has been pushed back to August and they hope it will be ready for both https://t.co/jwC1BjI7gd

North Wall, Dublin

An ominous sign in Dublin Port as several tanks are unloaded off a ship from Dunkirk. There are also reports of several heavy gun carriages being assembled there for distribution across Ireland

Killarney

A large body of soldiers enter the town and proceed to arrest several members of the local Cumann na mBan in their homes. They are all brought to an open court and charged with collecting money without a permit. The Killarney women are Miss Peggy Cahill, Miss Kate Breen, Miss Bridget Gleeson, Miss Lizzie Foley, Miss Henrietta Woods. After refusing to recognise the court they are detained in local barracks. As they are led out (below scene), the angry crowd is dispersed by soldiers https://t.co/Vxi3yrQXJR .

Strokestown, Roscommon

The drapery and goods store belonging to the Sharkey Sisters is raided by military. Thousands of pounds worth of drapery and jewellery is taken away under auspices of DORA legislation. They are pictured below with their supporters https://t.co/bfwp7RhopT Una Sharkey was Office in Command of the North Roscommon Brigade, Cuman na mBán and along with her sister, Lena, who she ran the shop with, she sold various republican pieces of literature which infuriated the local RIC, leading to the raid which forced closure of the shop

Bray

An amusing scene as 20 shop assistants picket the grocery store of Mr. Bolger. The shop owners in Bray had agreed that they would close at 6pm every day. However, Bolger insists on remaining open until 11pm. The picket is encouraging people to shop elsewhere

New York

The New York Times front page outlines the events of the previous day and the anarchist parcel bombs across the country https://t.co/nXNh3QvFMa

S.S Lapland, Atlantic Ocean

'Frisco' Kennedy, Lamp Trimmer of the ship, was helping Downs in getting De Valera to America. Downs told Frisco that De Valera had killed a policeman and they needed to get him out of Ireland. Frisco and Dev became good friends. De Valera ended up spending most of his time with the elderly Frisco in the Lamp Room. Nobody else was allowed into the Lamp Room, and Downs believed that Frisco's reputation as a 'character' would help to conceal their precious cargo

4th June 1919

North Wall, Dublin

Following yesterday's reports of heavy artillery being landed into Ireland direct from Dunkirk, the steam liner, Puma, docks with men of the Scottish Rifles, horses and equipment alighting and making their way for the Curragh

Pittsburgh

As arrests continue in connection with anarchist bombings, Irish man, John Johnson, is among those arrested. When surrounded by detectives, he produced a revolver. One quick thinking detective moved just in time so that a bullet passed through his sleeve

Tipperary

There is intense military activity in the South Tipperary region. It is believed it is in connection with their investigations in the Knocklong Ambush. Heliographs are used to send signals and special military racing pigeons are used to dispatch messages

Liverpool

As racial tensions in Liverpool continue to rise, the powder keg that would unleash a wave of violence is ignited. 2 Danish sailors approach John Johnson, a black labourer, and ask him for a cigarette. Johnson refuses and is stabbed twice in the face

5th June 1919

Vienna

There is resigned indignation in the Austrian capital at the terms being placed upon them in the Peace Conference. Despite the opposition to the terms, there is a sense that they have no choice but to sign

Tulla, Clare

Michael Corbett and Thomas Powell are making their way to the bog when they come across a person on the road. They are dressed as a woman, but are evidently not. He pulls a revolver from his dress and fires at the two men, seriously wounding them both. It is reported that the local school teacher retired and appointed his son in his place. The son had recently come home from the Front. Several locals opposed this appointment and told people not to send their children to the school. Corbett and Powell ignored this order...

Dundalk

A large body of military and police enter the town of Dundalk and block all entrances to the town. A commercial traveller that failed to answer questions from a sentry is shot in the thigh. He loses a great quantity of blood and his condition is grave

Mansion House

A concert in honour of the birthday of James Connolly, who was executed three years ago for his part in the Easter Rising is prohibited by military. There is a keen sense of disappointment, but also rumours that organisers will press ahead regardless

4pm

Dawson Street, Dublin

DMP and Military Officials block the entrances to Dawson Street at the St. Stephen's Green end and the Nassau Street end. Officers are under the command of Inspector Willoughby https://t.co/iNR4v6x26R

6pm

Dawson Street, Dublin

William O'Brien and Tom Johnston pass through the blockades and enter the Mansion House. Inspector McGarry follows them and asks does he know that the concert has been banned. O'Brien says someone in plain clothes told him so

S.S Lapland, Atlantic Ocean

De Valera becomes violently seasick as the Lapland hits some high seas on way to America. Frisco Kennedy opens crate of brandy bound for Cuba and commandeers bottle. Some brandy and Bovril settles De Valera for rest of journey to New York

Allahoise, Castledermot, Carlow

Over 2,000 people attend an aeridheacht. Amidst beautiful sunshine, it was reportedly the largest such event to ever take place in County Carlow

7.30pm

Mansion House, Dublin

A group of people enter the Mansion House by a back entrance only to find the Round Room locked. The military then moved on the Mansion House and locked the gates, locking those who had entered the back way inside. Tensions were now rising as groups of people began to scale the gate from the inside to demand to know what was happening. Artistes turning up to the concert are roughly turned away by the military including Casey, The Fiddle Player, and Maud Gonne McBride

8pm

Dawson Street, Dublin

After a tense half hour, people began to move away. A group of people congregate at corner of Dawson St. and Stephen's Green. Police tried to move them along when the got into a scuffle with one man. Then, a shot rang out in the Dublin air. Up to six more shots ring out as the crowd scatter and the police begin to chase three men down Grafton Street to no avail. 6 people are wounded, four policemen and two civilians - none too seriously. It is the most serious incident in City Centre of War of Independence thus far

Liverpool

Eight friends of John Johnson, the black man that was stabbed last night by 2 Danish sailors, return to the bar where the attack took place. The pour drinks over a group of Danes and attack them with sticks, iron bars, razors and knives. The Danes were taken to hospital, one of them was seriously injured. A party of police moved to Upper Pitt Street where black seamen lived in boarding houses. They were greeted by a mob of angry white sailors keen to enter the area and find the 8 men that had attacked the Danes. The police moved in and they were resisted by the black sailors who attacked them with sticks and iron bars. A revolver was then produced and a police man was shot in the face. Another was shot in the neck, and another had his face slashed as violence got out of control. Fearing for his life, 24 year old Charles Wootton, a ship fireman from Bermuda, fled his home and ran in direction of the docks. The police gave chase, as did the mob behind them. Once they caught up with him, Wootton was tossed into the Mersey and the mob hurled stones at him. Charles Wootton is killed by the stones that are thrown at him whilst he swam for his life in the Mersey river. The night of bloodshed was one of a number of serious race riots in Britain in 1919

Sunnybank, Bray

2 RIC Officers, who were drinking in Harrison's Pub exit and meet a crowd of people. After verbals are exchanged the RIC Officers produce their batons and attack the crowd. One man, John Harold, Enniskerry, is seriously wounded

6th June 1919

US Capitol, Washington D.C

The Senate of the United States discusses at length a resolution calling on the American delegates in Paris to secure Sinn Féin a hearing at the conference. They also discuss the current situation in general.. The resolution is introduced to the Senate by Wesley L Jones (below), representing Washington State. It was originally a petition handed to him by the United Irish Societies of Seattle https://t.co/1PF46U85DW. After a lengthy discussion, the resolution is passed by 60 votes to 1, with 35 abstaining. The one person that voted against the resolution, who opposed its introduction into the record in the first place, was John Sharp Williams (below) https://t.co/1OLUnSAVZS

Vienna

The Austrian press continue to lament the fate that awaits their country as a much-diminished nation. One paper suggests that national bankruptcy would be child's play compared to what awaited them https://t.co/J6I8WlZjAM

S.S Lapland, Atlantic Ocean

A young cadet bolts Lamp Room door, locking De Valera within. Kennedy comes on scene and knocks the cadet out cold before he discovers De Valera. The cadet goes to the Captain who sides with Frisco thinking the Cadet must have upset him

Dublin

Yesterday's shootings dominate the national press as various rumours swirl around Dublin. The Evening Herald offers a synopsis of the version of events they have heard from eye-witnesses versus the version of events put forward by the DMP https://t.co/N2SvXIqpZf

St. Vincent's Hospital, Dublin

Miss Maggie Hayes (below, left), who was injured in the Dawson Street shootings last night, is recovering in St. Vincent's Hospital. It is hoped she will make a full recovery https://t.co/0eRvacdGvY

Paris

There continues to be rumours in Paris if the Germans will sign the Peace Treaty. French authorities are reportedly advising their American counterparts of distinct possibility that they will not do so

College Street, Dublin

The roof of the Provincial Bank (below, now Westin Hotel) is extensively damaged by a fire. https://t.co/bM7aoGvtoi

Trinity College, Dublin

John Henry Bernard is appointed as the new Provost of Trinity.Bernard, formerly a fellow of Trinity, and Bishop of Ossory, was born in India. He had been a lecturer in Divinity for 23 years and is seen as a popular choice to lead Trinity College Dublin https://t.co/BgxWXzu5xV

Dublin

J.J Clancy is brought from prison to receive another sentence of 3 months imprisonment with hard labour. Along with M.J Hanley, Easkey, who receives similar sentence, the conviction relates to an unlawful assembly in Dromore West in April.

Wicklow

A.H Anderson, Wicklow, receives one month with hard labour for unlawful assembly in Ballyrush. Anderson enters court smoking a cigarette and wearing a hat, both of which are forcibly removed. He stood with his back to the judge throughout proceedings

Stradbally, Queen's County

Tom O'Higgins, Medical Officer for Maryborough, brother of Kevin O'Higgins T.D, son of Tom O'Higgins County Coroner, is arrested for refusing entry to RIC to a Sinn Féin meeting in Kildare five weeks ago. O'Higgins is brought to Maryborough Barracks. There, he is provided with a breakfast by his friends before being removed forcibly by armed escort to a train bound for Dublin

Dublin

The only person arrested following the shootings on Dawson Street and Stephen's Green is released. Patrick Murray had been arrested in the vicinity of College Street

7th June 1919

Mullingar

Laurence Ginnell receives 4 months imprisonment for unlawful assembly and inciting a boycott of the RIC. To the judgement, Ginnell replied to judge 'You have earned your crumbs now. I despise you and your sentence'. An eruption of cheers in court followed

Epsom Race Course

Beyuda (centre) wins the 1919 Oaks https://t.co/ISf3tvy6Ul

Leeds

200 delegates attend the Annual Conference of the United Irish League in Leeds Town Hall, presided by T.P O'Connor

S.S Lapland, Atlantic Ocean

The Captain summons Downs and Kennedy to the Bridge. De Valera is left alone in lamp room. Spooked by yesterday's incident he decides to destroy the lock and hide outside the room. He said he did not want to risk being locked inside again

Dundalk

Matthew Murphy, a commercial traveller who was shot by a military sentry in the town two days ago, dies of his injuries. It is the third incident of a death caused by a sentry shooting a civilian in as many months

8th June 1919

Ringsend, Dublin

The Ozanam fete, in aid of the poor of Ringsend, organised by the St. Vincent de Paul gets underway. Below Irish Independent photo shows an American stall at the fete with Constance Markievicz holding the American flag https://t.co/BevMWC0Mal

Newfoundland, Canada

Captain John Alcock gives notice to the Admiralty of his intention to attempt to cross the Atlantic. The experts suggest, however, that it will be the Handley Page effort that will triumph in the next 7 days in the race to cross the Atlantic

New York

Despite being in the United States for a few weeks, Harry Boland officially announces that he is in the country as a special envoy from Dáil Éireann to make representations on behalf of the Irish state. https://t.co/d1k4zWUV0B

Clonmel

The RIC issues summons to 29 people in the town in connection with an illegal church-gate collection for the Self-Determination fund

Newfoundland, Canada

Captain John Alcock gives notice to the Admiralty of his intention to attempt to cross the Atlantic. The experts suggest, however, that it will be the Handley Page effort that will triumph in the next 7 days in the race to cross the Atlantic

9th June 1919

Washington D. C

The London Times, in considering the American Senate resolution on Ireland, looks at the career of the single man that voted against, John Sharpe Williams. They state that he was not well known for independence or clearness of vision https://t.co/6zYzLSXOY0 . In 1898 Sharp Williams, of Mississippi, gave one of the most disrespectful denunciations of African Americans by a public figure; 'You could ship-wreck 10,000 illiterate white Americans on a desert island, and in three weeks they would have a fairly good government ... You could ship-wreck 10,000 negroes, every one of whom was a graduate of Harvard University, and in less than three years, they would have retrograded governmentally; half of the men would have been killed, and the other half would have two wives apiece'.

Wellington Barracks, Dublin

Private Patrick McNiff is returning to the Barracks late at night. When he approaches the entrance a sentry calls down asking for identification. When no reply came, McNiff is shot. He dies of his wounds a few hours later. https://t.co/A2aGsgj9D3

Belfast

The results of the East Antrim by-election are announced. George Hanna, the independent Orange man, defeats the Unionist Party candidate in a blow to Edward Carson

Mountmellick

The Local Board of Guardians denounce the recent arrest of Tom O'Higgins. They grant him four weeks holidays, with full pay, whilst he serves out his sentence

Tipperary

The military prohibit an exhibition football game between the east and west of the town. The young men decide to play the game anyways. The RIC turn up at the pitch and take everyone's name for future action

Turtulla, Thurles

Matthew Butler, son of well-known local, Matt Butler, is arrested by RIC Officers. No charge is given but it is believes that he is in possession of seditious materials

Cork

The two RIC Officers that were imprisoned for breaking into the stores of the US Naval base is Aghada are released. One completed their sentence whilst the other is released following representations from local prominent figures

S.S Lapland, Atlantic Ocean

A Welsh sailor that washed his clothes near Lamp Room every night arouses Downs' suspicion suspecting he is spy. Downs & Kennedy decide throw him overboard. However, they discover he was afraid of his clothes being robbed & they left him

10th June 1919

RDS, Ballsbridge

The first Spring Show since the commencement of the War begins. Crowds are small and this is attributed to a lack of transport infrastructure, and the ongoing hotel strike which is hampering all such events in the city

Paris

The Evening Herald's correspondent in France exclusively reveals that President Woodrow Wilson intends on receiving Irish American delegation in person. Frank Walsh and Edward Dunne had intended to leave France altogether, but now await tomorrow's meeting

Dundalk

The funeral procession of Matthew Murphy passes through the town. Over 2,000 people march behind the hearse. All businesses in the town were suspended for the afternoon until after conclusion of the funeral

Athlone

Owen Sweeney, president of local Sinn Féin club, and Michael Dillon, sacristan in St. Mary's Church, are charged in connection with the proclaimed meeting addressed by Laurence Ginnell

Thomastown

Denis Murphy, James McKenna, Michael Callanan, Donal Fitzgerald are all arrested in connection with illegal collection. A large force of police and military are drafted into the town to prevent an outbreak of violence as the men are conveyed to Waterford

Golden, Tipperary

A meeting of the Transport Worker's Union, being held in Golden parochial hall, is interrupted by a group of troops who demand they disperse. When inferences are made that they will not hesitate to use force, they meeting dissolves

Longford

It is reported that Matt Brady, one of the men shot in Aughnacliffe in late April is still in a serious condition and will be unable to return to his role as rate-collector so a replacement is appointed

Ashford, Wicklow

A large party of RIC Officers out of Rathnew, raid outhouses of James Shannon in Glanmore, near Ashford. The Shannon family were in bed at time of their arrival, and were threatened with bayonets when they confronted them. Nothing of note was found

Bray

An unusually dire escalation of the picketing of Bolger's shop on Main Street last week. Peter Lyons, a disabled man who lost a leg in a rail crash, is arrested and charged with 'riotous behaviour' in connection with the picket. He is remanded for trial

11th June 1919

Ballymote, Sligo

Several windows in hotel owned by Matthew Hannan are broken by gunshots in the middle of the night. It is believed that the incident is linked to Hannan's recent purchase of land in Bunnanadden which locals wanted distributed among small farmers

Paris

The efforts of Sinn Féin, and the Irish American delegation finally reach its pinnacle when Frank Walsh and Edward Dunne meet with President Wilson to discuss the possibility of Ireland's case being heard at the Conference. It ends in abject failure. Wilson tells the Irish American delegates that no small nation could make a case before the Conference without the unanimous agreement of the United States, France, Italy, and, crucially, Great Britain. Any move on Ireland's behalf would be veto'd by Lloyd George. When Walsh reminded Wilson of his 14 Points and claims for small nations, Wilson says that he could not have expected the amount of nations that would take hope from his speech and that it was the 'great metaphysical tragedy of today' that they could not help all of them. Walsh and Dunne left the meeting crestfallen. Their efforts, and the efforts of Seán T. O'Kelly and the Irish mission to Paris, had come to their symbolic end with Wilson's refusal to help. The case for Ireland's freedom would have to be achieved via other means

Dublin

RIC Officers are appealing for information regarding the disappearance of a young girl, Kathleen Byrne. She was last seen near her home in Clarendon Street

New York Harbour

The S.S Lapland arrives into New York Harbour. The ship makes its way up river with Manhattan to right. As Statue of Liberty come into view, passengers begin to cheer. Eamonn de Valera remains below deck and steals a peek at the city of his birth https://t.co/eQqiMKtAYG

Winnipeg

As labour unrest continues in the Canadian city of Winnipeg, violence erupts between the striking workers and the police

Belfast

A grave incident involving 2 women that were drugged and left in Belfast City Centre emerges. The two women, Annie Murray and Florrie Macken from Bow Street in West Belfast, have no recollection of several hours before they were discovered

New York

As the Lapland docked, De Valera gives Downs a note to be given to Harry Boland. Boland, who was not expecting Dev to travel to America, is shocked to discover that he has arrived and he makes preparations to receive him later that night.

11.30pm

New York

Eamonn De Valera walks off the S.S Lapland disguised as a sailor, carrying a heaving line for added effect. He is taken to Phelan's Bar on 10th Avenue to be handed over to Harry Boland https://t.co/yj7UE4V2zo

39th Street, New York

De Valera is brought to an apartment rented by Liam Mellows on East 39th Street (below). There, De Valera, Mellows and Joseph McGarrity, discuss plans for a publicity tour of America https://t.co/lcxohZJ5Yo

12th June 1919

Dublin

The capital is one of numerous cities across the world affected by labout disputes. There are currently 2,380 people on strike in Dublin. There are smaller scale disputes in Belfast and Cork

Ireland

A devastating series of thunder storms pass over the island causing extensive damage in the west and north. A coal steamer got into difficulty off Belfast and its ten crew were forced to abandon ship before rescue. Patrick Dolan, Granard, is killed when struck by lightning whilst taking shelter. In Ballywilliam, four men are struck by lightning but miraculously escape with minor injury. In Carlow and Mullingar a great deal livestock are killed during brief but exceptionally violent storm

Rathnew, Wicklow

Kathleen Byrne, an 11 year old girl, who went missing from her home in Dublin yesterday and had a full description printed in the national press is discovered. SHe is safe and well and had walked the entire journey

Brighton Street, Rochester, New York

The first port of call for De Valera in America is a visit to up-state New York to visit his mother, Catherine Wheelwright (nee Coll) (below with De Valera). They had not seen each other for 12 years https://t.co/tV0V0F8MOB. Three years after Juan Vivion de Valera left his wife and infant son for Colorado (he died shortly thereafter) De Valera's mother married English-man, Charles Wheelwright. They had two children, Annie died in childhood, Thomas became a priest. https://t.co/3JQ8abvoQl

Paris

Irish American Delegation attempt to present meeting yesterday with President Wilson in a positive light. They state that the President has not yet had a chance to consider the Senate resolution and that he will unofficially continue to press Ireland’s case

Dublin

Writing in the Irish Independent, Andrew Lysaght discusses the potentials pit falls of the introduction of Proportional Representation voting to Ireland. He states that it could lead to minorities being given undue representation

London

The Hon. John Meagher, New Souh Wales, a noted Irish Nationalist, says that interest in the situation in Australia is increasing. He calls Archbishop Mannix de Cromwell Head of the nation given his role in preventing conscription

Avondale House, Wicklow

The home place of Charles Stuart Parnell is raided and the caretaker, attached to the department of forestry, James O’Keefe, is arrested. When charged he says he is a soldier of the Irish Republic and refuses to recognize the court

13th June 1919

China

The labour crisis in China, which has crippled several cities for a number of weeks, continues to develop as train workers in Nanking and Shanghai go on strike with fears that a general stoppage is on the horizon

Berlin

Almost five months after her death, the funeral of Rosa Luxemburg takes place in the German capital. People carried banners with ‘I was, I am, I shall be’ emblazoned on them, Rosa’s final written words

Britain

The cities of Cardiff and Liverpool, are engulfed in race riots for a second night. It is believed that one of main sources for the violence is among unemployed white men that have returned from the Front and perceive that black people have taken their jobs

Tralee

John Brady escapes from prison. The 22 year old removed a pane of glass from cell door and unscrewed lock before securing a rope made from bedclothes with a chair from his cell before climbing to freedom. He had gone AWOL from army 2days before armistice. When he returned to Ireland, Brady was arrested in connection with breaking into a house and stealing a bike, a suit of clothes, and a set of false teeth. Police are appealing for information on the fugitive

Newfoundland

Arthur Brown telegrams the Daily Mail offices with an update on their progress. Their test flight has been a success and they hope to commence an attempt to cross the Atlantic tomorrow. He says he has a landing position around Galway Bay in mind

Tipperary

In a surprising move, the Special Military Area restrictions around South Tipperary are lifted with immediate effect. The restrictions had been in place since January after the Soloheadbeg Ambush. The news is greeted with joy among the farming community

Galway

James McGann, Loughrea, is sentenced to one year with hard labour for possession of a revolver and ammo. When asked upon his arrest what authority he had to be armed, he produced a Volunteer membership card and said 'that's my authority!'

Cork

Six women complete their sentence of a month each for possession of seditious literature and are greeted by friends upon release. They are Norah Murphy, Catherine Hayes, Sarah Duggan, Bella Conlon, Nellie Murphy and Norah O'Brien

Cork

Six women complete their sentence of a month each for possession of seditious literature and are greeted by friends upon release. They are Norah Murphy, Catherine Hayes, Sarah Duggan, Bella Conlon, Nellie Murphy and Norah O'Brien

Galway

James McGann, Loughrea, is sentenced to one year with hard labour for possession of a revolver and ammo. When asked upon his arrest what authority he had to be armed, he produced a Volunteer membership card and said 'that's my authority!'

Dublin

Countess Constance Markievicz is arrested by a party of 30 RIC Officers and transported to Cork Jail. She is charged in connection with a seditious speech given in Kishkeam, Co. Cork a few weeks ago. She would spend the rest of the summer behind bars https://t.co/QgPlBg7nmB

14th June 1919

New York

A 5,700 ton US transport ship docks. A marching band awaits alightment of returning troops, along with volunteers laden with cigarettes. One bemused troop, Captain Mills, walks off the ship. It’s unclear why the crossing was made with a single troop aboard

Dublin

The Evening Herald publishes a cartoon summing up the hardships faces by the average citizen who, once the War had ended, had reasonably assumed that life would get easier. But they now face rising costs on all fronts and the spectre of Bolshevism https://t.co/AW2E9vbMmY

New York

Archbishop of New York, Patrick Hayes, in an open letter to the Irish people, says that the Irish and the English will never mix, no more than oil will mix with water. He prays that the right of self-determination is extended to Ireland soon https://t.co/nl9ToIM6Pi

Lester's Field, St. John's, Newfoundland, Canada

John Alcock and Arthur Brown prepare their plane for take off in an attempt to cross the Atlantic. They take on board a bag of mail (below), with intention of delivering it to Europe https://t.co/j61XVVz9Y2

Southampton

RMS Aquitania sets sail for New York, via Halifax. Aboard are 5,000 returning Canadian troops. Among them is a ship fireman registered as James Smith. It is in fact Sean Nunan who had been given £5 by Michael Collins to make his way to Dev in New York https://t.co/bYHiFBK0zv

Lester's Field, St. John's, Newfoundland, Canada

John Alcock (below with cap) and Arthur Brown (below without cap) take off (scene below) from St. John's on their way to the Atlantic in their modified First World War Vickers Vimy bomber https://t.co/KxaUdrohg2. Alcock and Brown's flight almost ends in disaster as soon as it began. The plane was overloaded with fuel, oil, mail, 2 fully grown men, and their toy cat mascots, Lucky Jim, and Twinkletoes. They barely cleared the trees that stood before them and the open air, but just made it

5.20pm

Over Atlantic Ocean

After flying into thick fog, the wind driven electrical generator failed on Alcock and Brown's plane making the intercom and radio inoperable. Relying solely on a sextant, Brown, the navigator, relied on mere instinct to direct them

Glen of Aherlow, Tipperary

Merely 24 hours after lifting the Special Military Area restrictions on South Tipperary, the military exhibit a position in contradiction of this raiding practically every house in the region searching for arms and the Knocklong fugitives

Public Record Office, Four Courts, Dublin

The Bibliographical Society of Ireland are pictured on a visit to the Public Record Office in the Four Courts. The magnificent six-storey Victorian archive houses thousands of priceless files dating back hundreds of years https://t.co/5AoSoMdPOy

Over Atlantic Ocean

Finally, after several hours of poor visibility, the clouds clear allowing for Brown to see the stars and use his sextant. He determines, with huge relief, that they are still on course for Ireland. Their electric body warmers have failed though

Carrickatee, Monaghan

Mr. D Gallagher, manager of a milk creamery in Doohamlet, collapses at an aeridheacht in Carrickatee, near Ballybay, and dies.

15th June 1919

Liberty Hall, Dublin

A split in the ITGWU is becoming increasingly likely as supporters of the General President, Tom Foran, clash with supporters of Patrick Thomas Daly (below), the acting Secretary for the Insurance section of the trade union https://t.co/zyqLB7lXAm

Dublin

DMP Officers and Military Officials make 4 raids upon premises in Dublin. The first raid is upon is business place of Joseph Lawless, Parnell Street. Lawless is son to Frank Lawless, M.P for North Dublin. He had been sentenced to 10 years after the Rising. The second raid is upon Thomas Hoban's tobacco shop in 26 Parnell Street. Hoban had recently been in prison for 2 months. The newsagent of Seamus Brennan on Talbot Street was next raided. Brennan had undergone a similar stintin prison. Final raid is made upon 15 The Crescent, Clontarf, where Harry Boland's mother lived. Mrs. Boland was forced to show them correspondence with her son, now in America. They were likely trying to ascertain whereabouts of De Valera who has not yet returned from Manchester where they believed he was

Boston

De Valera travels to Boston to meet with his half-brother, Rev. Thomas Joseph R. (Tom) Wheelwright (below), a Redemptorist Priest. The half-brothers had not seen each other since Fr. Tom's visit to Ireland in 1907 when he stayed with DeValera in Blackrock https://t.co/19GyCOW5oU

3am

Over Atlantic Ocean

Alcock and Brown hit a snow storm which causes much of their plane's instruments to freeze over. Alcock manages to keep the plane in the air with great difficulty and keep on course for the west coast of Ireland

Donegal Town

Katie Doherty leads a procession of women to the ruins of the Abbey of Four Masters and grave of Richard Bonner, who was instrumental in the preservation of Republican tradition in the area. It is in honour of an anti-conscription march 12 months ago

Dublin

The Sunday Independent breaks the news that Alcock and Brown are airbourne and are expected to land, all going well, in the Galway area this morning

8.40am Derrygilmlagh Bog, Clifden, Galway

Alcock and Brown's Vickers Vimy plane crash lands in a bog in rural Galway. It is the first non-stop aerial crossing of the Atlantic Ocean, one of the greatest feats in the history of aviation. https://t.co/0aeZXoLe5z

Upperchurch, Tipperary

An aeridheacht is held in Upperchurch, near Thurles. A massive attendance gathered to hear Michael O'Connor speak. When he shifted his rousing speech to Irish, RIC District Inspector Hunt arrived with a party of police and troops. Hunt demanded that the tricolour on the stage be taken down with immediate effect. He was openly defied by the people on stage and they began sing 'Green, White, and Gold', the chorus of which was sang by all in attendance at the top of their voice. Hunt withdraws with his men

Ardenteggle, Queen's County

A very serious incident of RIC aggression towards two Laois farmers during week emerges. Two days ago, local Sergeant Matterson turned up at home of 23 year old Martin Rice's home with one other officer. Rice's father opened the door. Rice Jr. grabbed a sweeping brush and ran at them. He was then shot in the hip, shortly afterwards losing consciousness. Rice Sr. was also shot in the incident but both men are recovering in hospital from their ordeal. They ask if either of Shores brothers, two men wanted in Kilkenny, had come there. Rice Sr. said he had not. The police returned five minutes later with the Shores in tow. Rice Sr. went outside to them. After a while Rice Jr. went out to find the 4 men beating his father ...

Vienna

8 people are killed and 60 people are injured in communist demonstrations in the Austrian capital https://t.co/8q4pXwAlOl

16th June 1919

Cork

The Evening Echo reports that Eamonn de Valera is within 'measurable distance' of Paris and is about to join the Irish Amercian delegates there in preparation for a hearing before the Big Four. De Valera is, in fact, 3,600 miles from Paris https://t.co/MmaYa34Y02

Dublin

The Dublin Hotel Strike continues. The hotels' federation meet with trade unions for over three hours in an attempt to broker a deal to reopen some of the capital's top hotels at the height of the summer season. The unions will return to workers to discuss

Paris

The Allies formally reply to the German counter-proposals the the Peace Treaty. Little amendments are made and the Germans are given five days to agree to sign the Treaty of Allied troops will take up arms and enter the country

Trinity College, Dublin

Trinity Monday brings @tcdsu students out on the streets. They board trams and make an attempt to hold a meeting at the Grattan Statue in time honoured tradition. Below images show some of festivities on Dame Street, in front of the college https://t.co/ELb1xIAMkt

Scapa Flow, Orkney Islands, Scotland

General Ludwig von Reuter, commander of the German fleet, which has been anchored in the Scapa Flow for months receives news that the specific term in the Treaty relating to the fleet dictates its seizure on 21 June https://t.co/qfP5EdfHVC

von Reuter was overseeing a grim situation. 74 vessels (below) were manned by a skeleton crew of sailors that were bored out of their wits, and lacked basic provisions. Sailors were not let disembark ships, food was sent twice monthly from Germany but it was of poor quality .. https://t.co/d2SGZmjBfD

von Reuter was in poor health, and was suffering from chronic insomnia due to a small group of revolutionary sailors that called themselves the Red Guard that were pounding their feet on his cabin roof at night. He had requested to be allowed move to another ship

In order to supplement their basic food rations, and to pass the time, sailors resorted to fishing off the side of the ships (below), and hunting for seagulls. There were some medical doctors provided, but the British refused to provide dentists https://t.co/RugHiLL5p2

Meath Hospital, Dublin

The 165th AGM of the Meath Hospital hears that the financial situation of the institution is dire and that they are operating at a loss and they urgently need financial intervention to secure their survival beyond their 166th AGM next year

Dublin

The Irish Independent's London Letter section speculates upon the whereabouts of De Valera. There is continued speculation that he is in France, but rumours grow that he may be in America https://t.co/jI6BdJKmak

London

The London Times editorial issues a demand upon Westminster to come up with a solution to the Irish question. The editorial is viewed as a significant development in London circles https://t.co/t8apipl0tX

Galway

After a good night's sleep, Alcock and Brown do some shopping in Galway and are then treated to a civic luncheon by Galway Urban District Council. They receive gifts of bouquets of flowers claddagh rings before they leave for Dublin

Broadstone Train Station, Dublin

Alcock and Brown's train arrives into Dublin where they are greeted by great crowds of Trinity College students waving Union Jacks and American flags https://t.co/Z1MQXY4qUc

Royal Irish Automobile Club, Dawson Street, Dublin

Alcock and Brown are entertained at reception in honour of achievement in crossing Atlantic. Alcock is asked by the press if he plans on travelling across again soon and he said not unless it was more comfortable https://t.co/pvdPQ3CrgF

17th June 1919

Baltimore

De Valera travels to Baltimore to meet with Cardinal James Gibbons, one of America's most prominent Catholic figures https://t.co/HHuaqmnB3B

Paris

As the Chair of the German delegates at the Peace Conference, Count Rantzau, left his hotel a crowd of angry people began to chant abuse and hurl stones at them. One member of the delegation is injured. President Clemenceau apologises directly to the Count

Kingstown

Alcock and Brown board the RMS Ulster for the 8.30am sailing to Holyhead. Both men are exhausted by their public appearances since their flight and they confide in an Irish Independent journalist that this was a greater ordeal than the flight itself

Dublin

The three O'Brien brothers, charged with the murder of George Sheehan in Silvermines in January 1918 are brought before court for trial. However, proceedings halt once their defence, Timothy Healy, raises issues with jury selection.

Dublin

A proposal to build thousands of social housing units in the Newfoundland Street area (now Sheriff Street) is rejected as it is deemed that a sufficient number of houses would not be built for the amount of money that is being invested in the project. At the same meeting, W.T Cosgrave and William Larkin, President of the Dublin Tenants’ Association, came to blows after a series of unpleasant remarks towards each other. A scuffle involving up to a dozen men broke out and halted proceedings until calm was eventually restored

Dublin

Private Fox, of the Black Watch, is charged in connection with his conduct in Knocklong Train Station on the evening 2 police officers were shot dead, and Sean Hogan was rescued from custody. Fox admitted he was drunk on the evening. Fox was in another carriage and when he heard the commotion he put his head out the window and shouted 'Up De Valera, Up Sinn Féin, Shoot the bastard police!'

Glen of Aherlow, Tipperary

As aeroplanes continue to hover over the Glen of Aherlow as part of extensive military searches of the area, an elderly farmer from Ballycrana, who was in a field looking at the planes, is stripped by police searching for marks or wounds

Dublin

A week after the English press published details of the Irish American delegates' report to the Peace Conference, the Irish Press Censor permits its publication in Irish papers. The Chief Secretary issues a detailed reply to some of the claims made in report

Clonmel

A strike at Clonmel Asylum continues. Asylum attendants picket the entrance to the institution. They demand better pay and more reasonable working hours https://t.co/U1lu6JQM6o

Epsom

After the arrest of 2 Canadian soldiers on Derby Day, 400 demobilised Canadian troops storm the police station in Epsom (below after attack) and attack the 16 police men guarding the prisoners. Station-Sergeant Thomas Green (below) is killed in the riot https://t.co/TGGQw8hzoh

Mallow Courthouse

Constance Markievicz is brought before Mallow Court in connection with a speech made in Newmarket. Evidence is given that during speech she said 'I see the police spies are present, Well I caution you to ostracise them and treat them like lepers.. https://t.co/S3tNguMDbG

'Their children go to school to spy on spy on young men and women. They themselves go into public bars to act as spies. Let the young men walk out when they walk in. Let no child sit near the children in school. Let none of you sit with them in church ... Make them ashamed of themselves and clothes they wear, and money they earn, which is blood money. They will rot in hell yet. Burn everything English, except their coal.' Markievicz strongly refuted evidence regarding boycotting children and said the coal reference was commonplace

She is sentenced to four months in prison. As she is led away she calls for three cheers for the republic, which was greeted by calls of 'Up the rebels, up James Connolly!' Below shows her being escorted out by armed guard cheerily greeting her well-wishers https://t.co/2ZpTjHxSH8

18th June 1919

Dublin

Thomas Foran, Joseph Farrell, and Joseph Doyle all resign from the Dublin Board of Guardians amidst ongoing divisions in the Irish Labour Party and the Trade Union movement

Dublin

The Dublin hotel strike comes to an end. Hotel workers have secured an increase in wages to at least 2s. 6d. per week, and will work no more than 72 hours in a week. An extra half-holiday is to be added on alternate Sundays for workers as well

Mater Hospital

Following an X-Ray examination, surgeons remove the bullet from the hip of Martin Rice, the man that was shot by RIC Officers in Queen's County a few days ago. His condition is said to be improving

Limerick Junction Train Station

Arthur and Matthew Barlow, Shrough, who were sentenced to lengthy terms in prison are released owing to ill-health. They are greeted in Limerick Junction by a party of friends and well-wishers

London

Punch Magazine's cartoonists have their say on the perception that Germany has been pushed into a position where they have no choice but to sign the Peace Treaty https://t.co/hAB8nqELJM

19th June 1919

Germany

American ships continue to dock in German ports and unload their cargo in defiance of a British order to blockade German ports until such time that they sign the treaty. The order to proceed as normal comes directly from President Wilson

Carlow

Sergeant Masterson, the RIC Officer that shot Michael Rice in his front yard a few days ago in Ardenteggle, Queen's County, is charged with causing bodily harm and will be arrested and brought before court for the incident

Athlone

The local Urban district Council vote to prohibit the use of the Courthouse for any future military social occasions. This is in protest at a recent bayonet charge in the town against a crowd of people.

Paris

The Irish American Delegation write a letter to Lloyd George protesting at the treatment of Constance Markievicz, which, they are advised, is in retaliation for the publication of their report to the Peace Conference on the state of British rule in Ireland

Mansion House, Dublin

Dáil Éireann meets in private. It is one of the First Dáil's most notable meetings. A system of Dáil Arbitration Courts is established, and several key debates take place on finance, foreign affairs, labour, trade & commerce, and fisheries

Mansion House, Dublin

Arthur Griffith, Acting President of Dáil Éireann, announces to the present members that Éamon de Valera is in America and that 'The reception accorded to President de Valera in U.S.A. had exceeded anything they had expected'

Philadelphia

De Valera stays with Joseph McGarrity in Philadelphia. McGarrity, a successful businessman, kitted De Valera out with expensive suits and suitcases in preparation for a tour of America and suggested he adopt the title 'President of the Irish Republic' https://t.co/VYSrSkIkwh

20th June 1919

Berlin

Germany has accepted the terms of the Peace Treaty and will sign. The cabinet has resigned in protest. Reports suggest that the over-arching fear of invasion by allied forces is the main determining factor in decision in accepting terms of the Treaty.

Dublin

Multiple DMP Detectives are mobilised early in the morning in Dublin Castle and they go out and carry out multiple raids across the city. They were accompanied in many instances by troops and Officers from Scotland Yard. Nothing of note is discovered

Dublin

Frank Gallagher is charged in connection with a speech he gave in Myshall, Carlow, last month. It the speech he said that the Irish people had no right to be ruled by an alien government and that England had no more right to govern Ireland that China did

Trinity College, Dublin

One of the first baseball games to be held in Dublin takes place between American students in Trinity and American troops that are about to be demobilised and return to America via France https://t.co/RBiS6JwtHn

Dublin

In an advertisement for tomorrow's Sunday Chronicle, Edward Carson makes clear his feelings on the recent American Senate resolution on Irish self-determination. https://t.co/YMGH3JqawG

Dublin

The trial date of the O'Brien brothers in connection with the Silvermines shooting dead of George Sheehan is set for June 30th. The case is one of the most high-profile cases in the country, and interest in it has been fueled for the past 18 months

London

Irish Independent correspondent confirms officials in Scotland Yard are actively pursuing whereabouts of De Valera who has not been seen since end of May. There are concerns that Irish American delegation are preparing for his dramatic appearance in Paris

Hove

Webb Peploe, an English protestant reverend, tells an alarmed congregation in the seaside town that the world would end this year. Armageddon 'could come any day now' he adds. https://t.co/hAafri8hOq

21st June 1919

Dublin

Eamonn O'Kelly, the man who organised, and spoke at a demonstration meeting on upper Sackville Street in connection with the occupation of St. Enda's school at the time is arrested in his bed and brought before court.

Worldwide

The world's press reacts to yesterday's news that Germany will sign the Peace Treaty imminently. https://t.co/L4VMnTbAya

Philadelphia

Joseph McGarrity's Irish Press newspaper prints a front page article on the whereabouts of De Valera. The paper announces, with some authority, that he is in Switzerland, and that this news 'comes as a surprise to all Ireland' https://t.co/HOla2qD6ga

Scapa Flow, Orkney Islands, Scotland

General Ludwig von Reuter, has decided to use the opportunity of the Royal Navy going out to sea on exercises to scuttle the entire German fleet of 74 ships anchored in the Scapa Flow

10am

Scapa Flow, Orkney Islands, Scotland

von Reuter gives a signal to his ships ordering them to prepare to sink themselves. At 11.20am, von Reuter returns to deck and gives final order which is given in flag signal, semaphore and searchlights

11.30am

Scapa Flow, Orkney Islands, Scotland

German sailors begin to sink their ships; loosening portholes opening water-tight doors, and drilling holes into the bulkheads. At noon, ships begin to list heavily and German flags raised. Ships are abandoned by crew https://t.co/hVZZb2jkS5. The Royal Navy turn around and return to the Scapa Flow in an attempt to beach some of the sinking ships with mixed results. Most of the ships had sunk. 1,774 German sailors are picked up as they fled in rowboats https://t.co/et8VeydpOm. 52 ships are sunk, (400,000 tons of material). It is the greatest loss of shipping in history. The final German fatalities of World War One occur as nine sailors are shot dead during scuffles as Royal Navy attempted to save some of the sinking ships https://t.co/bQx06SGe34

22nd June 1919

New York

American press reacts to the sensational sinking of the German fleet in the Scapa Flow yesterday https://t.co/K4AIyQNKds

South Tipperary

Michael Quinlan, a member of Tipperary Board of Guardians, and Limerick Co. Councillor, is stopped by a party of troops in rural South Tipperary. One of the soldiers accuses Quinlan of making a threatening gesture to his with his horse whip. Quinlan gets off his cart, walks over to the soldier and says 'You are on the King's Highway, and I am a magistrate of the County of Limerick, and I demand that you give me your name and number'. After the soldier refused, tensions rise until passers by bring Quinlan away

Avoca

James O'Keefe, caretaker of Avondale House, home of Parnell, who was arrested a few weeks ago is sentenced to three months in prison. The Resident Magistrate states that O'Keefe's crimes of seditious behavior are all the worse as he was on public pay https://t.co/nVbu399XaE

Arklow

Robert Tyrell, who had completed a month's sentence in Mountjoy for an illegal collection of funds for Dáil Éireann, returns to his home town of Arklow. He is met by thousands of people and a marching band who welcomed him off the train from Dublin

Waldorf-Astoria Hotel, 5th Avenue, Manhattan, New York

Harry Boland, M.P for South Roscommon, walks towards crowd of press in lobby of world's greatest hotel, the Waldorf-Astoria, and says 'Eamon De Valera, President of the Irish Republic, is in his native city' https://t.co/ikGPjCAlO4

It was in this most lavish of settings imaginable that De Valera chose to base himself for his American mission. In terms of giving off the impression of being a legitimate leader of a would-be-sovereign state, it was a logical, albeit hyper-expensive, choice. The Waldorf-Astoria had its origins in Waldorf Hotel opened in 1893. Astoria hotel opened next door 4 years later and when merged, it became the largest in the world. They were connected by a 300 metre corridor known as 'The Peacock'. It was here that Boland made his comments https://t.co/C2DC2okqqB

Oscar Tschirky was the main restaurateur of the hotel. In 1896, just before the merger, he published a book of recepies he used in the kitchen of the Waldorf, including Waldorf Salad, Eggs Benedict and Thousand Island dressing. https://t.co/vzWJgpXhYJ

Fergus Falls, Minnesota, United States

An F5 tornado devastates the city of Fergus Falls in Minnesota. 57 people are killed https://t.co/ioztFyCRTJ

Thurles Racecourse

Organisers of races, scheduled for tomorrow, are busy making final preparations for an event they hope will see thousands of people enjoy the first day's racing at the venue for three years. A large military presence are also expected https://t.co/tyR8AVslH4

23rd June 1919

Thurles Racecourse

Thousands of people attend the races in Thurles. Among crowd is a heavy police and military presence, led by RIC District Inspector, Michael Hunt. Unbeknownst to Hunt, his every movement was being watched by 5 Volunteers. https://t.co/VJn8kyjJFD.

Around 5.40pm, the crowd had exited the course after the conclusion of the final race. The troops, about 60 in number, were under the command of Captain Smith. During the races, they stood with fixed bayonets on the side of the course

Hunt accompanied Smith and the troops to the Thurles Fever Hospital where they were based (red arrow). He then proceeded alone, in the crowd, with only a walking stick, towards town. Just as he entered the Square (green arrow) he was shot twice in the back at point blank range https://t.co/HHpkQ9jURf

The sound of the shots causes panic and the crowd scatters in every direction. The lack of rain for weeks, and the hurried footfall leads to a great cloud of dust rising, allowing for the 3 Volunteers to easily get away without detection

3 Volunteers had used the crowd as cover to get right up behind him. They were James and Thomas Stapleton from Upperchurch, and James Murphy from Kilcommon. Hunt is shot twice in the back. A third bullet hits a 12 year old boy in the knee

James Leahy, Paddy Kinnane, James Stapleton, and two other Volunteers track Hunt's movement. An attempt to assassinate Hunt had been approved by Leahy, the local Brigade O/C. However, they determined that lack of an escape route meant they would need to wait until after the races

Micheal Hunt (below in uniform), 45, dies within 20 minutes. Originally from Sligo and previously serving in Dingle, he leaves behind a widow and three children. He is the 6th RIC Officer to be shot dead since January, but he is the first to be deliberately assassinated https://t.co/KeuVVOBAhK

As Hunt lay dying, a crowd of people, it is alleged at the Inquest, stood around and laughed and jeered before other policemen came to his aid as did the Chairman of Thurles GAA Club, Fr. Micheal Kennedy Ryan, who arrived on the scene within moments to administer the last rites

Berlin

The German National Assembly formally ratify the signing of the Peace Treaty by a majority of 99. Gustav Bauer, the new German Chancellor, tells parliamentarians that they had no choice but to sign. The signing is expected on Thursday in Versailles https://t.co/fwGXbdfTyd

Meelick, Clare

Joseph Keane, Chair of the Limerick Board of Guardians is arrested by a large force of military officers under the Defence of the Realm Act (DORA). Phons McNamara, James Scully, and Patrick Quinlivan are also arrested on same charges in Limerick

Dublin

Edward, The Prince of Wales, celebrates his 25th birthday. The event is celebrated in Dublin with the closure of several government offices, and the raising of the Royal standard over the prominent buildings of the city https://t.co/mQ86zPjS3K

Waldorf-Astoria Hotel, 5th Avenue, Manhattan, New York

5.55pm

A large car pulls up in front of the entrance to the Waldorf-Astoria. Eamon de Valera alights and makes his first public appearance in America. He awkwardly acknowledges the huge crowd. De Valera, flanked by an entourage of the most prominent Irish Americans on the east coast, makes his way into the lobby catalysing spontaneous applause as they made their way to the hotel roof for photographs

De Valera was then introduced by Justice Daniel Cohalan to the Friends of Irish Freedom before holding a Press Conference. in which he reminded those before him that he was as entitled to speak on Ireland's behalf as Wilson was for America or Clemenceau for France

Below is the most famous of these photos showing (L to R) Harry Boland, Liam Mellows, De Valera, Diarmuid Lynch, and Patrick McCartan. Seated is the veteran Fenian, John Devoy. De Valera's hand placed on Devoy's shoulder is a poignant foreshadowing of issues to come between them https://t.co/1tskYlp8DI

After greeting all in attendance individually, De Valera slipped away with McGarrity, Mellows, and McCartan and they take an carriage trip around Central Park. In warm metropolitan evening air, De Valera reflects on how the news of his presence in America would break in Ireland https://t.co/e9XW1ZVWAN

24th June 1919

Rathfarnham

A mysterious shooting incident is reported in the Willbrook area, near Rathfarnham. An ambulance is called to an incident where a man was shot in the thigh. However, when they arrived they found the police wrestling with the man and had to intervene

Westport

£6,000 is awarded to the widow of J.C Milling, the Magistrate that was shot dead on 29th March. His two children, John and Marjorie will receive £2,000 each. The judge orders that 3/5 of the compensation be paid by Westport Urban District Council

Waterford

A concert and performance of a play called 'Ireland First!' is prohibited by the military authorities. The event was in aid of the staff of the Waterford News newspaper which is still out of print after a military raid wrecked their premises 5 weeks ago

Dundalk

At an inquest into the death of Matthew Murphy, who recently died after being shot dead by troops on outskirts of Dundalk, counsels for both sides agree that Murphy's death was an unjustifiable homicide and that compensation is due to Murphy's family. Some images published in the Irish Independent of the inquest of Micheal Murphy in Dundalk. One shows Tim Healy (with beard) leaving the Courthouse and Murphy's father entering the Courthouse. Another shows the driver of the car in which Murphy was shot pointing out a bullet hole https://t.co/H1J9BclBqV

Dublin

Irish Press reacts to assassination of D.I Hunt. The Irish Times notes that Hunt was an Irish man, not a 'Saxon Tyrant or an Oppressor' and criticises Sinn Féin's lack of condemnation. The Irish Independent says the outrage is revolting to justice loving men https://t.co/aAte13TahI

Waldorf-Astoria Hotel, 5th Avenue, Manhattan, New York

After a hectic night, De Valera greets journalists in a more low-key press event in which he outlines how he hopes to raise $5 million in bonds for the Irish Republic

When pointed out, that it was illegal in America to fund political aspirations in another country, De Valera sidestepped by stating 'when municipal and international law conflict with humanity, I regard them as no law at all'.

Maynooth

At a meeting of the hierarchy of the Catholic Church in Ireland, Cardinal Logue states that no longer can the present British system in Ireland continue, and that the evils of militarism are exhibited on the island every day

House of Commons, Westminster

JW Lowther, the Speaker of the House, as part of standard procedure, formally announces to the https://t.co/5cnjUneR6Y that two of their number, J.J Clancy, and Countess Constance Markievicz, have been imprisoned in Ireland

25th June 1919

Curragh Racecourse

The largest crowd on record attends the Irish Derby in the Kildare venue. The thousands of attendees watch on as Loch Lomand achieves an easy victory

Westport

The Special Military Area around the town of Westport, set up in the wake of the shooting dead of J.C Milling is lifted although sentries will remain at the entrances to the town for some time.

Blessington Street, Dublin

The shop of J.J Walsh is once again raided by plain clothed DMP Officers looking for Walsh who was one of the escapees from Mountjoy Prison several weeks ago. After finding nothing of suspicion they left

Dublin

News emerges of how an American Major and Lieutenant of the U.S Army Expedition Force, that were spending leave in Ireland, have been expelled from the island by British forces on charges of sympathising with Sinn Féiners

New York

The Board of Aldermen of New York unanimously decide to award De Valera the freedom of New York City

Thurles

The remains of D.I Hunt are removed to the train station en-route to Monasterevan for burial in his wife's family's plot. Notable is absence of public sympathy as the coffin is removed. Blinds and shutters remained opened as people continued their business

Tralee

As Sergeant Oates and Const. O'Connell are cycling back to Tralee in the dead of night they are attacked by a number of masked men and are relieved of their arms. Oates is shot at, but bullet hits his belt and deflected. One man , a Spillane, is arrested,

Dublin

In a letter to the Irish Independent, Éilis Ní Caisil writes that in a recent visit to Constance Markievicz in prison, she is told that she can only exercise in a yard on her own, and no longer has access to areas where other prisoners are allowed enter

Westport

Captain V.H Scott, RIC District Inspector, is found guilty of the unlawful detention of a boy, John McLoughlin, following the shooting of J.C Milling. He is ordered to pay £25 in damages.

Rochester, New York

De Valera's uncle, Ed Coll, in a letter to his nephew, says 'you have made a good deal of history since the day I brought you home to your grandmother. It is a sublime step from an English prison to the Waldorf-Astoria'.

Claremount, Banagher, King's County

23 year old Patrick J. McNally, secretary of Banagher Sinn Féin Club is arrested at 4.30am in his home. He is brought to Birr for detention. No visitors are permitted. It is believed he has weapons intended for use against RIC

Dublin

News emerges of how an American Major and Lieutenant of the U.S Army Expedition Force, that were spending leave in Ireland, have been expelled from the island by British forces on charges of sympathising with Sinn Féiners

Rochester, New York

De Valera's uncle, Ed Coll, in a letter to his nephew, says 'you have made a good deal of history since the day I brought you home to your grandmother. It is a sublime step from an English prison to the Waldorf-Astoria'.

26th June 1919

Dartry Hall

William Martin Murphy, Businessman and owner of the Irish Independent and Evening Herald dies. The Herald, on a front page eulogy, call him a sterling nationalist and a captain of industry https://t.co/07U1bTTy4T

Cabra

The bi-centenary celebrations of the establishment of the Dominican Order of nuns in Cabra takes place. Below picture, the main press image of the occasion, featuring Cardinal Logue in the centre, contains no women (at a celebration in a convent) https://t.co/Ptc555xnLr

Loreto College, North Great Georges’s Street

The @LoretoSwords camogie team with their Silver Trophy that they won after beating Dominican Convent, Eccles St.. L. O'Mahony sits in front centre with the cup as captain https://t.co/qPvERomL3d

Dublin

Lord French, in a telegram to the British cabinet in London, appeals for the outlawing of 'Sinn Féin and its organisations' saying that 'Sinn Féiners in [the Thurles] district are an organised club for the murder of police https://t.co/5dKn33QH0S

27th June 1919

Dublin

For the first time since the Easter Rising, the Irish Independent does not publish an issue as a mark of respect to the death, yesterday, of their owner, William Martin Murphy

Paris

It is confirmed that German plenipotentiaries have boarded a train from Berlin to Paris and will sign a Treaty in Versailles tomorrow. There remains persistent rumours, however, that the Crown Prince of Germany, Wilhelm, may be involved in a coup attempt https://t.co/oFonu1jntr

Paris

President Poincaré hosts a dinner in honour of President Wilson and his wife in the Elysée Palace ahead of their departure for America. Wilson concludes his speech at the event by hailing Franco-American relations and the communion of peoples around the world. It is in advance of this celebration that below iconic image is taken of the Big Four; (L to R) David Lloyd George, Vittorio Orlando, Georges Clemenceau, and Woodrow Wilson https://t.co/02k75lrlG4

London

The London Times, unlike the Dublin press he owned, makes reference to William Martin Murphy's involvement in the 1913 lock-out and his methods which would be deemed 'old-fashioned' today https://t.co/CWSweYUhPC

Cork

Alderman Kelleher, Cork Corporation, states that Constance Markievicz is in poor health in prison and that whilst she has no issue with those officers in Cork Jail, her issue lies with the system itself

Tralee

Michael Spillane, who was arrested a few days ago, for assaulting two RIC Officers is remanded before court for trial at a later date. No further arrests were made after the affray

Killarney

The newsagents of Bridget Gleeson are raided by RIC Officers. All customers were forced out as they conducted a thorough search. In the end they took away several volumes of Volunteer and Sinn Féin literature

Macroom

The Special Military Area established in the Cork town is lifted. Similar orders are made for the lifting of military areas in Cashel and Limerick too

Grange, Carlingford Peninsula, Louth

A large public meeting is held and hears from Fr. Michael O'Flanagan. The local RIC ask that the meeting is dispersed, but Flanagan completes his speech. When he leaves in a motor car, the crowds sing the 'Soldier's Song'

London

The London Times, unlike the Dublin press he owned, makes reference to William Martin Murphy's involvement in the 1913 lock-out and his methods which would be deemed 'old-fashioned' today https://t.co/CWSweYUhPC

28th June 1919

Hall of Mirrors, Palace of Versailles

3.12pm

Exactly five years on from the assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand in Sarajevo, The Treaty of Versailles is signed formally bringing to an end the greatest war the world had ever seen https://t.co/XWuA8kHr49

Dublin

Now that peace has been secured, Gordon Brewster, Evening Herald cartoonist, visualises the American public's frustrations at their President having spent so long in Europe on matters perceived as of little importance in many parts of the States https://t.co/aJUy4WwowU

Glasnevin Cemetary

William Martin Murphy is laid to rest in Glasnevin, near the O'Connell monument. Among the listed mourners were Tim Healy, the Lord Mayor, managers of several Dublin banks, and journalists from the Irish Independent and other newspapers

Buckingham Palace

Immediately after the signing of the Treaty, Lloyd George pens a letter to the king. It is is couriered to a pilot who flies immediately to London, from where it is immediately conveyed to the King informing him of the end of the Great War https://t.co/QkxZGq3lKQ

London

News quickly spreads in London of the signing of the Treaty as newsboys rush around the city spreading the news. Outside Buckingham Palace a crowd assembles and rejoiced as the King and Queen emerged and thanked the heavens for the end of the war https://t.co/Cf0QT7uSIq

Dublin

After some exhibitions of Union Jacks being displayed and small crowds rejoicing at the signing of the Treaty, as night goes on chaos ensues as crowds converge and burn Union Jacks and chase crowds up and down the Quays. Most of the DMP and the military were off duty celebrating end of the War, which meant that there was little policing of scenes as angry crowds congregated around Westmoreland St. and Nelson's Pillar. A military lorry was burnt near the former. Crowds dispersed around midnight

29th June 1919

Glasnevin Cemetery

A monument is unveiled at the grave of Peadar Macken in Glasnevin, who died during the Easter Rising by Arthur Griffith.

Mountjoy Prison

William Sears, M.P for South Mayo, is freed from Mountjoy Prison. He tells press that conditions in the prison are deteriorating and that health of Piaras Béaslaí and D.P Walsh is growing ever worse owing to sporadic hunger strikes and confinement

Dublin

In the early hours of the morning, there are continued attacks upon loyalist displays in the wake of the signing of the Treaty yesterday. One naval man is forced to jump into the Liffey, only to be badly beaten with sticks upon getting out of the water

Thurles

Bishop John Harty condemns the killing of DI Hunt earlier in the week as an outrageous breach of the fifth commandment and called for peace in the town

Athletic Grounds, Cork

@OfficialCorkGAA (below in dark strip) defeat @TipperaryGAA (below in lighter strip) 2-4 to 2-3 in the Munster Senior Hurling Final. https://t.co/x0Q3eAGL3W

New London, Connecticut

De Valera's 1pm train out of New York bound for Boston is forced to stop in New London as a crowd of 1,000 people waving Irish flags flood the platform. De Valera makes an impromptu speech to his adoring well-wishers ... He says that he has been to Old London, and he is glad to be in New London, and that he did not know the depth of feeling in the States on the right of Ireland to her liberty. A voice from the crowd roars 'we'll free Ireland yet!' and a great cheer erupts as the train pulls away

Providence, Rhode Island

The enormity of public reaction De Valera's American mission was beginning to dawn upon the man himself as his train is greeted by crowd of thousands in Providence, Rhode Island which he duly greeted, albeit more meekly than in New London

Fenway Park, Boston

40,000 people throng the home of the @RedSox for Eamon De Valera's first public meeting in the United States. It becomes one of the most extraordinary displays of Irish republicanism in history. A thread ... https://t.co/roDaz9phR5

Hours before the arrival of De Valera, the stadium was a scene of jittery mayhem as dozens of Irish American marching bands entertained different sections of with popular rebel airs. The overall effect, before someone brought order proceedings, was a wall of noise on every side

When De Valera did arrive, three Boston policemen had to force a path through the over-excited crowd. Other police tried in vain to hold the crowd back as hundreds of people surged forward to catch a glimpse of their hero. Several women fainted in the chaos that ensued https://t.co/ATJefbNbAh

It is the largest crowd in the seven year history of the stadium. The previous September, only 15,000 people witnessed the Red Sox, led by the legendary Babe Ruth, win the World Series, their only win for 86 years

After lengthy introductions from some of Irish America's most notorious and infamous characters, De Valera rose. He reminded his audience that he was reading from prepared notes, for fear of the British media twisting his words and making him out to say something he did not https://t.co/6YBItSjYpg

The most important aspect of his speech was his criticism of yesterday's Treaty signed in Versailles. He called the idea that the Treaty would bring peace to the world as a fallacy when no fewer that 23 wars still raged across the world, many of which Britain were involved in https://t.co/HlUA5FfqvM

Kilkee, Clare

Patrick Studdert, 55 y.o farmer is out minding his cattle when a military sentry begins to call him warning him not to approach him. After thinking he was being ignored by the farmer, the sentry shoots Studdert in the head.

Studdert was a deaf man.

30th June 1919

Boston

After an historic event in Fenway Park yesterday, De Valera goes on tour of American War of Independence sites, laying wreaths at scenes of American victories such as Lexington. Below shows De Valera outside City Hall with some Boston dignitaries https://t.co/qe6lkSyzuk

United States

Yesterday's events in Boston has exposed De Valera to national media coverage. His mission to America is viewed as one of the main news items in America along with the Peace Treaty and Prohibition. Below some Boston Globe and New York Times headlines https://t.co/horQvXiJbm

Four Courts, Dublin

The trial of the O'Brien brothers in connection with the 1918 Silvermines murder begins. The trial begins in some legal argument on the part of Tim Healy, leading to a judgement of nolle prosequi on the part of Patrick O'Brien, who is released

United States

The Wartime Prohibition Act comes into effect which bans the sale of any alcoholic beverage of over 1.28% from midnight. Tomorrow is being called the 'thirsty-first' across the country

1st July 1919

Stephen Street, Dublin

28 Stephen Street, currently home to the @drurycourthotel, is raided by DMP officers and a number of revolvers, machine gun belts and ammo are seized. James Byrne, bootmaker, is arrested in connection with the find

Roscrea

RIC Officers, accompanied by military, make another raid upon Rockforest House, home of Seamus Burke, M.P. He is not at his home, and officers find nothing of note on the premises. It is the second raid in a few weeks upon Burke's home

Skibbereen

The home of Denis O'Shea, local Chairman of the Sinn Féin Club, is raided by RIC Officers. Nothing of note is found on the premises

Kilkee, Clare

Patrick Studdert, the 55 year old deaf man that was shot by a sentry a few days ago dies of his wounds. He leaves behind a widow and a large family

2nd July 1919

San Cassiano, Italy

The death toll from last week's earthquake rises to over 100. Fears rise that the toll could rise even further as efforts continue to clear rubble from the ruined town centre https://t.co/8cwUEiTwoQ

The Irish Independent published a portion of the readings from seismic instruments in Rathfarnham Castle which registered the Italian earthquake, despite being over a thousand miles away https://t.co/TzuAuE7hTS

RAF East Fortune, Scotland

2.48am

The massive R34 Airship takes to the sky in an attempt to make the first crossing of the Atlantic from the European side. https://t.co/4ghjQmnckM

The airship (below, being prepared for take-off in July 1919) takes three hours to reach Rathlin Island, just 250 miles away. This slow pace gives an indication of the lengthy voyage that awaited the crew https://t.co/PJLkN16zgi

Lord Iveagh's Gardens, Dublin

A fete in aid of the Red Cross is held in Lord Iveagh's Gardens. Pictured below are Mrs. Cooke, Dr. Peacock, Lady Talbot of Malahide, H. O'Connell Fitzsimons, and Ms. Shaw. @MaryPhelanMP https://t.co/FMSnshTm7O

Derrynane Abbey

Daniel O'Connell, grandson of the Great Liberator, dies. https://t.co/ytjQnQTn6m

3rd July 1919

Dublin

William Pedlar, an Irish American, who fought in the GPO in 1916, sues the DMP for £128, which he claims was taken unlawfully when he was recently arrested on drilling charges. The jury finds in Pedlar's favour, awarding damages to the plaintiff. However, ...

The judge, Mr. Justice Pim, takes the extraordinary action of taking the ruling out of the jury's hands on the grounds that Pedlar was 'an alien, that had no rights'. He overruled the jury and gave judgement for the defendant instead

Toledo, Ohio

The city of Toledo prepares itself for the one of the most anticipated Heavyweight Championship bouts in history between reigning champion, Jess Willard (below - arms out) and Jack Dempsey (below - arms folded) in an Independence Day battle tomorrow https://t.co/JB8mL3unuX

Bisbee, Arizona

8 people are seriously wounded and 40 black soldiers are arrested as riots break out in the rural town of Bisbee. The riot is another in a series of incidents involving attacks upon black communities in recent months across the United States. https://t.co/p07yNF2omq

4th July 1919

Ship St. Barracks, Dublin

The Court Martial of James O'Keefe, caretaker of Avondale House, birthplace of Charles Stuart Parnell, takes place. Evidence was given of over 7lb of explosives found under a floor. He refused to recognise the court

Shortly after proceedings involving James O'Keefe had concluded, another court martial commenced with James O'Doherty, a commercial traveller living on Connaught St, charged with possession of a rifle. He also refused to recognise court.

Trinity College, Dublin

TCD honours Lord French with an honorary degree. He is pictured below, on the left hand side, along with the new provost of the college, Dr. Bernard https://t.co/uqYeP7shBz

St. Pierre, Newfoundland, Canada

The R34 airship makes radio contact indicating that all is well aboard, and the coordinates given indicate it is directly over the town of St. Pierre, making it the first aircraft to cross the Atlantic from the European side

Toledo, Ohio

As temperatures hit nearly 40 Celsius, thousands of people make their way to a 97,000 capacity temporary stadium (below) in Bay View Park to witness what would become one of most infamous boxing bouts in history between Jess Willard and Jack Dempsey https://t.co/F9bTaGL9Jv. Jess Willard and Jack Dempsey emerge from the shade in the blazing sun in a bout for Willard's Heavyweight Championship. What follows is one of the most infamous boxing matches in history. Below shows the preamble to the first round... https://t.co/fzkYuIDowC

As they stand side by side awaiting the referee's instructions, the great physical differences between the fighters is clear. Dempsey was a tall 6'1' in his own right, but Willard was almost six inches taller. However, what was also clear Dempsey's far more impressive physique https://t.co/iTdcclao5o

The first round was the most brutal in boxing history, after a strong start Willard wilted, as Dempsey bopped around and landed blow after blow to a helpless Champion. Willard was soon knocked to the canvas for first time ever. Incredibly, he would be knocked down 6 more times https://t.co/E54Ca0hHg4

Willard was unable to answer the call for the 4th round and Jack Dempsey is crowned Heavyweight Champion. Willard suffered a broken jaw, cheekbone, and ribs, as well as losing several teeth. https://t.co/SExTr6fwxX

At the end of the round Willard could barely stand. Such was the noise in the arena, that the ring bell could not be heard, and people rushed the ring thinking Dempsey had won. However, the referee called Dempsey back and the fight continued, mercilessly, for 2 more rounds https://t.co/1AigEN3U0Y

The fight would take on somewhat of a mythical status and theories varying from the extent of Willard's injuries to the question of whether Dempsey's gloves were loaded with plaster of Paris rage 100 years on https://t.co/qxglij1sLs

5th July 1919

Amerongen, mid-Netherlands

The fate of Wilhelm, former Kaiser, hangs in the balance. The Treaty allows for his prosecution for a supreme offence against international morality. It is thought that a formal request will be made to the Dutch for extradition soon

6th July 1919

Mineola, New Jersey

The R34 Airship touches down in Long Island after travelling 3,100 miles in 108 hours, an average speed of around 28 mph. The vessel makes a very steep descent (below) before safely touching down with very little fuel left https://t.co/D13WrAkLhh

8th July 1919

Dublin

The sister ship of the R34, the vessel that crossed the Atlantic a few days ago, the R33 causes a sensation when it flies at a low altitude over the city. This image is taken from the front page of the Evening Herald https://t.co/JFBJoJAis1

Tipperary

Lord French, and the Privy Council, declare the following organisations illegal in Tipperary;

o Sinn Féin

o The Irish Volunteers

o Cumman na mBan

o The Gaelic League

The suppression of the organisations comes as a direct result of the facilitation of the escape of the Volunteers that shot D.I Hunt in broad daylight in Thurles in the middle of a crowd of thousands of people, and fact that his demise was cheered in Kilmallock and Ballylanders

Dublin

Thomas Doherty and Christopher Bolger are brought before court charged with rioting on the night that the Treaty of Versailles is signed. Evidence is heard of alibis for both men, but the judge decides to proceed to a full trial of both men

Dublin

11 women, members of the Women's Royal Air Force, based in Gormanstown, lodge compensation claims in relation to their malicious injuries and treatment they received on O'Connell Street on the night the Treaty of Versailles is signed. The women are Jean Florence Perry, Estella B. Porter, Jennie Murphy, Lillian Douglas, Kathleen McDonnell, Hilda Sinton, Clara Gibney, Winifred Ryan, Margaret Kelly, Elizabeth Geraghty, and Bridget Daly

Dublin

Faced with extraordinary cost of reconstruction, and reintegration of demobilised soldiers, government's victory loan scheme is in full swing seeking public to invest in scheme for a future return. This cartoon focuses upon financial potential for investors https://t.co/XWY8pV5zdZ

Westminster

The case of John O'Loughlin, the Westport boy that was illegally detained by police following shooting of J.C Milling is raised in parliament by Edward Kelly, M.P for East Donegal. He makes an extraordinary claim, and seeks comment from Chief Secretary https://t.co/1fK6hIz4WO

He claims that O'Loughlin was pressured to testify that he had seen two ITGWU members from Westport walking away from Milling's house on the night of the shooting. Were he to do so, the RIC promised him enough money to emigrate to America. The Chief Secretary refuses to comment

London

Winston Churchill, Secretary of State for War and Air, confirms that there are 59,529 British troops in Ireland at present, and a further 1,789 members of the Royal Air Force.

Tipperary

The rural RIC barracks in Kilfeacle and Lisvernane, which had been abandoned, are once again re-stationed by a large group of reinforcements

Athea, Limerick

A group of boys standing at a corner singing the Soldier's Song and Wrap the Green Flag Around Me are attacked by a group of RIC Officers. It is stated that two boys, who were not among the singing group, are seriously wounded

Ennistymon Union Hospital, Clare

Constables Henehan and O'Connor, the two RIC Officers that were wounded in a shooting a few days are said to be recovering well. Austin Geraghty, and Peter J. O'Loughlin remain in custody in Ennis in connection with the incident

New York Harbour

The USS George Washington sails into New York Harbour. Aboard, is President Woordrow Wilson returning from France after the conclusion of the Peace Conference and the signing of the Treaty of Versailles https://t.co/EOfi7mRHqU

Wilson is received with a celebratory procession through Fifth Avenue in front of an estimated crowd of over one million New Yorkers. Afterwards, the President is officially welcomed home at an event in Carnegie Hall https://t.co/C2t0nBdyoY

Waldorf Astoria Hotel, Fifth Avenue, New York

Eamon DeValera watches from his window procession of Woodrow Wilson down Fifth Avenue. Also present are Frank Walsh and Edward Dunne, themselves recently home from Paris. They do not share their enthusiasm for Wilson https://t.co/Tl2vnE2eE9

Clonmel

Hopes that ongoing Asylum strike coming to an end are dashed when Asylum Committee state that only 97/105 workers that went on strike can return. As there has been a drop in inmates, 8 temporary workers are no longer needed. Union disagrees, strike continues

Waldorf Astoria Hotel, Fifth Avenue, New York

Eamon DeValera watches from his window procession of Woodrow Wilson down Fifth Avenue. Also present are Frank Walsh and Edward Dunne, themselves recently home from Paris. They do not share their enthusiasm for Wilson https://t.co/Tl2vnE2eE9

London

Winston Churchill, Secretary of State for War and Air, confirms that there are 59,529 British troops in Ireland at present, and a further 1,789 members of the Royal Air Force.

9th July 1919

Dublin

The problem of widespread profiteering of basic food stuffs is highlighted in Dublin as action is called for to curb the practice. Cabbage is regularly bought at market for 1 1/2d., but sold for up to 4d. to shops, with a profit of over 300%

Wimbledon

Suzanne Lenglen wins the Women's Singles Championship at Wimbledon. She is shown below celebrating her victory at centre-court. The match is a landmark in the women's game as it is viewed by 8,000 people including the King and Queen https://t.co/hzS1XCpMri

It is Lenglen's debut at Wimbledon, and her first tournament on grass. Her outfit, with bare forearms, and dress cut off at her calves, caused an uproar in an era when most women wore outfits that covered their entire bodies. She also casually sipped brandy between sets https://t.co/w02NeDvkxz

Thurles

Following yesterday's suppression of Irish organsiations, reinforcement police officers from Belfast march through Thurles town as the military further fortify their position and bring in enhances telegraphy technology

7.55pm

Dublin

The fragility of Dublin's electricity supply is highlighted when a black-out crippled several industries in the city centre. All cinemas were forced to close and escort their patrons to the pleasant July air as trams ground to a halt

Cork

As publicity for the government's victory loan increases, the following cartoon is published in the Cork Examiner. Alongside cartoons appealing to potential financial reward for investing in scheme, others, such as this, appealed to a more patriotic sentiment https://t.co/UxrEqNCP0y

The Irish Independent evokes tale of Buridan's Ass, a donkey who was unable to make up its mind between two identical equidistant piles of hay, and starves to death, to compare public's decision to either take Victory Loan or the Funding Loan, also on offer at attractive rates https://t.co/ZoYuOLvnVr

Nenagh

In the early hours of the morning, RIC Officers place issues of the proclamation of suppression of Irish organisations on the doors of prominent buildings around the town. The residents awake to the sight of the doors of the Sinn Féin hall firmly bolted shut

Meath

A bitter dispute continues between farm labourers, represented by ITGWU and the Meath Farmer's Association. Cattle that are being brought for sale in multiple towns in the county are stopped by striking workers refusing admission who force them to turn around

Cooraclare, Kilrush, Clare

Whilst on patrol, Constables Mannion and Creaghan are shot at by unknown assailants. They are uninjured, but shaken by the incident. It is the second such incident in the area in recent days

10th July 1919

Berlin

The German National Assembly ratifies the Treaty of Versailles by 208 votes to 115

Cahirciveen, Kerry

A memorial to Captain J. Roche, who died in France during the Great War, is blown up with dynamite. Authorities are investigating

Roosevelt Field, Long Island

The R34 Airship takes off from Long Island on its return flight to England. Should it safely reach its destination it will become the first aircraft to make a successful return voyage across the Atlantic

In both a clever advertising campaign, and an illustration into the great interest in aviation, outside Marconi House in London, a giant map is erected showing the progress of R34 from the United States back across the Atlantic using Marconi telegrams as updates https://t.co/TKrjY9OZoL

United States Senate, Washington D.C

For the first time since 1789, an American President personally delivers a Treaty to the Senate. In a forty minute speech he urges ratification of Treaty of Versailles

It is far from an assured performance on Wilson's part. He begins his speech poorly, and struggles to read typed notes, and begins to omit key words, before circling back and repeating himself. Whilst he did conclude strongly, speculation emerges into his health and well-being

Madison Square Garden, New York

12,000 people cram into Madison Square Garden to hear De Valera’s first public speech in New York. Another 6,000 are locked out following a decision of the NYFD that conditions would not be safe, such was the excitement of the crowd https://t.co/PdsNKJ92IO

Proceedings opened with a rendition of the Star Spangled Banner, inclusive of the third verse that included the lines; Their blood has washed out their foul footsteps' pollution.

No refuge could save the hireling and slave from the terror of flight, or the gloom of the grave’

This verse had largely been omitted officially in the past number of years given the fact that the Americans were allies with the British during the Great War. Its reintroduction before De Valera’s speech was a very deliberate act.

One of the first speakers on the night was Fr. Francis Duffy. He mentioned Wilson in first line of his speech, whose name was greeted with prolonged boos. A statue to Duffy was later erected, and still dominates the northern end of Times Square (below taken in May 2019) https://t.co/aJyQE6g393

When De Valera was introduced the crowd roared for 15 minutes without a break. Awkwardly standing on stage unsure of how to contain the rabid crowd, DeValera asked for two flag bearers to stand on stage, which led to the band playing the Soldier’s Song and further prolonged chaos.

When relative calm was eventually restored, De Valera began by saying ‘this is New York’s recognition of the Irish Republic’. He then gave a speech which harshly criticised President Wilson and his lack of recognition of Ireland

11th July 1919

Dublin

Readers of the main newspapers are reminded that the deadline for the purchase of bonds as part of the Victory Loan is tomorrow, and that no further bonds will be issued thereafter https://t.co/BbN0Q3XIqZ

12th July 1919

Dublin

For the first time in Ireland, recent writings of prominent American publicist, George Creel, are published. Creel's essays, which widely circulating in America, go into state of British Rule over Ireland for many decades and discusses its abject failings https://t.co/bGOEI03jk9

Belfast

Orangemen celebrate the 229th Anniversary of the Battle of the Boyne with their annual marches across Ulster. An estimated 300,000 people marched down Royal Avenue in the celebration of the Twelfth since end of the Great War https://t.co/UfD4WqdSH2

In their review of the events of the Twelfth 100 years ago, the Irish Independent notes that the entire day is about celebrating the virtues of a 17th Century Dutchman for whom not a thought is given for the rest of the year https://t.co/AQKthqHNoJ

Following recent opposition among Ulster Unionism, Edward Carson delivers a caustic speech intended to place himself firmly back in role of defender of Ulster. In speech he denounces everyone from De Valera, Wilson, the Catholic Church, and Westminster https://t.co/O0fLXmTz9d

Most significantly, Carson states that should the Westminster attempt 'to take away one jot or tittle of your British citizenship away' he would call out the Ulster Volunteers once more as he did at the height of the Home Rule crisis

Dublin

In a week where courts in multiple counties, including Dublin and North Tipperary, state that their communities are crime free and peaceable, Irish Independent cartoonists speculate on what is really going on in 'Official' Ireland https://t.co/aHhAmm8qYD

13th July 1919

Germany

The economic blockade upon the German State is lifted following the ratification of the Treaty of Versailles by German Parliament. Britain, and other nations are now free to trade with the beleaguered nation, with exception of certain restrictions

Pulham

6.05am

The R34 Airship lands in Pulham R.A.F base after successfully returning from America. It is the first time an aircraft has completed a return crossing of the Atlantic.

Mullingar

In the early hours of the morning a baton charge is made against a group of Sinn Féin supporters in the Westmeath town. Two police officers are hit with revolver shots and are being treated in hospital

Cub's Park, Chicago

De Valera makes his second stadium appearance in America in the home of the Chicago Cubs, better known today as Wrigley Field, the name the venue was given in 1927 following investment from chewing-gum magnate, William Wrigley Jr. https://t.co/e0HeoAqZ7A

25,000 people show up to hear De Valera, a smaller crowd than in Boston's Fenway Park, but nonetheless boisterous. He received a 31 minute ovation when he took to the podium. He had been introduced as normal by Frank Walsh, but also, on this occasion, by Mayor 'Big Bill' Thompson https://t.co/rOb1dESgBn

Athlone

Owen Sweeney, President of Athlone Sinn Féin Club, and Michael Dillon, return home after their time in Mountjoy in connection with a prohibited meeting. They are warmly received by their colleagues and friends

Kilmallock, Limerick

James Chamberlain is welcomed back to his community after a period in Mountjoy with a procession behind a marching band and flaming tar barrels

14th July 1919

London

The British press reaction to Edward Carson's speech two days ago is not kind. The Daily News says that his outburst shows that it is as difficult to discuss with him as it is with a mad dog, and that his attitude is a threat to permanent peace in the world

Washington D.C

American newspapers print De Valera's speech he made in Chicago yesterday in full. It is a massive propaganda coup for the his American Mission. The fact that the Washington Times (below) overstates the attendance in Chicago does him no harm either https://t.co/apGCTfhgjh

Chicago

De Valera boards a train bound for San Francisco as he embarks on his first trip to the American West Coast

15th July 1919

Ireland

Expectations of a massive growth in the consumption of sugar leads to leading agricultural figures in Ireland suggesting that the time has come to grow sugar in Ireland. The crop has been sown in any great yield since the 19th Century in Queen's County

North Sea

Just 2 days after the successful return flight of a British airship over the Atlantic, the perils of lighter than air-airships is brought into sharp focus. The N.S 11 leaves Pulham on a mine-hunting exercise and sets out over the North Sea https://t.co/ym4DXc5p8B

The vessel held the world record for the highest mileage of any aircraft at the time. Just off the Norfolk coast, N.S 11 flew into a dark cloud. Moments later a massive explosion was heard. All 9 crew members died. It was suspected that the air ship was destroyed by lightning

16th July 1919

Drumbilagh, Cavan

James McBreen sues Elizabeth Carolan for damages. McBreen agreed verbally to marry Carolan's daughter in exchange for land. When the land was not forthcoming, McBreen pursued legal proceedings. The judge harshly criticises all parties involved

Thurles

Military patrols continue to stalk the streets of Thurles. Aside from running confrontations with a group of local boys, life in the Tipperary town goes on as normal

Scalaheen, Tipperary

Patrick O’Halloran is sentenced to 6 months in prison for possession of a document that declares there is an open state of war between England and Ireland

London

Carson’s infamous speech last week is still one of the main talking points in Britain. There are growing calls for Carson’s speech to be deemed as treasonous. It is pointed out that any threat to the King’s government should be viewed as high treason

Dublin

3,000 members of the Nationalist Veterans Association refuse to march in this weekend’s Victory Day celebrations. Tom Kettle’s widow, at a meeting in Mansion House, said they’d refuse to salute Lord French due to British coercion in Ireland

17th July 1919

San Francisco Ferry Terminal

Eamonn De Valera arrives into San Francisco for the first time. He is greeted by a large number of Irish American sailors working in the area https://t.co/r94kPUFFPA

De Valera's car, bringing him to St. Francis' Hotel on Powell Street is stopped by a crowd of men from Ancient Order of Hibernians. They ask driver to turn off engine as they fasten ropes to the vehicle and pull De Valera's car the rest of the way - to the curiosity of the locals

Thousands of people cheer the car being pulled by six proud Irish Americans to St. Francis' Hotel. As he emerges he is presented with a bouquet of flowers in a spectacle of adulation that lasted for four days he was in the Californian city https://t.co/ux8T0dBIof

London

The British Attorney General, following questions from a large number of https://t.co/5cnjUneR6Y, advises the government that Edward Carson's speech last week in which he stated that he would bring out the Ulster Volunteers again was perfectly legal

Cork

As apathy reigns ahead of Peace Day celebrations, Cork Guardians take decision to hang a black flag from the Workhouse in protest at British presence in Ireland

Carlow

The Urban District Council refuse the military permission to use the town hall for a dance. It follows written protests from the local Sinn Féin, Cumann na mBan, and Transport Workers’ Union groups

18th July 1919

Dublin

There are concerns among Irish farmers at proposals to allow the import of Canadian store cattle into Britain and Ireland on the basis of potential fall of Irish beef prices, lower quality meat, and potential for disease

Birmingham

Practically all of the North Eastern railway system in England has ground to a halt due to a strike following of the dismissal of a driver who failed an eyesight test

Bethlehem Shipyard, San Francisco

During a speech by De Valera, a man shouts 'God Save the King!' He received two swift blows in either direction to the face and the gentleman had to be rescued by policemen and escorted to safety

Dublin

There are concerns among Irish farmers at proposals to allow the import of Canadian store cattle into Britain and Ireland on the basis of potential fall of Irish beef prices, lower quality meat, and potential for disease

19th July 1919

College Green, Dublin

15,000 troops, and 5,000 demobilised troops march past Lord French, who took the salute in front of the Bank of Ireland as part of Victory Day celebrations. Hundreds watch from the roof of Trinity College, fully decked in Union Jacks https://t.co/KQfv2r0S8P

Aside from a few pockets of cheering crowds around Kildare Street and Great Brunswick Street, there is very little notice taken of the parade. People, away from Trinity, proceeded on their day as normal, with an odd few cheers for demobilised troops

Bringing up the rear of the Victory Day parade are a series of tanks used in the front that were recently brought into Ireland as part of a potential crack down on insurgency. There was also a women's section of the parade with members of the Women's Royal Air Force participating https://t.co/Fpr2uDH8i7

Philadelphia

Joseph McGarrity's Irish Press continues to publicise DeValera's tour of America. Whilst an important addition to the press coverage of the events, it was by no means the only one. Most of America's main papers were covering DeValera on front pages https://t.co/mteXcMR4Jx

O’Connell Street, Dublin

A large group of young men congregate outside the shell of the old GPO late in the evening and sing the Soldiers Song. Tensions are high following the Victory Day March and they are chased away by police towards Henry Street

Beresford Place, outside Liberty Hall

A group of 300 people gather to hear an ex-soldier speak. Police that had just cleared O’Connell St. made their way to Beresford and baton charged the crowd, dispersing themselves towards Store St.

Bachelor’s Walk, Dublin

A group of Sinn Féin supporters chase two policemen down the quays and attempt to throw them into the Liffey. Following the intervention of another policeman, shots are fired and a sergeant is shot in the back

London

The Victory Day Parade in London is one of the largest processions in the history of the city. Millions of people turn out to witness tens of thousands of troops parade the main thoroughfares of London https://t.co/scfYaiYhwq

Cork City

Following a largely uneventful Victory Day in Cork, there are chaotic scenes in the evening as the police make several baton charges at large crowds in the Patrick St. area. Several shots were also fired at police in the same incident

20th July 1919

Golden Gate Park, San Francisco

De Valera unveils (below) statue of Robert Emmet, sculpted by Dublin-born Jerome Connor. An identical copy, one of 4 sculpted by Connor, is in St. Stephen's Green, Dublin. Another is in Washington D.C, and another in Emmetsburg, Iowa https://t.co/aOYJDL8bTy

Dublin

The Sunday Independent cartoonist, Gordon Brewster, has his say upon the comments during the week in Westminster that Edward Carson's fiery 12th July speech was not illegal as he was talking in 'purely hypothetical terms' https://t.co/kjFFXXMdIw

He also considers the plight of people on fixed salaries, and the spectre of rising food prices which is creating misery across urban areas of Ireland and Britain https://t.co/U5gok0EA6a

Castleblaney, Monaghan

Addressing crowd of 3,000 people, Sean McEntee, M.P, said that should any Sinn Féin elected official had given a speech like Carson's last week in Belfast, they would undoubtedly be either spending the last week evading arrest or behind bars

Croke Park

@DubGAAOfficial defeat @MeathGAA 8-8 to 5-4 to advance to the Leinster Hurling Final.

Cork

All of the major newspapers are awash with reporting on events of yesterday's Victory Day celebrations, andviolent incidents in the evening in various cities. Below is from the Cork Examiner's account of the day showing tanks moving through Cork City https://t.co/RCMBgkOys6

21st July 1919

Panama Canal

In a not-so-subtle reminder that post-Versailles Treaty world is anything but peaceful, huge numbers of American naval vessels pass through the Panama Canal to the Pacific amidst rising tensions with Japan https://t.co/5aW9gdqoNB

Yorkshire

A labour dispute involving coal miners, and mine operators takes a drastic escalation as several mines in Yorkshire are flooded by striking miners. The Prime Minister pledges naval officers to try and pump water out of the flooded mines

Mansion House, Dublin

There are chaotic scenes in the Round Room during a meeting of the ITGWU on P.T Daly's position in the Trade Union. William O'Brien, Chair of the Congress of TUs was beaten, as scores of people stormed the platform in protest

Mid-Clare

A group of Volunteers attack RIC Barracks in Inch, and Connolly, west of Ennis. In one of the raids, both three hours apart, the RIC Officers returned fire and are confident that they wounded one of the raiding party

Rathdrum

In a meeting of Rathdrum Rural District Council, a formal letter from Robert Barton, M.P, is read out explaining his absence for past 6 months. He says as he was kidnapped by crown forces and moved to a dungeon in Mountjoy, he could not attend meetings

Dublin

The City of Dublin Steampacket Co. is sold to the London Maritime Investment Co. for £300,000. It now means that there are no Irish owned steam liner companies crossing the Irish Sea

San Francisco

De Valera concludes his visit to California as he boards a train bound for his next stop en-route back to New York; Salt Lake City in Utah

Washington D.C

Tensions in American capital continue to rise as racial rioting spreads. Dozens of people have been reportedly killed. The violence stemmed from rumours that commenced two nights ago regarding alleged sexual assualt of a white woman by a black man https://t.co/h1Ln9W0Yf4

When the police department failed to intervene in white gangs attacking an killing innocent black men in prominent locations in the city, including outside the White House, black people were forced to defend themselves which led to escalation in violence

Luton

Ireland is not the only place where there are fervent protests against Peace Day celebrations. In Luton, ex-servicemen, frustrated at the lavish reception in nearby London, feeling that money would be better spent on their reintegration were incensed

Aggrieved at this, and a lack of any formal recognition in the town for their war efforts, they storm the Town Hall and set it on fire. The building is destroyed and is knocked down the following month https://t.co/TkIZe4j5Qy

22nd July 1919

Dublin

Constable Roche, the Officer that was shot in the back on the night of unrest following Victory Day parade a few days ago, is reportedly out of danger and is recovering well. Denis Mahon, a 40 year old Dublin man, is under arrest for the incident

Hong Kong

Half a million people take to the streets of Hong Kong to celebrate their own Victory Day Parade. Celebrations conclude with a luncheon for invited guests in Kowloon Park https://t.co/gR4P2DWCZ6

Curragh

Stories of incidents from Peace Night a few days ago continue to trickle on to front pages of national press. The latest story is from the Curragh where 33 people were injured in a stampede when fireworks malfunctioned and began exploding in a crowd

Arklow

William O'Cleary, Chair of local Sinn Féin Club, conveys a message from the local Cumann na mBan that the fine that was imposed upon them recently for collecting for the Irish Republic, which has been paid, was not paid by them and resent suggestions of same

Glasnevin

Gravediggers, in an escalation of their dispute with the corporation, state that they will go on strike at the weekend if their pay demands are not met. Part of the issue concerns Sunday burials, and issues around extra pay for digging graves on Sunday

Mountainoral, Bansha, Tipperary

Hugh Kennedy is found not guilty of seditious behavior following discovery of an edition of An tÓglach, the official Volunteer magazine, on his person. An tÓglach was published irregularly since 1918 and contained comms from GHQ

Washington D.C

After a night of further violence in the American capital, the Washington Times publishes a front page map detailing the worst affected parts of the city. https://t.co/YHS60HSfFG

23rd July 1919

England

Industry in England continues to grind to a halt as the supply of coal dries up owing to the strikes in Yorkshire, and 300,000 miners downing tools. Train services have been reduced, as strikes begin to spread in the Liverpool area too

24th July 1919

Melbourne

A strike of dockers in Melbourne continues, and brings shipping around the continent to a standstill. There is little hope of a resolution any time soon. The strike is part of growing labour unrest across the world

Dublin

The full extent of the arsenal of weapons that was discovered in Stephen St. following arrest of James Byrne a few weeks ago is revealed. 5 revolvers, 1 machine gun, 4 bayonets, a sword, 3 knuckle-dusters with blades, 500 rounds of ammo was discovered

Salt Lake City, Utah

De Valera makes a short visit to Utah. His reception is smaller than in any of other cities he has visited. A tiny crowd gathered in the Mormon Tabernacle in Temple Square for a series of hymns played in his honour before departing for Montana https://t.co/qOxdBNDTLL

London

The Times publishes an extensive article on a possible solution to situation in Ireland. The once ardent anti-home rule paper, now supports a federal idea of an Ulster and rest-of Ireland legislatures, with equal representation in an All-Ireland parliament

Westminster

The official tallymen in Westminster are criticised on their attention to detail when it is revealed that the Pierce McCan, who died several months ago in prison, had voted in favour of the Peace Treaty Bill yesterday

Dublin

Liam Tannam, one of the men that escaped Mountjoy Prison, is rearrested in the Public Health Offices, where he had been an employee. He was removed to the Bridewell, and then back to Mountjoy to complete a topped-up sentence

Mid-Clare

RIC Officers seek compensation in connection with the recent attacks upon Inch and Connolly RIC Barrack Huts. £100 is granted to the men stationed in both posts

10 Downing Street

A special Cabinet meeting is briefed by the Special Intelligence Branch on the ongoing coal crisis and the status of mines as over 240,000 miners have left their posts https://t.co/bsLstQPZb9

Drumcondra Bridge, Dublin

4 Volunteers, Jim Slattery, Tom Keogh, Tom Ennis, and Mick Kennedy, loiter around Drumcondra Bridge for the fifth night in a row. They were on a mission to assassinateDetective Officer Patrick Smith, a member of DMP's Intelligence unit. Orders for their mission came directly from Micheal Collins, Richard Mulcahy, and Dick McKee. They had decided to commence an orchestrated attempt to assassinate all G-men in Dublin Castle before a concerted effort against Dublin Volunteers is ramped up

Kennedy was the only one who knew Smith by sight and when a man matching his description approached them, he was almost certain that it was their target. However, Slattery was keen to be absolutely certain, and by the time he made his way to his known address he was out of range

25th July 1919

Cork

Lord Justice O'Connor, presiding at Cork Assizes, in making opening statements, discusses how the an act of treason does not necessarily involve the actual taking up of arms and can apply if armed rebellion is suggested. It is assumed he is referring to Carson

Thurles

Thurles Urban District Council is levied with a charge of £12,000 in relation to the shooting dead of D.I Micheal Hunt. This is in keeping with precedent established in Westport following the shooting dead of J.C Milling.

Dublin

There is a risk that most drapers in Dublin will go on strike from next Monday following a dispute between workers employed with Hickeys and Boyers. The Lord Mayor offers to mediate between the disputing parties

House of Lords, Westminster

In a debate on a housing bill for Ireland, Dermot Bourke, Lord Mayo, says of housing in Dublin;

'The working classes and the poor in that town live in the most wretched way... https://t.co/FsRD0HZhKD

...They live in houses which were built for gentlefolk in the 18th century. They are totally unsuitable, and sanitary arrangements are practically nil. It is a town which is a disgrace, and if government do not see that it is properly dealt with it will be a very serious matter.'

26th July 1919

Edinburgh

Edward, Prince of Wales, inspects a guard of honour on the occasion of his receiving the freedom of the Scottish capital https://t.co/7W3mfGLPpa

London

Yorkshire Miners gather outside Caxton Hall in London as discussions continue to broker an agreement to end the week long coal miners strike https://t.co/ihdu6tCvX6

Philadelphia

Joe McGarrity's Irish Press reports on De Valera's stay in California. The paper also reports on the circumstances surrounding the proclamation organisations in North and South Tipperary, and the speech made by Seamus Burke, Roscrea. https://t.co/wRVkUkDRWm

27th July 1919

29th Street Beach, Lake Michigan, Chicago

A 17 year old African-American, Eugene Williams, swimming in Lake Michigan, strays across the unoffical divide into a 'white beach'. Gangs of white men throw stones at Williams. He is struck and drowns.

Large groups of black people converge to retrieve Williams' body. They are met by the white mob and tensions spill over when the police refuse to arrest the man eyewitnesses said had struck Williams' with the fatal stone. As crowds leave the beach (below) news spreads of incident https://t.co/2HhsYNyz3i

As rumours spread, they raced away from the truth and riots soon began to engulf the south side of the city around the dockyards. The riots would last for days. See @131Weeks for more details and images from this harrowing period in American history

St. Columban's Park, Dalgan Park, Galway

For the first time, a Professor of Chinese Language arrives in Ireland to teach Mandarin. Ying Ki will teach missionary priests the language before they depart on their missionary duties https://t.co/QKZJLc8VeB

Dublin

Ireland's three main rail companies receive compensation of £13,500 under DORA legislation for loss of business and damage to lines during Easter Week, 1916. The first incident of the Rising was the derailing of a train in Colt Wood, Laois https://t.co/pgSkTlk0VN

Pallas Train Station, Limerick

William Duggan, Doon, returns from imprisonment in Cork. He is met by Cappamore Band who escort him, along with a Cycling Corps and local Volunteers, to his native village. Extra drafted police ensure the streets are cleared by 11pm

Croagh Patrick, Mayo

On Reek Sunday, thousands of pilgrims ascend Mayo's holy mountain. The Archbishop of Tuam, Thomas Gilmartin, 'climbs' the mountain on the back of a donkey. It is the first time in 14 years the bishop has joined his congregation in climbing https://t.co/EdO07T6pgE

Sarsfield Rock, Ballyneety, Limerick

An aerideacht is proclaimed by military officials. In response, a large group of people gather at Sarsfield Rock for what they call a picnic. Soldiers with bayonets ordered the people to disperse but they refused.

28th July 1919

Dublin

Readers of the Evening Herald are warned of an international environment that is getting worse. There are tensions in Asia between China & Japan, tensions between USA & Japan, between USA & Mexico, and skirmishes in the Balkans, India, and North Africa

Trinity College, Dublin

William Jellett is elected unopposed as M.P for Trinity College. He is the son of a former Provost. In his speech he said that Ireland should be left alone, under English rule, to develop its industry, and condemned the actions of Sinn Féin

Jellett's election is said to have been most un-eventful in history of TCD. It would be final time Trinity College would elect M.P. Jellet is pictured below (right) with Captain Henry Brew Kennedy. Kennedy, Jellett's friend, received a cup for defence of TCD during Easter Rising https://t.co/TuZa6lbqfc

Dublin

Following the intervention of the Lord Mayor, the Drapers' strike in the city comes to an end. It is agreed that their claim for an increase in wages in the region of 8 shillings be accepted and be back-dated to May when the dispute began

Macroom

RIC Officers are awarded £1,000 in compensation following an attack upon them recently when they were on patrol. One officer received gun shot wounds to the neck

Chicago

Race Riots continue to rage across Chicago as mobs of white young men attack black communities in the city. Irish American gangs attack Lithuanian communities in disguise in their attempt to incite further violence against black community https://t.co/2SDuJlOR6m

Athens

Rumours emerge, via an American source, of a romance between King Alexander of Greece, and Josephine Kelly (below, centre) born in Chicago to parents from Tipperary and Ballylanders. The rumour is refuted given the king's relationship with Aspasia Manos https://t.co/TPlrjwHHaP

Baltinglass

Two shots are fired through the windows of Baltinglass RIC Barracks. The police are said to be very concerned at this ominous escalation of open hostility towards the police in the west-Wicklow area

Thurles

Despite the public taking a very ambivalent attitude towards the increased military presence in the town, military and RIC bases in the town and surrounding areas are being fortified with sandbags as patrols increase.

Presentation College, Western Road, Cork

The Cork Examiner publishes a photograph of the attendees of the second Cork Gaelic Summer School where students come to learn Irish over a three week period https://t.co/RsFgKoqqUP

London

The monetary cost of the ongoing coal strike is estimated at £5.4 million. One million of this total is due to damage to mines due to deliberate flooding last week. This total in today's terms is approximately £80 million

29th July 1919

Dublin

Eamonn O'Kelly, during his court-martial, asks the prosecution whether the prohibition on the holding of arms applies to all of Ireland. When this is confirmed, he asks why is it that the law does not apply Carson and his friends in Ulster. No reply is given

Dublin

P.J McNally is courtmartialed in connection with the discovery of arms and explosives in his mother's home in Claremont, King's County. When charged McNally says he will say nothing and refuses to recognise the court

Thurles

A meeting, held in connection with forming organisation for demobilised soldiers, descends into chaos after a mere 20 minutes. When J.J Fitzsimons attempted to speak an ex-soldier began to wave a stool at him, whilst Sinn Féin supporters began to interrupt

Longford

Another meeting of ex-soldiers in Longford experiences similar trouble, when Earl of Granard is interrupted by supporters of self-determination for Ireland. The meeting adjourns amidst heated debate on how such organisations should move away from loyalism

Dublin

Eamonn O'Kelly, during his court-martial, asks the prosecution whether the prohibition on the holding of arms applies to all of Ireland. When this is confirmed, he asks why is it that the law does not apply Carson and his friends in Ulster. No reply is given

Montreal

As De Valera continues his tour of Montana, press officials in Montreal report that should he set foot on Canadian soil, he would be immediately arrested and transported under guard to London

30th July 1919

Drumcondra

After abortive attempt few days ago, same group of Volunteers gather at Drumcondra Bridge to wait for DMP Sergeant Detective Smyth to alight tram. They shoot him with .38 revolvers several times. Smyth is pursued to his front door before Volunteers flee https://t.co/w1pxtUy7Xy

Cork

Cork Examiner is first Irish newspaper to publish photos of De Valera's mass-meeting in Fenway Park in Boston few weeks ago. The photos, by Boston Post, are highly significant as they illustrate to Sinn Féin the appetite and support in America for Irish cause https://t.co/JFWwrRCvoh

Helena, Montana

In the Montana State Legislature, De Valera makes a rousing speech. He says that since the U.S gained independence, there has been five revolutions in Ireland, and should they not receive independence soon there will be another.

Afterwards, De Valera lays a wreath at the foot of the Thomas Francis Meagher Statue in front of the building. Meagher was one of the men that brought the first Irish tricolour from France in 1848, and was acting-Governor of Montana State after American Civil War https://t.co/wuw1ravSYz

Cork

Cork Examiner is first Irish newspaper to publish photos of De Valera's mass-meeting in Fenway Park in Boston few weeks ago. The photos, by Boston Post, are highly significant as they illustrate to Sinn Féin the appetite and support in America for Irish cause https://t.co/JFWwrRCvoh

31st July 1919

Tipperary

An American journalist, who is escorted through the county by police, offers his opinion on the current situation in the area. He is somewhat amused by the vigilance of the Crown Forces, and he sees no need for such an armed presence https://t.co/qNumnZJY8r

Maryborough, Queen's County

Queen's County Agricultural Show takes place. Pictured below, along with Naughty Girl (winner of show jumping) are the main organisers including (2nd from left) Major Hamilton, Roundwood House, and Sir Algernon Coote (seated), Ballyfin. https://t.co/gd8HWJ1kxQ

Chicago

Chicago University confers an honorary Doctorate in Law and Literature on De Valera https://t.co/2qRwWVS4Bx

Westminster

Sir Laming Worthington Evans outlines to House of Commons situation with pensions for the coming fiscal year. In the United Kingdom there are 2.34 million people receiving pension payments, and if this number remained static it would cost $96 million https://t.co/VvCWQW8sQP

During Worthington-Evan's speech, he is interrupted by a blind man shouting from the gallery. He shouts that he lost his sight in service of his country and he demands a pension for him, and people like him. He is escorted from building amidst much embarrassment for the minister

Waterford

The prohibition on the publication of the Waterford News newspaper is lifted, and the first issue in months will appear next week. The news is greeted in the city which has done without its main paper since the military raided the premises in May

London

Sensation is caused in London when a meeting of members of the Metropolitan Police in the capital issue immediate strike notice. The wages of policemen have barely risen since the end of the War, and their wages are comparable with agricultural labourers

1st August 1919

Cork

With Proportional Representation - Single Transferable Voting (PRSTV) coming to Ireland in the coming year for local elections, the Cork Examiner publishes a detailed map and explainer on how the system will affect the city https://t.co/oNLWdcAnTo

London

A significant day in the history of policing in Britain. With the Police Bill before the House of Commons, and news filtering through of an immediate strike of the Met, widespread looting takes place in the Old Kent Road and south-east London districts

Dublin

Butter runs out in Dublin. A government order increasing price of exported Irish butter has lead to supply chain to Dublin failing as creameries go for the more lucrative option of exporting, Fears rise of other dairy products not reaching the city

Madrid

The first ever flight from England to Spain takes place when RAF Officers Curtiss and Peters complete the flight in 8 hours. They take with them a gold cup for the Spanish King. From 2 in 1919, 100 years later, 34 million people flew from Britain to Spain.

Dublin

Sergeant Patrick Smyth is said to be in a stable condition in hospital following his shooting two days ago. It is hoped that he will make a full recovery. No arrests have been made in connection with the incident

Dublin

2 Australian soldiers, Sergeant John Clarke and Sapper Bill Comans are courtmartialed on counts of drunkenness and for heading a crowd of Sinn Féin supporters singing seditious songs on night of signing of Versailles Treaty.

Dublin

William McNally, Molly, Longford, is courtmartialed in connection with an incident in which 2 RIC Officers were assaulted in Rathmoe, Longford. As the sole witness for defence, Matthew Brady is still in hospital having being shot, the case is adjourned

London

The police strike is near collapse as the majority of policemen have refused to join the strikers. It is reported that only 512 out of 20,000 policemen have not reported to work.

2nd August 1919

New York

News breaks of the death of Oscar Hammerstein. Hammerstein was an opera impresario and was patriarch of the Hammerstein family which would leave a lasting impression on American music in the 20th Century https://t.co/gvnZYJ2xMM

Glasnevin Cemetery,

The ongoing conflict between Corporation and gravediggers comes to a head when 50 men downed their shovels. Funerals were immediately suspended. One funeral, scheduled tomorrow, will go ahead but the mourners must fill in grave themselves

New York

One of world's most influential men, and largest media mogul, William Randolph Hearst, weighs in on Carson's 12th July speech. In New York American he takes issue with Carson's comments on America and reminds that their intervention won Allies Great War https://t.co/2AOA4StX0I

3rd August 1919

Budapest

The Romanian army enters Budapest signalling the end of the Romanian war with the First Hungarian Republic. Bela Kun had fled the city the day before. The day is commemorated in Romanian history with a street in Timisoara called 3 August Boulevard https://t.co/SuGnDkFZW0

Ennis

@Kerry_Official defeat @GaaClare 6-11 to 2-0 to win the 1919 Munster Senior Football Championship

Dublin

The Sunday Independent publishes photo of a blind French soldier who was greeted by Marshal Foch in a special reception in London. The plight of soldiers blinded in the war is coming into sharp focus given fact that pensions are not being extended to them https://t.co/Pe5MrvYxDR

Dublin

For the second week in a row, Gordon Brewster draws a cartoon which is as relevant 100 years ago, as it is today in 2019. It depicts faltering English lion who can only watch on as other nations take over world trade, in this case the U.S.A https://t.co/6yZh6Woq32

London

After they were excluded from the recent Victory Parade through the streets of London, Indian soldiers of the Crown hold their own unofficial parade. They walk a short distance around the Mall through the Admiralty Arch. https://t.co/oSD6E9iRpg

Oranmore, Galway

There was drama in the skies outside Galway city as an RAF plane catches fire shortly after take off and crash lands into a field. The two pilots, Jones and Lowrie are badly burned as their clothes, damp with fuel catch fire

4th August 1919

Cloncool, West Clare

Tensions in the west of County Clare are high as a civilian that was shot in Cloncool, near O'Callaghan Mills, recovers in Ennistymon. Edward Hynes was walking along the road two nights ago when he was shot in the face.

Dublin

In an event advertised as the Dublin Marathon, runners take to a track from Howth to Croke Park. Below are the top 4 finishers (L(1st) to R(4th) - J. Heffernan, JJ Hannon, D. Maher, and J. Bolger. Pictured with an official, M.J Noble https://t.co/7kB9GBBS6r

Liverpool

As policemen remain on strike on Merseyside, looting breaks out in the morning across city. However, it is quickly and brutally put down by military officers as the riot act read out. 350 people are detained and one man is shot dead amid chaotic scenes

Greenore, Louth

A large consignment of rifles for British Army reinforcements that was being temporarily stored in Greenore, on the banks of Carlingford Lough, goes missing. It is thought that Volunteers from Newry may have been involved in the disappearance

Queenstown, Cork

A damaged American steamer limps into Queenstown for repair. As it passes Royal Navy Destroyers, it raises Irish tricolour underneath American flag. It is reported it was commonplace for American naval ships to fly the tricolour during the War

Philadelphia

To commemorate the third anniversary of the execution of Roger Casement, the Irish Press in Philadelphia publishes a lengthy appraisal of his extraordinary career as one of the Empire's pioneering humanitarians and Irish heroes of the Easter Rising https://t.co/cRWn2enye7

Broadford, East Clare

12 men, under the command of Eddie Larkin, Officer in Command of 3rd Battalion of Clare Volunteers, take uppositions in Broadford Church grounds and open fire on RIC Barracks. They retreat after 10 minutes, but RIC return fire for hours

The attack, designed purely to agitate the local RIC Officers, was one of the most prolonged attacks upon a barracks since commencement of the War of Independence and it was reported on as far away as in the Washington Post https://t.co/funQROjbuq

Cork

The annual Oireachtas commences in Cork. Events celebrating Irish music, dance, and games take place in various locations around the city, and draws large crowds from all around the island. The RIC are maintaining a close watch on proceedings https://t.co/iF6uJ08Mqp

5th August 1919

Glasnevin Cemetery

For the first time since its opening in 1832, the gates of Glasnevin Cemetery remain closed for a prolonged period of time owing to the ongoing strike of Gravediggers. They are pictured below picketing the gates alongside some onlooking soldiers https://t.co/t3py1H5kzE

Phoenix Park, Dublin

The first official photos of Ian Macpherson, the Chief Secretary for Ireland, is published in his home in the Phoenix Park. He is photographed with his wife, eldest daughter, Fiona, and his Irish terrier. https://t.co/IzRLTMqhKs

Islandbawn, Clare

2 Volunteers call to the home of Seamus Connolly and suggest that they go to a crossroads known as 81 Cross to disarm 2 RIC officers that had passed by on bikes earkier in the day and would soon be returning. Connolly agrees and the men set off.

The other 2 men were John Joe 'Tosser' Neylon, and Martin Devitt. The 2 RIC Officers they were laying a trap for were Sergeant John Riordan and Constable Michael James Murphy. Around 8pm the officers arrived and the 3 Volunteers jumped out from a ditch and shouted 'hands up!'

Murphy, a fresh recruit from Leitrim, immediately jumped upon Connolly and a struggle ensued. Riordan shot and badly wounded Devitt. Eventually Neylon managed to shoot Murphy who died instantly and badly wound Riordan. The Volunteers fled the scene, dragging the injured Devitt.

Devitt is brought to Rynns in Cloonagh on Connolly's back where he recovers sufficiently to be brought to hospital a few days later and make a full recovery. Military reinforcements arrive at the scene from Ennistymon, and Riordan is removed to Ennis for urgent care

Rural Kerry

As millions of pounds are about to spent on tackling plight of urban housing in England, the Irish Independent publishes a photo of a hovel near Killarney in which a family lives. It has no windows, or a chimney, and the mud walls are collapsing. https://t.co/OZQHs5vWnx

Cork

As a marching pipe band marched along Washington Street towards the Oireachtas, an ex-soldier, Richard St.Leger, sped down the street towards the band, and the large crowd behind them, on his horse and cart. The crowd were forced to dive to either side ...

The crowd eventually manage to stop the horse. St. Leger is removed from the cart and is beaten by the crowd. Police intervene and take him away into custody. As they moved along North Main Street they are stoned and have bottles thrown leading to a baton charge by the RIC

Bearlough, Ballymote

For the fourth time in a few months, a shooting incident linked to a controversial purchase of a farm in south Sligo takes place. The windows of a farmhouse in Bearlough are shot out. When RIC arrive there is a lively exchange of fire

6th August 1919

Ennis

Sergeant John Riordan, wounded in the shooting incident at 81 Cross near Ennistymon, dies of his wounds. He had been conveyed from the scene to by military to the hospital but succumbed to 2 gunshots to vital organs. A native of Macroom, he was 44 years old.

Belfast

The courtmartial of Patrick J. Berrill, a 'dental mechanic' from Dundalk commences in Belfast. He is charged in connections with documents discovered on his person outlining the movement of troops on bridges in the Louth town and Ballyedmond Castle

Ennis

The inquest into the shooting dead of two RIC officers yesterday commences in Ennis. Mr. F.F Cullinan, presiding, adjourned proceedings for 8 days to allow the police to adequately gather evidence from the area, despite a lack of cooperation from public

London

As the threat of unrest among police officers in Britain begins to subside, the Treasury moves to quell any similar unrest in Ireland by announcing an immediate advance of £10 to every officer in the RIC and DMP, and that a new pay scale will commence soon

7th August 1919

Dublin

PM Coyne, the greatest walker in the world, is in Dublin, seeking an open challenge. He set a record by walking from San Francisco to New York in just 95 days. https://t.co/OzlQujvjZZ

Washington D.C

The Washington Times reports that De Valera is to receive a formal invitation to visit the city of Baltimore https://t.co/s9np2raxK1

8th August 1919

Dublin

Much public interest is shown in the first ever aerial derby in Ireland when two planes took off at the same time from Tallaght Aerodrome and raced to Gormanstown. Below shows the winner, Captain Urmston being hoisted upon his friends' shoulders https://t.co/TQFxafaKUJ

Toomevara

A party of military approach the town hall and loiter outside as a dance is ongoing. The dancers decide to stop proceedings until the soldiers left. When they did, they re-commenced their evening of merriment until the early hours

Claremorris

Joseph Brennan receives a war welcome home after a year in Galway prison. He is led into the town with a torch-lit procession and is presented with a 'purse of banknotes' when arriving at the town hall

Derry

Robert Anderson, Sligo, and J. Hoey, Tuam, are on hunger strike in Derry prison. They began the strike when they were forced to work by prison guards despite being medically signed off from such activities owing to ill-health. Their condition is poor

Clare

After increase in sustained attacks against Crown Forces in Clare, Brigadier General Griffin announces that Co. Clare is to fall under special military area restrictions again. Clare had, a few years ago been the first place such restriction had been imposed

Scarriff

In the townland of Moynoe, the RIC hut adjacent to Dr. F.C Sampson, J.P, is besieged for 90 minutes by up to 20 Clare Volunteers. The fiercest exchange of gunfire in the War of Independence to date takes place between Volunteers and 5 RIC Officers

Newmarket on Fergus, Clare

An illustration of both the ostracising of RIC Officers, and of increased activity in Clare, is shown when Sergeant Porter of Newmarket RIC Barracks, which was attacked three nights ago, attempts suicide. He survives and is hospitalised

Macroom

Sergeant John O'Riordan is buried in Kilnamatyra Cemetery following requiem mass in Macroom. O'Riordan, a member of a popular family in the town, was afforded semi-military arrangements for the large funeral cortege

Aughavass, Leitrim

The second victim of the 81 Cross shooting, Constable Micheal James Murphy, is buried in his native Leitrim. A detachment of RIC Officers from Mohill lead the mourners. Murphy was a fresh graduate of the force, and was 20 years old

9th August 1919

Dublin

Recent fine weather, and increased usage of water, has led to a concerning fall in the levels of water in Dublin's reservoirs. Calls for water restrictions grow https://t.co/xGX1BwZUh2

Clontarf

As the strike of Gravediggers drags on in Dublin's main cemetery, Dublin Corporation announces that any persons that would have intended to bury loved ones in Glasnevin, can now do so in the graveyard in Clontarf for the same fee

Cavan

Patrick Cullinan is charged with the murder of ex-soldier Thomas 'Bossy' Kennedy. Cullinan and Kennedy had gotten into an argument in a public house in town a few nights ago, when Cullinan proceeded to stab Kennedy to the horror of fellow patrons of the pub

Lisdoonvarna

Another shooting incident is reported from Clare. Thomas Madigan, who was returning from Ballydoora Police hut which he was helping to dismantle as part of RIC's plans to withdraw from most rural parts of Clare, is shot and injured

Stanmore, London

Eddie McGoorty, one of the most prominent Irish American boxers, and a character immensely popular among boxing circles in Dublin, is in London preparing for a bout with Joe Backett for the British Heavyweight Title https://t.co/pyqaJYBAJx

Viceregal Lodge, Phoenix Park

Lord French, Lord Lieutenant of Ireland, holds a garden party in his summer residence, the Viceregal Lodge. He is pictured below with Chief Secretary and his wife who are slowly attempting to show themselves to an indifferent public https://t.co/JJtlbb3r8g

10th August 1919

Dublin

Fr. Pat Noise dies under suspicious circumstances when his carriage plunges into the Liffey https://t.co/Hsbi9CV40H

Dublin

The Sunday Independent front page cartoons take aim at the failure of the health service in Ireland and the chronic under-funding of urban hospitals in Ireland leading to their imminent closure https://t.co/bHEyPsGD1G

Wicklow

In a follow-on from their recent publication of a crumbling house in Kerry, below 'house', made from sods of turf, sacking, and meat boxes on the Rathdrum - Avoca road is published. It further illustrates lack of investment from London into Irish housing https://t.co/oFW5MADu09

Gort, Galway

For the first time, the outcome of a Sinn Féin arbitration court is widely publicised in the media. The court finds in favour of Edward Martyn, a large land-owner in the area, and decrees he may dispose of his lands whatever way he so chooses

Portmore, Armagh

Brigadier General Hackett Pain prohibits a Sinn Féin meeting for fear of trouble breaking out. In defiance, local Sinn Féin groups from Armagh, Keady, Lurgan, and Blackwatertown congregate on Tullygoonigan Hill and hold their meeting

Glandore, West Cork

A Volunteer training camp commences outside the West Cork village of Glandore. Representatives from all of the West Cork battalions attend, and Dick McKee, Officer in Command of the Dublin Volunteers was in charge

11th August 1919

Lisnaskea, Fermanagh

The military proclaim a Sinn Féin meeting in the Fermanagh town of Lisnaskea. A group of 200 people turn up to the place where it was to be held anyways. The crowd is forcibly dispersed with a baton charge, injuring 6 young men

Dublin

The shortfall of Irish agriculture, and increasing cost of foodstuffs is shown in importation of 7,000 tons of barley direct from New Orleans port for use in brewing in Dublin. The barley has been sourced far cheaper than barley available from Kildare

Off Donegal Coast

The wreck of the S.S Laurentic, which was sank by two mines in 1917, has been extensively searched for the vast quantity of gold bullion that was on board when it sank. The gold was to be used for purchase of munitions in Canada https://t.co/5zlOWBOwPt

Kilbeggan

In the course of dispersing a banned aeridheacht, Hanna Sheehy Skeffington is struck on the head with a baton, causing a significant wound. She is treated by a local doctor, Dr. Mooney, and suffered no long term injury https://t.co/2BARZ21wFC

Lenox, Massachusetts

The world's greatest philanthropist, Scottish steel magnate Andrew Carnegie, dies aged 83. By time of his death he had given away, adjusted for inflation, almost $80 billion to charitable causes and funds. https://t.co/MpQffeSrzo

Germany

The Constitution of the German Reich, commonly known as the Weimar Constitution, is signed into law by Friedrich Ebert. It ushers in a new era of German history; the Weimar Republic https://t.co/cq7huSTHL9

Belfast

A photo is published from last weekend's peace celebrations in Belfast. Tens of thousands of troops marched past viewing stand (below). On the stand, and looking defiantly into the camera is Edward Carson. Also on stage was Lord French, and Lord Mayor https://t.co/1AHqy5ZIYh

Howth

On the warmest day of the year so far, a massive blaze breaks out on the Sutton side of Howth hill. @DubFireBrigade fight the fire for several hours and save a number of properties in the area

Clare

The Irish Independent reports that owing to the great number of attacks on police in Clare in the past two weeks, the RIC have begun to withdraw from smaller police huts and retreat to larger urban bases

Roscrea

The Meagher home in Golden Grove is raided once again. The youngest of the family, Sean Meagher, has just been released following nearly 8 months in solitary confinement. It is, extraordinarily, the 42nd time the house has been raided in 12 months

Dungarvan

The Cork Examiner publishes a photo of yesterday's fire at Curran's Commercial Hotel. The blaze was brought under control before any serious damage was caused to the building https://t.co/w8Mk9Lp029

Earth

Telegraph and telephone services across the world are affected by a magnetic storm caused by coronal mass ejection from the sun. It is reportedly one of worst such incidents in decades, and were it to happen today, would cause billions of dollars in damage https://t.co/AIY3S0TJTH

12th August 1919

Kilkenny

At 8.30am, a party of military entered the offices of the @KKPeopleNews newspaper and began to dismantle the printing press. No edition would appear again until mid-September. The paper has been suppressed for printing material not passed by the censor https://t.co/dVbLcJwmVV

Cork

Among the more unusal athletic pursuits on display at the Buff's Regimental Sports in the Camp Field, Cork, was wrestling on horseback https://t.co/OfNjc7yYXj

13th August 1919

Tullynamore, North Leitrim

A family of four are found dead in their home in rural north Leitrim. It is believed that the McMorrow family have been killed by the father of the family, who subsequently committed suidice

Ballysheil, County Down

The recent banning of Sinn Féin meetings and an aeridheacht in the Ballysheil area has been followed by a mass military crackdown involving a large number of reinforcement troops from Belfast and aeroplane patrols.

Glandore, West Cork

The West-Cork Volunteer training camp, under Dick McKee, is dramatically interrupted by a force of 200 armed personnel in which 4 Volunteers were arrested, including Gerald O'Sullivan M.P. The site of the raid was at Shorecliffe House https://t.co/PNkp5JIxRQ

Dublin

William J. Larkin is ejected from court proceedings involving eviction of a number of families from tenement housing on Hanover Street, and Hanover Square. Larkin, Secretary of Tenant's Association, had advised families not to pay rent to the Plunkett's

Castletownsend, Cork

Edith Somerville resigns the mastership of the Carbery Hounds. The branch is forced to close altogether owing to lack of support. https://t.co/8KHKcg50S9

Phoenix Park

As a heatwave continues to take hold in Ireland, children in the Phoenix Park take to drinking from the fountain in the people's gardens for some refreshment https://t.co/7IvVPVVfj3

Belfast

Peter Paul Galligan, M.P., is sentenced to one year in prison. A few months ago he was observed in charge of 80 men drilling in a field. When police approached, he ordered the men to pick up stones and throw them at the police.

London

Bad news for Eddie McGoorty as he prepares for his upcoming bout for the British Heavyweight Championship. He is fined 10 shillings for being drunk and disorderly https://t.co/xmkvmSyvov

Curaheen, Tralee

The local Sinn Féin hall has been burned to the ground. It is believed that a local dispute among the Sinn Féin members themselves is to blame for the incident.

Limerick

A crowd of people from local Vigilance Committee entered Gaiety Theatre in Limerick and seized a movie reel of a movie depicting cannibalism. They brought the reel outside and burned it in public. The film cost £200 and insurance claim will likely follow

Ireland

Lord French announces that Irish school children will receive an extra week's holidays in celebration of victory in the Great War. This is in line with a similar move in Britain

14th August 1919

Dublin

The Evening Herald publishes a photo of De Valera receiving, from the Hindustan Gadar Party in San Francisco, a diamond studded sword, and a silken Irish tricolour. They told De Valera that their grievances with Britain were identical to that of Ireland https://t.co/CotLdLTXOW

U.S Senate, Washington D.C

Senator Henry Cabot Lodge receives a five minute standing ovation in Senate after his speech denouncing President Wilson and League of Nations. He says an independent America would be better for the world than one fettered by a League https://t.co/8zckna0ObP

Glan, Enistymon, Clare

15 year old Francis Murphy is shot dead as he sits by his father's fireside reading a book just after midnight. Murphy, a member of the Fianna scouts, is shot by members of military who shoot at the house indiscriminately https://t.co/biQELPBe2W

The shooting, the latest in a series of escalating incidents of violence around County Clare, comes on same day as the ban on Sinn Féin, the Volunteers, Cumann na mBan, and the Gaelic League is extended from Tipperary into Clare

Derry

British troops prohibit nationalists from congregating around the Derry Walls. The proclamation has aroused strong feelings in the city following 'No Popery' displays earlier in the week during Orange marches and Apprentice Boys' marches

Dublin

The Evening Herald publishes a photo of De Valera receiving, from the Hindustan Gadar Party in San Francisco, a diamond studded sword, and a silken Irish tricolour. They told De Valera that their grievances with Britain were identical to that of Ireland https://t.co/CotLdLTXOW

15th August 1919

Clare

The Evening Herald summarises the escalation of violence in Clare that has led to the proclamation of five nationalist organisations in the county https://t.co/TIGqP1uErK

Dublin Zoo

As the mercury continues to rise in Ireland, an Irish Independent photographer travels to @DublinZoo to see how animals are coping. The Zoo's polar bear is not doing well, as the keepers try to keep her cool, Charlie the Chimp seems positive though https://t.co/Z6stwhNEF3

Tehran

An agreement between Britain and Persia is denounced across world, especially in America, as smacking of hegemony and bypassing structures set out in Versailles. Persia grants Britain full control of their oil fields in exchange for financial support

Moyfadden, West Clare

An RIC patrol is attacked as they are out on patrol. The police return fire and escape uninjured

Haggardstown, Louth

Joseph Devlin, M.P, opens a new Hibernians Hall in Haggardstown, Louth. In his speech he defends his policy of activism in Westminster and denounces Sinn Féin policy of abstentionism. He also voices support for Dominion status for Ireland

Dundalk

As supporters of Devlin return from Haggardstown through Dundalk, they are attacked by supporters of Sinn Féin and the Irish Volunteers. Several shop windows are broken and premises are damaged during the disturbances

Derry

Chaos in Derry as 50,000 Nationalists march along the Walls in defiance of yesterday's order prohibiting them from doing so. The crowd, a mixture of parliamentary and Sinn Féin supporters are attacked by Unionist crowds as night of violence sweeps the city

16th August 1919

Navan

A dramatic escalation of farm labourers' strike in Meath takes place when a train is derailed outside Navan. It is believed that the intention of the labourers in digging up the line was to interrupt a transport of cattle. Miraculously, no one is injured. https://t.co/xKvsrCuqiG

Coalisland, Tyrone

Following the suppression of a Sinn Féin meeting, a large crowd congregate and begin to throw stones at police and troops, injuring four. The crowd are forcibly dispersed following a baton charge.

17th August 1919

Croke Park

The premier donkey derby in Ireland, the Orby Cup, is held in Croke Park before a large crowd. 'Irish Pat' (below crossing the finishing line) wins his second Orby Cup in a row. The races are held alongside the Dublin Junior football and hurling finals https://t.co/XsQYXO6VLg

Birr

An inquest is held in Birr Castle into the death of a French aristocrat tourist, and friend of Lady Rosse, Mademoiselle Gille. She died after a fire broke out in the room she was sleeping in

New York

The New York Times publishes a photo of 14 year old Margery Kinder participating in the National Rifle contest in New Jersey. Margery is a member of the Woman's Junior Rifle Corps https://t.co/3IP4u1jTfH

18th August 1919

Dublin

The Southern Police Court in Dublin hears that over 300 bicycles have been stolen in the capital in the last few months. This is a massive increase on previous months and the judge speculates on the massive surge in bike robberies

Navan

The RIC continue to guard the wreckage of the Great Northern Line train that was de-railed outside of Navan as part of the ongoing strife involving Meath's agricultural labourers. The miraculous fact no-one was killed is illustrated in this photo https://t.co/znH0LITUn0

New York

Jim Larkin applies for a passport to return to Ireland. The British Foreign Office communicates to the consulate in New York that Larkin has been prohibited, since December 1914, to re-enter or reside in Ireland. His request is, therefore, denied https://t.co/NsfOfmsbFl

Dublin

Hanna Sheehy Skeffington continues to recover in her sister's home following her injury at the hands of a British soldier in Kilbeggan recently. Last week she had been suffering with a severe concussion, but is slowly getting better

Louth

Tensions remain high in Louth following recent clashes between supporters of Joseph Devlin and Sinn Féin supporters following the sitting M.P's opening of a new Hibernians Hall outside Dundalk https://t.co/HOVqHuYMQW

Referring to how the Great War has fundamentally changed the human race he says 'The world is suffering from shell-shock on a great scale, and the habitude of industry has not been quite recovered. We do not make enough allowance for that ...

Westminster

The Prime Minister takes to the floor of the Commons and delivers a long anticipated speech on the state of the country. Without making a single reference to Ireland, he outlines how the British economy is on brink of collapse https://t.co/c1xDJNrXNL

Washington D.C

President Wilson meets with the Senate Foreign Relations Committee (below). He tells them that there is a possibility of receiving repatriations for the sinking of the Lusitania and of receiving the tiny Pacific island of Yap https://t.co/ntDUMUGFaK

19th August 1919

Coalisland

The Irish Independent publishes a photograph of the recent suppression of an aeridheacht in Coalisland, in Tyrone. The photo shows troops with fixed baynoets dispersing a crowd with a tricolour https://t.co/0vjcW24YTs

Tehran

The situation in Persia following the signing of an agreement between Britain and Persia allowing for oil drilling is still unclear. There are rumours that the Shah has fled for fear of assassination for entering into an agreement with the British

Campsie, Tyrone

Fr. J. O'Kane, a Parish Priest in Omagh, formally complains about an incident in which British troops entered the former National School in Ballintubret in which a great deal of damage was caused.

Kilmurry-Ibricane, Clare

Fr. Glynn, Parish Priest of Kilmurry-Ibricane has organised a vigilance committee as the RIC have abandoned the parish altogether leaving it completely un-policed.

Ireland

The RIC continue to withdraw from rural areas and multiple barracks are being closed in Galway, Tipperary, and Laois, in addition to Clare. For barracks that are remaining open, they are being reinforced with sand bags

London

On foreign exchange markets, the pound sterling hits a record low against the American dollar following the Prime Minister's speech yesterday

Manchester

Fionán Lynch, MP for South Kerry, is released from prison following a short hunger strike. He was met upon release by Paddy O'Donoghue, who passed onto him orders from Michael Collins seeking details of the prison structure for potential escape attempt. As Lynch is released from Manchester, Piaras Béaslaí and D.P Walsh are transferred there from Birmingham prison

Dublin

It is announced that the HQ of the Cumann na mBan is to donate £400 to people stricken by food shortages on the continent following the end of the Great War. They also confirm that Hanna Sheehy Skeffington will be unable to return to her work for some time

Dublin

41 members of Dáil Éireann meet in private. Among the several issues discussed, they discussed De Valera's request to increase the amount of money that he was allowed to raise in America given the extraordinary welcome he had received.

20th August 1919

Skibbereen

Professor Gerald O'Sullivan, Jer O'Driscoll, Seamus Murphy, and Denis O'Brien, all arrested at the Glandore IRA Training Camp, are charged before court. They are taken away on remand after a short hearing

Dublin

Joseph Devlin presides over the AGM of the Ancient Order of Hibernians. The recent incidents in Louth where their members were attacked were condemned. It was agreed that they re-double their efforts to put forward an alternative to Sinn Féin

London

The total cost of the Great War for Britain is reported as being 40 billion pounds (roughly 1 trillion pounds in today's terms). This illustrates the grave outlook for the British economy https://t.co/wwTPOGTX1g

North Tipperary

The County Council in Nenagh rejects demands for extra money for extra police in the RIC Barracks in Drombane, Kilboy, Newport, and Templemore. Hollyford Barracks has closed altogether

Constantinople

The Shah of Persia has reportedly landed in Constantinople, confirming rumours that his life was in danger in his native land following signing of treaty with Britain

Dublin

The IRA is established.

Cathal Brugha, Defense Minister of Dáil Éireann, announces that Every [Irish Volunteer] must swear allegiance to Irish Republic and to the Dáil. He adds that he sees them as the standing army of the government. https://t.co/qYwpXYZygQ

21st August 1919

Dundalk

At 2am, British troops raid the Dundalk National Club. They also raid the premises of James McGill, as well as the home of his father. Nothing of note is discovered.Tensions remain high in the Louth town

Glasnevin

The strike of gravediggers in Glasnevin continues as mourners continue (below) to carry the coffins of their loved ones into the graveyard and bury them themselves. https://t.co/488otNuxCW

Belfast

JB Skeffington has died. He was one of Ireland's leading authorities in primary education and was, for many years, Chief National School Inspector for Ireland. He was Francis Sheehy Skeffington's father https://t.co/94WJQBpW3T

Ballyquirke, Cork

The Admiralty orders the cessation of construction of an aerodrome in Ballyquirke, near Killeagh. Hundreds of thousands of pounds has already been spent on the project, but building has ground to a halt due to strike of carpenters on the site

Dundalk

Patrick J. Berrill is sentenced to a year's imprisonment with hard labour following his arrest and the discovery on his person of extensive notes on the bridges around Dundalk and of Ballyedmond Castle

Ennistymon Courthouse

Mr. P. Lynch K.C, representing the family of Francis Murphy, who was shot dead last week in his home, states at his inquest that his job was to prove that Murphy had been shot by the military illegally.

22nd August 1919

Liberty Hall

The Trade Union HQ is raided twice in 24 hours by troops and DMP authorities. Some rifles and ammo are taken away.

Dublin

Lar Brady, leader of the Laois IRA, is court martialed. Brady said that were he to recognise the court, it would be akin to allowing the Germans to establish courts in Belgium four years ago. He had no intention of alienating the cause of human liberty

Queenstown, Cork

St. Colman's Cathedral is ready for its consecration at the weekend. It is expected that a crowd of thousands will attend the formal opening of one of the most elaborate religious buildings ever constructed in Ireland https://t.co/j7ZrKXROi7

Ennistymon Courthouse

A massive crowd packs Ennistymon Courthouse (below) to extent that people are turned away as the verdict in the inquest of death of Francis Murphy is announced. The court hears that the military illegally shot the young boy dead https://t.co/IKpYpAgD8E

North Western (Railway) Hotel, Greenore, Louth

David Plunkett, Lord Rathmore, dies. He was one of Ireland's most significant parliamentarians of late 19th Century, and represented the Trinity College constituency for 25 years before his elevation to the peerage https://t.co/776Hg6xvb0

Ennistymon

Another RIC Officer dies in Clare. However, this time, Constable James Murphy dies when he was unloading his weapon when he lets it fall to the floor. It discharges and leads to a fatal wound. He was a native of Macroom, and had served for six years

Warrenpoint

The unjust nature of rising food prices is shown when potatoes are sold so cheaply in Down, that farmers buy tons of spuds and proceed to dump the produce into the sea so they could use the sacks the potatoes came in such was the cheapness of them

23rd August 1919

Derry

The authorities make a concerted effort to seize goods that were looted during last week's riots. They visit Nationalist and Unionist parts of city alike, making a great number of raids. Damages of over £2k has been lodged following the night of violence

Glasnevin

The gravediggers strike, which has crippled the cemetery for weeks, comes to an end. Workers agree to return to work tomorrow, as they accept an offer for increased wages and better terms of employment. Parish Priests around Dublin are relieved

24th August 1919

Dublin

The Sunday Independent cartoonists take aim at the Prime Minister in a week when the grim situation of the country's finances becomes clear as billions of pounds in debt have built up over the War years https://t.co/jElYfWaBAl

Croke Park

Munster champions, and favourites, Kerry, are held in an entertaining draw in the All Ireland football semi final by Galway on a score line of 2-6 to 3-3 https://t.co/aN5oMOKO7d

Queenstown, Cork

St. Colman's Cathedral is consecrated by Cardinal Michael Logue. The entire town celebrates the opening of its magnificent cathedral and the event is attended by bishops and archbishops from all over Ireland https://t.co/Zo0xBG0TLW

Canada

Edward, Prince of Wales, is in Canada on a State Visit representing his father, King George V. The New York Times publishes a photo of the future king's eyes being turned by a woman dancing on stage nearby https://t.co/0krR9YTA3N

25th August 1919

Dublin

Dublin Corporation listens to claims of gross over-spending in the construction of an upper-reservoir to complement the existing one in Vartry, near Roundwood. The proposed cost was to be £80,000, but could eventually cost £270,000 with no end in sight

Paris

A Reuters journalist reports, for the first time, the details of the execution of the Russian royal family last year. The story, from a soldier stationed with the Romanovs, outlines how they were escorted to a basement and shot by firing squad https://t.co/Q3hGvxGNcq

Brussels

A Belgian newspaper publishes an entirely false story on how the RDS Horse Show, which opened yesterday, had in fact been banned by Sinn Féin. It has reportedly resulted in some Belgians not travelling to Dublin, when they had in pre-War years

Britain

For every 1,000 orders for cigarettes in 1914, there are now 20,000 orders. The huge surge in demand is linked to surge in women smoking, returning soldiers who became addicted, and miners who previously would chewed tobacco but now amended their taste

Cork

The Cork Examiner publishes a full page advertisement, paid for by the government (note the seal of George Rex, King George) for surplus property and equipment that needed to be sold to raise funds for flagging economy https://t.co/EemNnKipZF

26th August 1919

Ballsbridge

The ravages of the Great War, and the grave impact that it has had upon generations of horses that were killed, is shown in the first Dublin Horse Show since 1913. Both overall numbers and quality are reportedly down since pre-war years 

https://t.co/lQaisrtRaT

However, in spite of the harrowing impact upon the equine world that came with the War, spirits are high in the RDS as the elite members of Dublin's high society converge on the South Dublin Venue. Below shows Lord French greet Lord Rathdonnell, President of @TheRDS 

https://t.co/AvhmyF1RN7

Washington D.C

The Irish are not only people seeking recognition as a sovereign nation deserving of self-determination. The Greeks, the Egyptians, the Letts, the Scottish, the Lithuanians, the Estonians, & the Albanians are all seeking time with foreign committee

France

The Cork Examiner publishes a photo of Chinese labourers cleaning up the battlefield on the old Hindenburg Line in France. Thousands of Chinese labourers are now in Europe helping with post-war reconstruction 

https://t.co/Bu4DZJKUK3

Buttevant

Story is reported from weekend where Cork hurling team, and supporters were making way to Limerick for 1919 Munster Hurling Final by train. A tricolour was pulled from the train by a British soldier in Buttevant and serious trouble narrowly avoided

Dublin Port

A government steamer docks in Dublin and unloads several military vehicles including tanks of varying sizes. Reinforcement troops also alight from the ship as military build up in Ireland continues apace

Richmond, Virginia

Eamon De Valera addresses the Virginia State Capitol Building before a crowd of 3,000 people. He told a captivated audience that England had no moral or legal right to occupy Ireland 

https://t.co/M9jJyH1lwn

Sheepshead Bay, New York

Before a crowd of 125,000 people at the NYPD games, Lt. Matt McGrath wins the hammer throwing contest. McGrath is a native of Nenagh

Richmond, Virginia

Eamon De Valera addresses the Virginia State Capitol Building before a crowd of 3,000 people. He told a captivated audience that England had no moral or legal right to occupy Ireland 

https://t.co/M9jJyH1lwn

Washington D.C

The Irish are not only people seeking recognition as a sovereign nation deserving of self-determination. The Greeks, the Egyptians, the Letts, the Scottish, the Lithuanians, the Estonians, & the Albanians are all seeking time with foreign committee

London

Around this time 100 years ago, Jack Cohen, the son of Jewish migrants from Poland, began selling war-surplus goods from a cart in Hackney. 5 years later he bought some tea from Thomas Edward Stockwell. He combined Stockwell's initials with his own and called his company TESCO 

https://t.co/GQyHUmnCBm

27th August 1919

Rome 

Monsignor Micheal O'Riordan, Rector of the Irish College in Rome, dies. O'Riordan was the most prominent clergyman in Rome and had been rector there since 1905. He was instrumental in 1916 in dissuading the Pope from condemning the Easter Rising https://t.co/cUeH5GmdV7

Mexico

As the Mexican Civil War continues to rage, pressure mounts upon President Wilson to enter into a full scale military intervention into their southern neighbour. Some go so far as to suggest American annexation of the country

Ballsbridge

The RDS Horse Show continues to attract thousands of spectators. The excellent weather and the fashion on display brings commentators' memories back to the pre-war hayday of the festival 

https://t.co/NnkeQpJfMf

Washington D.C

Despite President Wilson's confidence that League of Nations membership will be ratified by Senate in next month, grave reservations of Versailles Treaty remain, especially with regards Japan. Several senators do not trust the Empire's intentions

Cork

Patrick Murphy, of Abbey Street, Cork, is beaten to death in an altercation in the city following his daughter's wedding. His next door neighbour Andrew Cotter, and his son, William, have been arrested and will be brought into detention later today

Rome 

Monsignor Micheal O'Riordan, Rector of the Irish College in Rome, dies. O'Riordan was the most prominent clergyman in Rome and had been rector there since 1905. He was instrumental in 1916 in dissuading the Pope from condemning the Easter Rising https://t.co/cUeH5GmdV7

28th August 1919

Pretoria, South Africa

General Louis Botha dies. Botha was a hero of both Boer Wars, capturing Winston Churchill during the second Boer War in 1899. Botha had great interest in Irish affairs and his wife was Annie Emmett (also below), descendant of Robert Emmett 

https://t.co/9UIAUqrGTY

Ballsbridge

Despite the torrential rain, history is made in the RDS as women participate in horse jumping events at the Horse Show for the very first time. Below shows some of the first seven participants, including the Grattan-Belew sisters from Galway https://t.co/zk9N9n5ykw

London

London University seeks £500k from public in helping to establish a faculty of commerce.

The largest faculty of commerce in Britain and Ireland is the UCD Faculty of Commerce under its Dean, Charles Hubert Oldham, for past 10 years @QuinnSchoolUCD https://t.co/Q2cFqDCAkV

Dublin

It is officially announced that press censorship is to come to an end at the end of the month. The Lord Lieutenant formally thanks all at the Press Censor office for all of their work during the War years

Washington D.C

The Washington Times publishes front page picture of De Valera speaking with Daniel T. O'Connell, 'Director of the Washington Bureau of the Irish Republic'. The paper unequivocally describes De Valera as 'President of the Irish Republic'. https://t.co/bxInQlGqR0

Pretoria, South Africa

General Louis Botha dies. Botha was a hero of both Boer Wars, capturing Winston Churchill during the second Boer War in 1899. Botha had great interest in Irish affairs and his wife was Annie Emmett (also below), descendant of Robert Emmett https://t.co/9UIAUqrGTY

29th August 1919

Phoenix Park

Lord French hosts his Vice-Regal Garden Party in the Vice-Regal Lodge. He is pictured below in centre of the front row. 

https://t.co/CyRd0E7P4x

Alexandra Basin, Dublin Port

There is a flurry of military activity in the Alexandra Basin area of Dublin Port. There are rumours abound that a large consignment of arms and ammo is en route to Dublin aboard a former German vessel.

Inver, Donegal

A group of 20 men wreak havoc in Inver area of Donegal. They attack dwelling house of a family called Furey in Derriherk. They also damage a house in Tullyhumber. To cap off the evening, they attempt to de-rail the Killybegs train unsuccessfully

Clapham Common, London

Daily News journalists go to the home of former M.P and Trade Unionist, John Burns and inform him he has been left £1,000 per annum for rest of his life in the will of Andrew Carnegie. He says he is surprised and refuses to answer questions

Excellent documentary on the way from TG4, with extensive research from papers in @ucdarchives, on DeValera's remarkable American mission. @131Weeks will keep you posted on the centenaries of each step of his journey https://t.co/ROoCso5NE7

30th August 1919

Dublin

The Freeman's Journal, established in 1763, is appointed a receiver. The current company, established in 1887, is under financial pressure and the future of the paper is in doubt https://t.co/1GHZe9A1if

Dublin

One of Gordon Brewster's most scathing cartoons is published in Evening Herald. Under title 'The Truth will Out', it depicts American journalist appalled at Ireland, Mesopotamia, India and Egypt in dungeon whilst John Bull is flustered at news getting out https://t.co/OL75oJU1DF

Toomevara

Patrick, The Widger, Meagher is arrested, along with Patrick Whelehan, and William Hackett in connection with a recent raid for arms in nearby Clash. Meagher was the most noted hurler in the area and one of the best known men in GAA circles in Tipperary

Phoenix Park

The Annual Races in the park attract thousands of people. The premier race is won by Blue Dun whose owner collects prize of 1,500 sovereigns https://t.co/u0O0zsHAtS

Mater Hospital, Dublin

The condition of Detective Sergeant Patrick Smyth, who was shot by Dublin IRA a few weeks ago has deteriorated. Initially Smyth's condition was progressing well. However, he has never left Mater since the incident and he has grown weaker

Dublin

Playwright, George Bernard Shaw, writing to the Irish Statesman, says that a centre party should be founded to move Irish situation forward. The party should be made of people from all backgrounds in Ireland, except for hard conservative Unionist element https://t.co/XWxYi6T9Ej

Dublin

One of Gordon Brewster's most scathing cartoons is published in Evening Herald. Under title 'The Truth will Out', it depicts American journalist appalled at Ireland, Mesopotamia, India and Egypt in dungeon whilst John Bull is flustered at news getting out https://t.co/OL75oJU1DF

The Capitol, Washington D.C

Justice Daniel Cohalan is main speaker in a hearing before Senate Foreign Relations Committee on Ireland. Cohalan says the Irish are the last of the white races still enslaved and he urged rejection of the League of Nations https://t.co/mah2ymeCpY

31st August 1919

Cork

The Metropole Laundry has been destroyed by fire. The entire premises is, as seen in below pictures published by the Cork Examiner, completely gutted by the flames. The front page notice in the same paper notes that James Musgrave is getting new equipment https://t.co/WxmaV4dfjt

Port of Cork

An unidentified naval destroyer is escorted into the Port of Cork. The un-flagged vessel is anchored outside Customs House as a great number of troops and police guard area. It is thought that ship may have been attempting to bring arms to Ireland

Glasgow

Joseph Devlin M.P, speaking at an Hibernians event in Scotland, slated recent statements on the British economy saying that they had plenty of money to station an army of over 8,000 troops in Ireland and send conscripts to Russia

Ennis

A meeting of the Clare County Farmers' Association issues a statement condemning ongoing martial law in the county and that the prohibition and fairs and markets was crippling their farms

Knoxville, Tennessee

As Red Summer of 1919 draws to an end in United States, Maurice Mays is arrested on suspicion of murder, the night before, of white woman Bertie Lyndsey. Mays is implicated as the sole witness described assailant as a 'light-skinned negro' https://t.co/jkeWaOYzxa

Mays was of mixed race, and although raised by foster parents, he is believed to have been the illegitimate son of Knoxville's mayor, John E. McMillan. He had been canvassing for McMillan on the day of his arrest

A mob of white people turn up at the prison searching for Mays and storm the facility. When they cannot find Mays the enter the cell he had been held in and wreck it (below). The then embark on an evening of looting and violence against Knoxville's black community https://t.co/fJ3NhLJoAf

Official sources state that only two people died during the riots. The true figure is undoubtedly higher, with some contemporary sources, such as the Washington Times, stating that scores of people had died.

New York

With usual Labor Day celebrations curtailed owing to cutbacks in New York, smaller events are organised throughout Manhattan. The largest of which features a speech by De Valera https://t.co/B17oKFWsmF

Addressing the large crowd, De Valera asks 'why should it be believed that England wants peace when she will not pay the only price by which peace can be purchased - justice?' https://t.co/TlpTaMJr0d

Canada

Edward, Prince of Wales, continues to have a merry time on his official state visit to Canada. Below from the New York Tribune shows him in the company of the Governor General of Canada in Halifax https://t.co/CLkPFjo5r1

1st September 1919

Port of Cork

The vessel which was escorted into Cork yesterday is identified as the SS Hampshire Coast. It allegedly left London three days ago with a small cargo of arms. It is being unloaded under the watchful gaze of a submarine chaser https://t.co/GOfk7QdB40

Dublin

Dublin Corporation discusses a potential loan to various municipal bodies in Ireland totaling massive £150 million (almost €5 billion in 2019 terms) for the redevelopment of the island. The Cororation requests £1million immediately to commence building

The first tranche of this loan will help to build public housing at a cost of £600 each, and they hope to have loan paid off by the late 1960s

Dublin

As rumours into the financial strife surrounding the Freeman's Journal, the Irish Independent seeks to reassure its readers that their business has not been sold to English investors https://t.co/s7lhvVDggd

Archangel, Russia

It is confirmed that 6 Irish men are among the dead following the recent explosion aboard a Royal Navy ammunition ship off the port of Archangel in the White Sea

London

It is confirmed by the Treasury that for the year ending June 30th 1919, Britain's trade deficit with the United States stands at £400 million

Washington D.C

Herbert Hoover is given the title of 'High Commissioner for the Feeding of Europe'. He has been tasked with heading up American food relief efforts for central and eastern Europe who are in grave need of assistance for coming winter months https://t.co/g6X9JVgo72

2nd September 1919

Off south coast of Ireland

No arms are discovered aboard the vessel docked in Cork. This leads to a flurry of Royal Naval activity off Cork and Kerry coast as four further ships are seized. Authorities are convinced that arms are en-route to the IRA

Lorrha, Tipperary

A party of 7 Lorrha IRA Volunteers, under command of Felix Cronin, ambush an RIC patrol consisting of three officers. Sergeant Philip Brady is shot and dies instantly. The 48 year old, from Enniskillen, had only arrived in Lorrha four days ago https://t.co/IkrlOzQKax

Pretoria, South Africa

General Jans Smuts is appointed as the new Prime Minister of South Africa. Much like his late predecessor, Botha, Smuts had a great interest in Irish affairs and would play a direct part in Irish affairs in two years time https://t.co/9Ikb7MR01i

The Olympia, London

Joe Beckett (below) defeats Eddie McGoorty to retain British Heavyweight Championship in 17th Round. McGoorty, the immensely popular Irish American pugilist, had his preparations impeded by his heady lifestyle from time he landed in London https://t.co/UUAa0sXXjH

Alexandria

A bomb, hidden in a punnet of grapes, is thrown at the Prime Minster of Egypt, Mohammed Said Pasha. Pasha is uninjured in the assassination attempt. Tensions in Egypt have not subsided since wide-scale violence earlier this year https://t.co/jr5sLMJNul

Mountjoy Prison

Laurence Ginnell M.P is gravely ill in prison. Official statements to the contrary a few days ago have been discounted as the former chief of propaganda for the Dáil has been refused permission to be treated by an independent doctor

North Irish midlands

An unseasonably early sharp frost has a devastating impact upon agricultural produce in Cavan, Longford, and Leitrim. Coupled with exceptionally heavy rain, fears grow among farming community of a long winter ahead

Norway

King and Queen of Norway become one of first royals in world to fly in an aeroplane when they take a trip on F5 Flying Boat. Queen Maud becomes first royal (and member of British Royal family as daughter of Edward VII) to briefly control a plane herself 

3rd September 1919

Gurtha

Following yesterday's shooting dead of Sergeant Brady in nearby Lorrha, 7 RIC men proceed to the home of prominent member of the Lorrha hurling team, John Joe Madden, and arrest him. Madden, although an IRA Volunteer, had nothing to do with the attack

Mountjoy Prison

An ill Laurence Ginnell pens a letter on the illusion of the recent 'removal' of press censorship in Ireland. He says that what has happened is that censorship has merely passed from English Civil Service to military authorities

Dublin

A revealing statistic is published on mortality rates in the capital. Of the 119 people that died in Dublin last week, 58 were children under 5 years of age. Of these, 48 had not reached their first birthday.

Dublin

Coal remains very scarce in the capital. Below, published in the Freeman's Journal, shows children purchasing coal from a young boy with a donkey and cart https://t.co/aVHhnvXQHA

Dublin

A revealing statistic is published on mortality rates in the capital. Of the 119 people that died in Dublin last week, 58 were children under 5 years of age. Of these, 48 had not reached their first birthday.

Broadford, Charleville

Owen Daly, a large farmer from Meelin, is returning home following a visit to friends in Broadford when he is shot dead. The single man, 50, often carried large sums of cash and it is assumed that the motive for the incident was robbery

4th September 1919

Port of Cork

After a fruitless search, British naval officers permit the SS. Hampshire Coast to take aboard a cargo of food and return to London.

Mountjoy Prison

Laurence Ginnell M.P is released from Mountjoy after serving three of his four month imprisonment. He had been in ill health for some time, and yesterday penned a letter in which he condemned authorities in the prison https://t.co/Yjj3GxBtQW

Dublin

Weeks after the death of its owner, William Martin Murphy, the Evening Herald continues to slam trade union activities. It describes the current dispute involving dockers in the port as 'evil' https://t.co/B7Tx1vJmQi

Tramore

Former M.P for East Waterford, Martin Joseph Murphy dies. Murphy was the last M.P for the constituency. He died in the hotel he owned, one of Ireland's most well-known holiday getaways, the Grand Hotel https://t.co/UpizDxZSM7

Derry

Two women, Bonner and Kellen, are charged with looting boots during the unrest in the city on the 15th August. The boots were found in the possession of their husbands when their houses were raided by police.

Kilbeggan

Two prominent publicans in the town, Garrett O'Reilly, and James Clavin, are arrested in connection with violence at the banned aeridheach a few weeks ago in which Hanna Sheehy Skeffington was injured. Extensive searches were also made in Tullamore

Doon Well, Kilmacrennan, Donegal

Long known for its reported healing powers, there has been a surge of visitors to Doon Well following reports of a series of extraordinary cures https://t.co/ukBLcfrvNT

River Rhine, Germany

American engineers and troops perform a record breaking construction of a pontoon bridge across the 1,440 foot width of one of Europe's largest rivers in just 41 minutes https://t.co/ULg7D4Up1E

Tipperary Town

Seven men are brought from Cork Gaol back to Tipperary Town to face charges of illegal assembly on 1st August in Brookville. As proceedings were ongoing, police were forced to make a number of baton charges into a crowd of angry locals

Cork

The SS Killarney docks in Cork. It set out from Fishguard yesterday with 400 extra reinforcements for British troops in the south of Ireland

5th September 1919

Germany

Governments of Allied states issue a formal note to Germany for a perceived breach of Treaty dealing with German relationship with Austria. The Germans reply indicating that they react violently to potential for further allied troops in Rhineland

Inchicore

Three young boys are walking along Tyrconnell Road when a group of soldiers call out to them. When they ignore them, the soldiers, who are reportedly drunk, shot indiscriminately at them in area of houses. One boy, Padraig O'Connor, is shot in thigh

Douglas, Cork

Morrogh's Wollen Mills in Douglas is destroyed by fire. Morrogh's produce, known and renowned throughout the continent, is created by over 300 members of staff, whose jobs are very much in danger https://t.co/cxQgoMgcxR

Lorrha

The Parish Priest of Lorrha says that he know everybody in parish intimately and he couldn't believe that any of them could have been party to the murder of Sergeant Brady. Of the party of IRA that took part in the ambush, all bar one were from Lorrha https://t.co/AEojKBRKwe

Lorrha

Constable Foley, who was wounded during the recent ambush, is recovering well. Born in America 26 years ago, Foley lived in Bagnalstown with an aunt when he came to Ireland. He had 7 years service with the RIC

Unfortunately, history repeated itself, almost a century to the day, in Douglas with another devastating fire putting local jobs at risk https://t.co/z3S4CBvyCC

Clare

Two arms raids take place involving the shooting of large homes; Knocknarechy House near Corofin, and Ballykeale House in Kilfenora. During the latter raid, six swords were taken along with 100 rounds of ammo

Cork

As officials in Cork continue to be wary of arms being landed for the IRA, RIC officers board a massive cargo of wheat and seize the few weapons aboard, held for security purposes. They will return them when the ship is unloaded and departs

6th September 1919

Dublin

John Ryan is charged (below) in connection with the high-profile robbery of £1,500 worth of jewelry from a bedroom in the Gresham Hotel during the Dublin Horse Show https://t.co/1CjzDqHhrY

Philadelphia

The Irish Press publishes the hand written letter from Dáil Éireann to the American Senate thanking them for their support for the Irish cause https://t.co/eFk8wC6EyZ

Minneapolis, Minnesota

The local Irish American newspaper, the Irish Standard, announces the establishment of branches of the Friends of Irish Freedom across the state of Minnesota https://t.co/0L00HeHyyK

Philadelphia

The Irish Press publishes the hand written letter from Dáil Éireann to the American Senate thanking them for their support for the Irish cause https://t.co/eFk8wC6EyZ

7th September 1919

Dublin

The Sunday Independent cartoonists take aim at Carson's latest comments on current situation in Ireland. For more contemporary analysis on Carson's fresh attempts to place himself to the forefront, see https://t.co/rKvHE39eD0 https://t.co/qnBKJ4gWgp

Douglas, Cork

What remains of Morrogh's Woollen Mills lies in smoldering ruins following a devastating fire a few days ago. The loss of the industry is a massive blow to the local economy as 300 people lose their jobs https://t.co/oDlh4LyvW0

7th September 1919

Croke Park

Kildare defeat Dublin by a single point to win the 1919 Leinster Senior Football title https://t.co/gcfqk1LlmT

The Freeman's Journal publishes further action shots from Kildare's Leinster Championship victory. Kildare are led by their captain, one of the greats of the game, Larry Stanley https://t.co/uTgvfSyiLO

Limerick

Limerick Co. Council Chamber is wrecked following yesterday's riot. An election for position of rate collector was taking place. John O'Grady, Ballybricken, a popular GAA athlete lost vote and his supporters entered chamber and destroyed everything.

It is an embarrassing and expensive affair for Limerick Council to deal with. Over £1k of damage is done to the ornate chamber, most of its notable furniture merely usable as firewood as is show in photo of the aftermath of the riot from the Cork Examiner https://t.co/Op7MMGee8v

Archangel, Russia

British military intervention in Russia, supporting the failing Russian army, is continuing to be a costly fiasco. Losses from the recent fire and destruction of munitions is over £6 million. Evacuation plans are being prepared

Caithness, Scotland

Lord Charles Beresford dies. Beresford, born in Phillipstown, Offaly, was a former close friend of Edward VII when he was Prince of Wales, however, they developed a deep hatred for each other that lasted rest of their lives. https://t.co/IJjxTg0FWX

Fermoy

As they had done for months, an armed detachment of 15 British soldiers march from their Barracks to Fermoy's Wesleyan Church. Unbeknownst to them, there were 25 IRA Volunteers in the vicinity of the Church in groups of 2-3, each group having one pistol https://t.co/PZmZU5jbiR

During the fracas, Lynch stumbled to the ground and a soldier was about to attack him with his rifle. Another Volunteers shoots the soldier dead. He was Private William Jones, a 34 yr old soldier of the Shropshire Regiment from Carmarthen in Wales.

At point marked with an X in below image, a car pulled up behind soldiers and Liam Lynch, Officer in Command of the No. 2 Cork Brigade emerged and called for their surrender. A firefight then followed, the first such armed engagement against British troops in Ireland since 1916 https://t.co/iGqvIUTlvX

Moneygall

Michael McDonagh, a chauffeur from Roscrea, son of the former RIC Sergeant in the town, is conveying a car of senior troops and their wives. When he approaches Moneygall a patrol of police shoot at the car, wounding McDonagh in the chest

Lorrha

During his Sunday sermon, Fr. Gleeson, P.P of Lorrha, denounces the recent shooting in the area. He says that 'the murderers, if they escape human justice, will not escape divine justice. they will walk like Cain, fugitives on earth'

Dalymount Park

A game between Bohemians and Belfast Celtic descends into chaos as a large crowd of spectators rush the pitch and assault the referee (inset below) Mr. Coleton https://t.co/jhUNzCct90

Whitebog, Athy

When news emerges that a local woman, Ms. Hennessy, has been evicted from her home, the local ITGWU comes together to build her a new temporary home to ensure she is not homeless. The workers built the hut in a few days when they were on strike https://t.co/csgYYYdmuz

8th September 1919

Fermoy

Five labourers are arrested in connection with yesterday's IRA attack on British soldiers outside the Wesleyan Church. They are James and John Fanning, Maurice Condon, Micheal Fitzgerald, and John Swain.

Tensions in the town are very high as British troops in the garrison town are livid at the loss of their colleague, Private Jones. They proceed a small bit out of the town to a feis that was being held to break it up. They throw stones at participants

The first reprisal of War of Independence takes place one day after shooting dead of a British soldier in the town yesterday. For 90 minutes troops smash windows and wreck shops in the Queen's Sq. area. Over £10k damage is done and several are injured https://t.co/8QHW8jvrni

Tipperary Town

Authorities in Tipperary Town react to yesterday's daring attack on soldiers by increasing their visible presence on the streets approaching the town. A motorcycle patrol circles the town, and an aeroplane hovers overhead

Lorrha

It is announced that RIC discover an IRA arms dump with guns and ammunition in rabbit burrows in Hazel Wood, very near the scene of last week's shooting in which an RIC officer died

Budapest

After months of conflict and unrest since the end of the War, the spectre of famine rests upon the Hungarian capital. There are reportedly only mere days of provisions left as reports emerge of dogs being eaten by families on the brink of starvation

Mater Hospital, Dublin

Detective Sergeant Patrick Smyth, who was shot by Volunteers on July 30th outside his home, dies of his wounds. He had been recovering well for the first three weeks after the shooting, but had deteriorated in the past three weeks https://t.co/mcdAnJdGCd

Inchicore

The wounding of a number of boys in Inchicore by an unknown number of soldiers who were allegedly drunk is being seriously investigated by authorities. One soldier has been taken into custody. Patrick O'Connor (below) is said to be recovering well https://t.co/rdigrdIBq1

9th September 1919

Fermoy

At the inquest into the death of Private Jones, the foreman of the jury replies, when asked did the jury believe his murder was premeditated, that the unanimously agreed that the raiding party's only intention was to seize arms and not to kill anyone

Dublin

The Catholic Total Abstinence Congress opens. Among the senior members of the movement are pictured below for the Irish Independent. Among them are (seated) Fr. O'Leary, Cork, Ms. Catherine Mahon, and Eoin MacNeill T.D https://t.co/fta8HkxVYD

Leith, Scotland

Britain's disastrous military intervention into Russia comes to an end as 2,300 evacuated troops return from Archangel. With them, they bring several Russian POWs for leverage for British POWs that remain in Russia.

The Daily Express in London estimates that Britain's brief involvement in Russia will cost the Treasury a staggering £100 million (over €3 billion in 2019 terms)

Fermoy

A second night of violence is narrowly avoided as troops are confined to  barracks. In a public meeting, Colonel Dobbs declared yesterday's verdict at inquest a disgrace and that his men 'tried to get a bit of their own back for their murdered colleague'

Roscommon

John Fitzgibbon, a former formidable member of the Irish Party in Westminster, dies https://t.co/orKyVNFsO0

Bridge St., Dublin

Iveagh House, built by Lord Iveagh (inset) in 1905, a large hostel for struggling men, remains closed due to ongoing strike of attendants. The Guinness family are defiant in their stance, as are the attendants with no resolution in sight https://t.co/m8gqS0Q0tY

10th September 1919

Dublin

The inquest of the murder of Detective Sergeant Patrick Smyth hears that as he lay in front of his house wounded, he shouted after his attackers 'you cowards!' His son was the first to discover his stricken father and it was he who raced for help

Attending the inquest was Smyth's wife and youngest daughter, and his sons. It was Thomas, his youngest son, who discovered his father and called for help. https://t.co/DE3gtLTFHp

10.15am

St. Germain

Austria finally sign the Peace Treaty formally bringing to an end their state of War with the Allies.

Fermoy

Fermoy is proclaimed. All public meetings are prohibited. Major General Williams announces that any gathering of more than 3 people shall be deemed to be a 'meeting'. Meanwhile, 8 men are charged with the murder of Private Jones and are escorted to Cork

Belgium

Following the Norwegian Royal couple's noted flight, the Belgian royal family reveal themselves as the true pioneers of royal air travel when they embark on the longest flight undertaken by European royalty https://t.co/vUFHbehtVg

Fermoy

Soldiers return to streets in evening. A small party of them proceed to the premises of Mr. Fitzgerald and smash his windows. Before another wide-scale incident can take place, the troops are taken under control. Fitzgerald was a juror in recent inquest

Cork

Sinn Féin, the Volunteers, Cumann na mBan, and the Gaelic League is prohibited in all of County Cork. These organisations are now banned in all Cork, all Tipperary, all Dublin, all Limerick, and Clare.

Patrick St., Cork

Bryan Crowley, a 23 year old cyclist is hit by a swerving military lorry in Cork City. It was the same military lorry that had left Fermoy earlier in the day with 8 charged civilians being escorted to prison.

Crowley dies shortly afterwards

11th September 1919

New York

Upon hearing of the proclamation of Cork City and County, De Valera sends a telegram to Irish Press condemning the actions of Crown Forces. He says that the English are proceeding to put into place more securely military terrorism in Ireland

Glasnevin

A small funeral takes place for Sergeant Smyth. It is largely attended by family and Dublin Castle G-Men colleagues. Authorities in Castle are said to be gravely concerned for their safety and are considering immediate approaches for dealing with IRA https://t.co/aDgv5gvJ0b

Dublin

A major movie on the life of St. Patrick is being filmed in north Dublin at present. Below shots show some moments of filming of scene where Patrick is being sold at a Roman slave market. The film is released in 1920 called 'In the Time of St. Patrick' https://t.co/0Vf6yDHwQk

London

Pressure grows on Winston Churchill for British involvement in northern Russia. He justifies their involvement by stating that they prevented Bolsheviks from seizing Baltic ports and extended their reach towards Europe https://t.co/cOaaCzZbkV

Paris

Sean T. O'Kelly, who has remained on in French capital as Dáil Éireann envoy to France and Europe, describes President Wilson's recent comments suggesting that the League of Nations will take up Ireland's casue once established as 'unfair and evasive'

11th September 1919

Cloyne

The Bishop of Cloyne, Robert Browne, describes those who attacked British soldiers in Fermoy as 'desperadoes', and that their actions will work against those striving for an independent Ireland. He also condemns the troops riotous actions in the town

London

The Pall Mall Gazette has reported that there has been a spike in ex-soldiers enlisting into the RIC. Many demobilised soldiers, who are finding it difficult adjusting to peace-time, are seeing an opportunity in Ireland

Wellington, New Zealand

The leader of an Orange Institute in New Zealand writes to Edward Carson's wife urging her to bring Edward there on a visit to see how they are thriving in a Home Rule environment and that the British flag proudly flies over their homes

Cork

The funeral of Bryan Crowley, who was knocked off his bike by a military transport containing the Fermoy prisoners, takes place. He is laid to rest in St. Finbarr's Cemetery. His coffin, escorted by a large procession of Volunteers is draped in tricolour

12th September 1919

Dublin

Dáil Éireann is outlawed by British officials in an official proclamation. The ban extends to the 32 counties of Ireland. https://t.co/JQaQJpTvmO

Ireland

The outlawing of Dáil Éireann comes on the same day as a mass crack-down on Irish nationalism commences across Ireland. Raids are carried out in Dublin, Cork, Waterford, Kilkenny, Dundalk, Galway, Skibbereen, Buncrana, Irvinestown, Bray, and Nenagh. https://t.co/N8S7pyNLha

6 Harcourt St., Dublin

Military forces raid Sinn Féin H.Q. Diligent secretaries hide all arms and sensitive files before they enter. Michael Collins adopts a very casual persona, and authorities do not recognise him. Ernest Blythe and Patrick O'Keefe arrested https://t.co/QHFPn3FMXr

The raid on the Sinn Féin H.Q caused a very large crowd to congregate and scuffles broke out. Below, from Irish Independent, shows scene outside front door as a painter continues to paint with chaos around him. O'Keefe is shown in a military wagon, Blythe is shown facing camera https://t.co/FdXo1FuD8p

Dublin

The homes of Count Plunkett, Joe McGrath, William T. Cosgrave, Micheal Staines, and Alderman Tom Kelly are all raided by military and police across the city as part of coordinated crack down on Sinn Féin and the IRA

Dublin

One of the leading Dublin Castle 'G Men' involved in the raid on the Sinn Féin H.Q was Detective Daniel Hoey, a 30 year old Offaly man who was at the forefront of the crack-down on Sinn Féin. Given the near-arrest of Collins, it was decided to shoot him https://t.co/Fj4ghRPbEB

Townsend St., Dublin

IRA Volunteers Mick McConnell, Tom Ennis, and James Slattery, members of Collins' 'Squad', observe Daniel Hoey leaving duty at 10pm. They follow him down Townsend St., and identify him. They shoot him dead at doorstep of DMP Detective H.Q https://t.co/fDaJCIsNul

Waterford

Police raid the local Volunteer and Sinn Féin halls and extensively search for documentation and arms. The home of a senior Sinn Féin organiser, P. O'Brazill, is also searched

Skibbereen

The premises of the Southern Star newspaper is raided as part of a police sweep of several buildings in the town. The homes of Peadar O'Houlihan, and Jeremiah Lynch are among those that are raided https://t.co/mT1mxSH71s

12th September 1919

Dundalk

Among the properties raided in the Dundalk area is that of Peter Hughes, chairman of the U.D.C. Police extend their searches to the Carlingford and Greenore areas in their search for arms. They also make searches in Louth village

Buncrana

A full detachment of the Dorset Regiment marches into Buncrana and patrol the town as police make several raids on property. The dwelling place, and factory of John McLoughlin is the focus of their searches

Nenagh

RIC and military target three prominent nationalist men in the town with targeted searches of their homes and work places; Bill Hoolan, Frank McGrath and Ned O'Leary. It is reported that nothing of an incriminating nature is discovered

Cork 

Several Sinn Féin clubs across city are raided by police and troops. At the city's Sinn Féin H.Q in Grand Parade, photos of Tomás McDonagh and Joe McGuinness are forcibly removed. At another club, floorboards are removed and all furniture thrown outside

Fermoy

Locals assess damage from a night of chaos as troops went on rampage destroying shops. Among the worst affected businesses were Lombard's Wine and Spirits Shop, and Quinlan's Drapery. The latter had almost £1k of damage done (approx €33k in 2019 terms) https://t.co/SwT8tjzJxD

13th September 1919

Dublin

After one of most eventful days in Dublin since Rising, an uneasy tension hangs over the capital. DMP Officials are livid at death of their colleague Detective Hoey. They issue an appeal for information on a group of men seen running towards Hawkins St.

Castleblayney, Monaghan

The Military and police crack down on Sinn Féin reaches Monaghan. 6 men are arrested and brought before court. They are Patrick Hand, Charles McArdle, Barney McNally, Michael McArdle, Patrick Christy, and Robert Irwin

Derry

A number of raids take place, the most eventful of which sees police wrestling Patrick Shiels to the ground as he refuses to give up two revolvers. A large crowd comes to the aid of Shiels. Elsewhere, a large group attack police and rescue a prisoner

Topeka, Kansas

The Topeka State Journal, the largest paper in the State Capital of Kansas reports that 'Erin' is a war zone following the suppression of Dáil Éireann https://t.co/Si0Rhlu6e4

U.S.A

The American press reacts to a dramatic week in Ireland https://t.co/NFHxK8nmJA

14th September 1919

Dublin

Lord French, in an interview with an American journalist, states that there are no circumstances under which England will ever recognise an Irish Republic. A few days later, however, Lord French makes it clear to the Irish Independent that he refused to speak with the American journalist at all, never mind commenting upon an Irish Republic https://t.co/2HBWLohWaj

Tipperary

Another day of widespread searches of premises across the county by police in military. The main raids occur in Tipperary Town, Thurles CBS, Cashel, and Roscrea

Rome

Guglielmo Marconi, and his team of engineers, carry out the first successful testing of what are termed as 'pocket wireless telephones'

Cork

St. Finbarr's win the 1919 Senior Cork Hurling Championship, defeating Blackrock in the final https://t.co/4J8uTZCRZl

Fermoy

As tensions in the town abate slightly, military officers amend the proclamation in the town to bring it into line with the rest of the county, and several other counties in Ireland; no longer will a group of four men be deemed to be a 'meeting'

New York

The New York times publishes images from the recent celebration ticker tape parade through 5th Avenue of the returning 'Fighting' First Division, led by General Pershing. Among those viewing is Archbishop Patrick Hayes, son of Kerry parents https://t.co/Kj7F9Jlt3K

Corpus Christi, Texas

What would become known as Florida Keys hurricane devastates Corpus Christi and destroys a large proportion of city. Only 3 hurricanes in the 100 years since, in the United States, have claimed more lives; Okeechobee (1928), Katrina (2005), and Maria (2017) https://t.co/vxhg7Hj1MQ

Exactly 100 years later, Kerry lose in Croke Park in a replay, also by 6 points. https://t.co/rJpHiL2N2x

15th September 1919

Dublin

The Inquest of the murder of Daniel Hoey hears evidence of how he was shot 'with murderous intent' by persons unknown. The body of the DMP Sergeant is identified by his elderly father who traveled to Dublin from the family home in Rhode, King's County. Daniel Hoey's body is removed from Mercer's Hospital for funeral in Rhode. Below scene shows crowds of colleagues in Dublin Castle surrounding the motor hearse. Also, Hoey's elderly father and brothers who travelled from Offaly for their son's inquest https://t.co/a2Bh9yMvcx

87 Upper Dorset St., Dublin

Residents of Upper Dorset Street are disturbed in their sleep as they awake to sound of gunshots and breaking glass. The book shop of Máire Ni Raghallaigh (below) is targeted. A bullet passes through a picture of the Sacred Heart https://t.co/4I15Y5EqIm

Fiume

Prominent Italian poet and soldier, Gabriele D'Annunzio, has secured control of the city of Fiume, with 2,000 followers. Angered at Treaty proposal for Italian withdrawal, D'Annunzio is determined to maintain Italian control of the city https://t.co/cKOe0phXgd

Newark, New Jersey

Charles P. Gillen, the Roscommon born Mayor of Newark (below), greets De Valera in the City Hall. The Irish tricolour flies from the building for the second time, the first being the 2nd anniversary of the Easter Rising last year https://t.co/UpNmCmeGOD

Ballinacarriga, Dunmanway, Cork

25 police and 50 soldiers prohibit the holding of a feis and an athletics meet in Ballinacarriga. Large crowds convene and violence is narrowly avoided. Another feis in Kinsale is also outlawed

Dublin

As spectre of evictions continues to sweep through the capital's tenement housing, an agreement is reached before bailiffs could enter below property that had 'bailiff, bailiff, go away, come back another day. Nothin' doin', hop it' painted on the front https://t.co/NtHjisR9xB

This property was 24 Rogerson's Quay. Leading the resistance to the eviction was William Larkin, the Chair of the Dublin Tenant's Association

Liverpool

Seamus Burke, Roscrea, T.D for Mid-Tipperary boards a ship for the United States. He had been focus of RIC searches for months and had been hiding in safe-house of James and Grett Dooley, Neilstown, Camross. Paddy Donoghue helps organise his passage https://t.co/pM28YUZ2wh

Ballyknockan, Wicklow

Seán Etchingham, T.D, speaking at an aeridheacht, says that Pitt carried Act of Union nearly 120 years ago with bribery. He says British cannot undo Irish will in similar fashion now with proclamations, and the Dáil will continue its work

Thomastown, Birr

The RIC Barracks in the rural townland of Thomastown closes and the Officers retreat to Birr Barracks. This is latest move in RIC's strategy in withdrawing from rural barracks as public attitude towards them continues to harden

Dublin

15 of the 30 members of the Women's Royal Air Force Service in Dublin are demobilised. It is announced that the department will be completely wound down very soon as post-War demobilisation begins to conclude

16th September 1919

Cork

Attendants from Cork District Asylum are returning from the Munster and Leinster Bank when they are set upon by a group of masked and armed men. The daylight highway robbers get away with up to £1,500, an extraordinary sum 100 years ago to get away with https://t.co/XnaeUGLI4z

Ballynoe, Cork

2 further men are arrested and charged in connection with Fermoy shooting last week. They are John Hogan and Peter Callaghan, 2 farm labourers in their 20s. They are paraded before 17 troops that were involved in the shooting in Fermoy Barracks

Thurles

The Archbishop of Cashel, John Harty, opens the Thurles Bazzar, in aid of the building of an orphanage and a school in Dundrum https://t.co/fojSXaMo8X

Dublin

William Pedlar, the American man that sued the DMP for damages in July (see 16th July on my timeline https://t.co/BiIquvToiK) is arrested by G Men from Dublin Castle for reasons not yet known

Lisgoold, East Cork

An aeridheacht is outlawed in village of Lisgoold. A marching band, coming from Ballincarrig, notice the military, they turn into a bog. Police and soldiers follow them in an amusing sight, stumbling through the soft bog before they gave up

Gelsha, Longford

Over 100 men from the locality come together to reap the crops of Matt Brady. Brady was shot by the RIC on 27th April (see my timeline for details https://t.co/BiIquvToiK) and remains in the County Infirmary gravely ill

Macroom

The first Sinn Féin Arbitration Court in mid-court is held. It deals with a land dispute between George O'Grady and Daniel Dinneen.

17th September 1919

Skerries

A plane plummets from the sky into the water outside Skerries. The pilots miraculously escape without injury https://t.co/lA2YDhJQGa

Derry

There is a chronic water shortage in Derry. Below images are of the main reservoir serving the city and its environs. The image with the man standing on the banks is from 1918. The other image is the present situation as the water has almost dried up https://t.co/5hBhXxvsXX

Cork

Troops arrive at Cork Examiner newspaper and forcibly enter. They formally suppress paper and seize all available copies of 12th September edition which published full details of the Dáil Éireann loan. It is unclear when the paper will be printed again 

Mullingar

A soldier throws a bottle a woman and a very large crowd chase him through the streets. Father Carpenter, curate in the town, catches the soldier first and keeps him safe against the baying crowd and escorts him to the Barracks to be dealt with

18th September 1919

Ennis

A military court inquest into circumstances surrounding the shooting dead of Francis Murphy states that each soldier based in Clare was accounted for on night in question. They, therefore, determine that it was not a Clare soldier that fired the shots

Kingstown, Dublin

William Pedlar, the American who was picked up by G Men earlier in the week is escorted to a mail boat bound for Holyhead. He will, from there, be moved to Southampton and deported from the country

San Francisco

President Wilson, in his first public statements on Ireland, says he hoped that the 'wretched misunderstanding between Ireland and rest of United Kingdom will disappear'. The comments are unlikely to be received well by De Valera or Irish America

19th September 1919

Dublin

Sir Frederick Shaw, the Commander-in-Chief of British forces in Ireland, pictured below with his daughter, formally suggests that that the police force in Ireland be expanded via the recruitment of a special force of volunteer British ex-servicemen https://t.co/y3EYRwJUt9

London 

The Daily Mail publishes an article which claims that 8 people have been shot dead in recent times in Dublin on suspicion of being police informers. A spokesperson for the Lord Mayor laughs off the claim saying it is without foundation

Nenagh

The recent proclamation of County Tipperary following the Lorrha shootings is roundly condemned. The banning of markets in town is having a grave impact on the local economy. Similar calls for restrictions to be lifted come from Clonmel, and Portumna

Manhattan

A German language newspaper describes how De Valera addressed a massive meeting in Manhattan and condemned President Wilson and his plans for the League of Nations https://t.co/JLrrHuKbdU

O'Connell St., Dublin

The reconstruction of O'Connell Street continues following the devastation caused by the shelling of British gun ships during the Easter Rising three years ago. Below shows the junction with Abbey Street and new Munster & Leinster Bank https://t.co/w6mPhxMCEx

20th September 1919

Dublin

Military officers enter premises of several newspapers and dismantle equipment. They have all recently published details of Dáil Loan. They are the Nationality, The Irish Republic, The Irish World, New Ireland, Fáinne and Lae, and The Voice of Labour

Yorkshire

Farmers bust with their harvest experience extraordinary weather as they are forced indoors due to heavy snow. The freak blizzard lasted for an hour. Snow showers are reported elsewhere, all over Britain, too, especially in North Wales

Brookhaven, Mississippi,

The Semi-Weekly Leader newspaper contrasts De Valera, who is touring the United States seeking support, with Edward Carson, who, in his recent speeches, has condemned America, asking it to keep out of British Affairs https://t.co/sG71JdKOcD

Thurles

On the day of one of the town's largest markets, Thurles people awake to the sight of a tank in the Square and dozens of soldiers blocking all entrances to the town. Farmers bringing their animals in are forced to turn around and head home

Melbourne

Australian press express their frustration at the difficulties they face in getting reliable sources of information on what is happening in Ireland. Much of their reporting is forcibly reduced to interpreting reports from the likes of London Times https://t.co/XCOytECJlz

Dundalk

Police seize all copies of the Dundalk Examiner. The newspaper recently published details of the Dáil Éireann loan scheme

Philadelphia

The Irish Press claims that New York City alone has pledged $3 million to the Irish cause https://t.co/1PHBOdz1qd

Thurles

During mass in Thurles Cathedral, Fr. Maher spoke about the proclamations that had so affected people's lives in several parts of Ireland, and urged people to remain calm. The wife of the late Micheal Hunt rose from her seat and left the church

21st September 1919

Dublin

The Sunday Independent cartoon considers the political difficulties in London and the prospect of a general election on the horizon https://t.co/52OLQCFdC1

Croke Park

Cork defeat Dublin by four goals to win the All-Ireland Senior Hurling Final. It is their first title in 16 years. Below shows the victorious Cork team, taken from a selection of clubs, and the Captain, Jimmy 'Major' Kennedy receiving the trophy https://t.co/Gju4Ggm5Vg

See below, from Freeman's Journal, details of the Cork Team Photo, which also included well-wishers such as J.J Walsh, T.D for Cork City https://t.co/s9ixk1yPhY

Jimmy Kennedy was one of Cork's great hurlers in 1910s, and continued to line out for the Rebels until 1927. His first All-Ireland appearance came in 1912, his first season, when Cork were defeated by Kilkenny. Further disappointment came in 1915 when Laois were victors (below) https://t.co/G8nfCP2avI

The 1919 final, Kennedy's third, was an opportunity for redemption for Cork and he led his team to victory from full-forward, wearing a cap throughout the game (below scoring a goal despite best efforts of Dublin defender). He would go on win another All-Ireland in 1926 https://t.co/2yGIZIZtcr

Such was Cork's dominance on the day, and the performance of Kennedy, the Irish Independent cartoonists gave their perspective on the towering Cork captain scoring goal after goal against the hapless Dublin goalkeeper https://t.co/DylHHPIZvr

Thurles

Sean Ó'Glasain, Quarry St., Thurles, was proceeding towards his home when he was stopped by British troops. He refused to answer to their queries in English. He was threatened with arrest, before a local officer approached and identified him

Carrick-on-Suir

Residents from Carrick-on-Suir are unsure of how recent restrictions are going to affect markets within the town, especially as the rural hinterland of the town comes from Kilkenny, Tipperary, and Waterford

Manchester

J.J Walsh, T.D, offers an update into the health of political prisoners in Manchester Prison. Piaras Béaslaí is said to have improved in health, but Austin Stack's condition is said to be poor after his extended incarceration

22nd September 1919

Cork

After suppression for printing details of Dáil Loan, Cork Examiner returns to the news stands. Its first edition harshly criticises British authorities for the press censorship and questions was it not for such freedoms that the War was fought and won? https://t.co/0z5BvfhVz3

Dublin

In the face of growing violence and insurgency, Dublin Castle announces that all RIC and DMP Officers will be equipped with grenades for the first time. The bombs, capable of being thrown 80 feet, will have four second timers

Lacken, Tipperary

Police surround a handball alley and prevent a group of young men from playing a game of handball. The men negotiate with police to allow some training under their supervision. In nearby Rearcross later that day, a police horse is shot dead

Dublin

William Tannem is court-martialed for escaping from Mountjoy. In refusing to recognise the court, he said 'this court has no more right to govern this country than the chief of the Bashi-bazouks'. He also lit a cigarette during proceedings

When the presiding officer remanded Tannem for trial, he shouted, as being led away, 'the farce is over!'

New York

Rumours that had been spreading of disappearance of Emmeline Pankhurst in New York come to an end when the hasty reporter who had spread rumours, after failing to find her in the Waldorf Astoria, the same hotel as De Valera, finds her in another hotel https://t.co/Q5UfeM7Nd8

Sandy Row, Belfast

First public suggestions that Irish police should be armed with explosives came from a speech made two weeks earlier by William Coote M.P for Tyrone in an Orange Hall in Sandy Row, Belfast. He urged for RIC to be given permission to use them if they heard any noise behind a hedge https://t.co/EjNWz4Gdga

Birr

Police enter the premises of the Midland Tribune and seize all remaining editions of last week's paper that advertised the Dáil Loan. They dismantle the printing press, thus crippling the newspaper's production.

This moves comes one day after the page from the Midland Tribune advertising the loan is posted to trees around the parish church in Roscrea (below). Police officers from Roscrea Barracks were forced to remove the pages from the trees https://t.co/bA89vbPotL

Pittsburgh

Following a ballot, in which 98% of Amalgamated Association of Iron, Steel & Tin Workers decided to strike, steel workers across America began to down tools in protest at wages and conditions. It would become one of largest strikes in U.S history https://t.co/Qwzbcddbbp

London

Ever since the first regular commercial international flight service from London to Paris was established recently, a number of other routes commence. Today, British links with Europe are strengthened with the London-Brussels route commencing https://t.co/hdcHBUJpj1

New York

The New York Times publishes photos of Cardinal Mercier's visit to the city where he meets with the Archbishop of New York, Patrick Hayes https://t.co/32q3eCG3Uj

23rd September 1919

Cork

A gang of men, assumed to be the same men that carried out the highway robbery of the Asylum Officers recently, row a boat up the Lee in the dead of night and attack security at Cork Distillers and make their getaway with £300 worth of whiskey

Maryborough Prison,

James Greene, one of the men charged with the Three Rock Incident (see 19/1/19, 28/1/19, and 7/4/19 in https://t.co/BiIquvToiK) is released following seven day hunger strike. He claims to have been left in a cell without clothes for a week

O'Connell Street, Limerick

Police enter the premises of the Limerick Leader newspaper (below) and seize copies of previous editions and dismantle printing press. Little shock is expressed at the move given recent suppression of newspapers all over Ireland https://t.co/oOdqQ4j89D

Newmarket, Cork

The annual Newmarket Sports day and pony races are banned by military who arrived early in the morning to block all entrances to the area and turned away hundreds of disappointed locals

Limerick

Three more rural RIC Barracks close down - Ardagh, Shanagolden, and Caherconlish. It is reported that aside from general tactic of the RIC at present to retreat from rural outposts, it is said that local recruitment into the force has all but stopped

Dublin

Benjamin Allshire, a chemist from Glasnevin, is brought before court on charges of prescribing a patient cocaine on three days in late-July on same prescription. Chemists are only allowed to supply cocaine, for 'nerves', once on a single prescription https://t.co/mCkuHgT7ir

24th September 1919

Kerry

Police enter the premises of three Kerry newspapers and seize copy, and dismantle printing presses. The newly targeted publications are the Kerry News, the Kerry Weekly Reporter, and the Killarney Echo. This brings the total papers suppressed to 40

Tullyard House, Armagh

One of the most senior Sinn Féin organisers in Ulster, Eamonn Donnelly is arrested.

Cork Asylum

As a direct result of the recent highway robbery (see 16/9/19 https://t.co/BiIquvToiK) employees of Cork Asylum are not paid for their work. The financial situation of the institute is said to be grave

New York

Seamus Burke, T.D for Mid-Tipperary, arrives in New York. He had fled Ireland following months of being on the run in safe-houses around Roscrea and Camross, Co. Laois. https://t.co/gV14Of2542

Knocklong

Four agricultural labourers are arrested in connection with Knocklong Train Rescue and the shooting dead of Constable Michael Enright. They are Edward Foley, Michael Shanahan, Michael Murphy, and Patrick Maher

Marina Quay, Cork

Production at Henry Ford's new plant in Cork, the first of its kind o

Cork

The poor conditions of some of Cork's poorest residents is highlighted in an outbreak of typhus in the city, which is lamed upon cramped living conditions. It is said that the number of cases in past few weeks exceeds that of the past seven years combined

London

In an effort to tackle the chronic housing crisis in Ireland, the government approves the construction of wooden houses which can be erected quickly, and cheaply to speed the process up in cities such as Dublin, but also across Britain

25th September 1919

Pueblo, Colorado

President Woodrow Wilson is on his ongoing tour of U.S drumming up support for the League of Nations. He has been in a state of utter exhaustion for two weeks. In Pueblo, before his speech he complains of a splitting headache but continues on https://t.co/4HygVr34kp

10 Downing Street, London

The Lord Lieutenant attends a Cabinet meeting during which Ireland is discussed. Lord Northcliffe, Dublin born media owner of The Times, is pressing hard for a Dominion solution. It is felt that Sinn Féin's demands are unreasonable

Aughadown, West Cork

Police raid the local Sinn Féin whilst a meeting is ongoing and the begin charging everyone with unlawful assembly, although only one person gave their correct name

Dublin

Peter Ennis, the Caretaker of Liberty Hall, is court-martialed in connection with the discovery of weapons and ammunition in the building during a raid in August.

Dublin

Patrick O'Keefe, T.D for North Cork, is also court-martialed. He is charged in connection with a speech made in Charleville in May. O'Keefe addressed court in Irish, when the presiding officer said he didn't understand Irish, O'Keefe continued regardless

France

An American plane takes an aerial photograph of a field full of American cars that have just been shipped across the Atlantic. The American government have sold the cars to France to help them with reconstruction efforts https://t.co/eD5nTZgwUY

26th September 1919

Pueblo, Colorado

The First Lady discovers her husband in a profound state of illness; his facial muscles were twitching uncontrollably and he was experiencing severe nausea. His tour is immediately cancelled, his Secretary stating he had stomach problems https://t.co/lshhEzTp1E

London

Talks to avoid a national railway strike collapse, and the National Union of Railwaymen will strike work from midnight across all rail lines in Britain. It is unclear if the strike will extend to Ireland

Dublin

A fire, which breaks out in the printing room of the Irish Times, causes considerable damage. However, the paper manages to produce an edition for the following day despite the consternation https://t.co/1jaehjBH0Z

27th September 1919

Cork Jail

News emerges that all Sinn Féin prisoners in Cork have gone on hunger strike, demanding their release.

Ireland

The situation on Irish railways remains unchanged, and services are running as normal for now. The General Secretary of the Railway Union in Ireland states that they are awaiting explicit instructions from London relating to whether to extend strike

London

The first full day of the railway strike paralyses Britain. There are immediate concerns for the movement of food to London, as the London Times attempts to reassure its readers that no such food shortages will take place https://t.co/e5MXqCAdse

Ireland

For the third time since its introduction in 1916, summertime ends in Ireland as clocks go back an hour. https://t.co/TR6y40A87l

Dublin Port

Hundreds of people that had departed the night before aboard the S.S Rathmore to Holyhead are forced to return to Dublin owing to the lack of railway transport in Britain https://t.co/UbkmzmmLxi

Oyster Bay, New York

The grave of Teddy Roosevelt, the 26th President of the United States, is surrounded by guard rails for protection https://t.co/ylAmHPvXYX

Minneapolis, Minnesota

The Irish Standard publishes a full edition penned by De Valera in which outlines the reasons for his American mission and what he wants from America https://t.co/sOueI8MoVv

28th September 1919

Union Station, Washington D.C

President Woodrow Wilson arrives back in the Capital, with his wife Edith. He appears ill, but has strength to walk on his own and shakes hands with a few well-wishers before being whisked away to the White House https://t.co/xDvub7t3EV

Dublin

The Sunday Independent cartoonist, Gordon Brewster, takes aim at the government's continuing laissez-faire attitude to rampant profiteering in Ireland that is strangling the Irish people paying high prices for food and other products https://t.co/VxJSLNlRQp

O'Connell Street, Dublin

Clery's Department Store begin an advertisement campaign in which they promote their postal shopping service where customers can enter the store and purchase items and have them posted to their address, a pioneering initiative in 1919 https://t.co/VRWdC0tkti

Britain

The National Union of Railwaymen strike continues, with all trains stopped bringing disarray to Great Britain. The strikers demand a 143% increase in wages to pre-war remuneration.

Berrings, Cork

Dan McCarthy, Ben Hickey, Leo Murphy, and Jer Scanlan, all members of the West Cork IRA, attack RIC Constables Sweeney and Walsh as they leave Sunday mass in an attempt to disarm them. Sweeney is shot three times and taken to Cork Infirmary

Castlecomer

Five RIC officers are seriously injured in an explosion in a coal-mine. They had removed explosives from the mine and were tidying up after themselves. As part of this they burnt some papers, which set a light 2 barrels of gunpowder

Cork Prison

The 26 prisoners that were on hunger strike and in solitary confinement are escorted on to military lorries and taken away to an unknown destination.

Croke Park

32,000 people, a record attendance, watch on as Kildare win 1919 All-Ireland football final, defeating Galway 2-5 to 0-1. Goals from Frank Joyce Conlan and Jim O'Connor prove decisive as first-time finalists, Galway, wilted before massive crowd https://t.co/uWvvB0XVyW

Moynoe, Clare

RIC Constables Henchant and McCarthy, returning to their police hut in the townland of Moynoe, from their patrol in Scariff, are fired upon by a party of Clare IRA Volunteers. Neither men are injured in the short exchange of fire

29th September 1919

Cork

A number of arrests in connection with the attack upon two RIC officers outside mass in Berrings Church take place. Among those arrested is Jack Callanan, son of Eugene Callanan, the Secretary of Cork County Council

Dublin

Post Office officials in Dublin warn that they cannot, due to the ongoing rail strike in Britain, accept any non-Irish mail for the foreseeable future

Kilquane, East Kerry

A bitter local dispute over provision of milk to different creameries continues. Days after an attempt to blow up Slattery's Creamery in Kilquane, a boy bringing milk to Ballymacelligott co-op creamery is scared off and his horse shot dead

Cork

Four men are arrested in connection with the highway robbery of Cork Asylum attendants. They are John Callanan, Con Coughlan, Patrick Coughlan, and Michael Coughlan. The three Coughlans are all related

Manchester

Daniel McCabe, 1st Catholic Lord Mayor of Manchester, dies. A constitutional nationalist, McCabe was staunch Parnellite. In later years, he warmed slightly to Sinn Féin, signing a petition that was handed to President Wilson when he visited the city https://t.co/gkt2p8aLYs

30th September 1919

Paris

Concerns as to the state of the British economy are heightened with the news that the Pound Sterling has fallen by over six francs in the past few days. The Pound has been falling for several weeks despite Lloyd George's best efforts at reassurance

Kilkenny

Alderman James Nowlan (below), President of the GAA, and Edward Thomas Keane, Editor of the Kilkenny People, are arrested. There is reportedly no charge in the arrest warrant. They are transported to Dublin via Maryborough https://t.co/eySyYo1cv3

Ireland

Despite not joining the railway strike ongoing in Britain, Irish rail services are drastically curtailed owing to lack of coal coming into Ireland due to the strike. Postal services are threatened and race meetings are cancelled across Ireland

Hazelbrook Market Gardens, Terenure, Dublin

The Irish Independent publishes a photograph of women working in the Hazelbrook Market Gardens. The gardens, established for the purpose of educating Irish women in horticulture, is thriving https://t.co/RpjMyOUX9f

London

It is reported in London newspapers that the British Cabinet is finalising the wording of a new Home Rule Bill for Ireland. The biggest difference between this revised Bill, and one that passed in 1914, is that the island of Ireland will be partitioned

Aran Islands

HMY Helga (below) observes fishing trawlers engaged in fishing outside of a permitted area and its crew board several vessels and issue summonses. The Helga has resumed fisheries patrol since end of War. It was the ship that shelled Dublin in 1916 https://t.co/Pi2ptch2EX

Dungannon

A policeman, giving evidence at a trial, makes a dramatic, if not entirely accurate, statement on consumption of poitín in Tyrone. He says it is rampant, and men are lying senseless in fields being eaten by animals

Phoenix Park

The motor car of the Chief Secretary, Ian Macpherson, is fired upon by a sentry entering the grounds of the Vice-Regal Lodge in the Phoenix Park. The chauffeur had expected to be recognised, however, he was not. No one was injured

Philadelphia

Daily newspapers in Philadelphia publish a schedule of the events planned for the visit of De Valera to the city, along with a pencil drawing of the Sinn Féin leader. The schedule includes the laying of a wreath at tomb of Benjamin Franklin https://t.co/H4rLPT2heO

London

It is reported in London newspapers that the British Cabinet is finalising the wording of a new Home Rule Bill for Ireland. The biggest difference between this revised Bill, and one that passed in 1914, is that the island of Ireland will be partitioned

1st October 1919

Sligo

The Sligo Nationalist newspaper joins the growing list of local newspapers in Ireland to be suppressed by Crown Forces

Limerick Racecourse

Following the abandonment of meeting a few minutes before first race, an angry crowd attacked John Cahill, Secretary of the track, and significantly damaged offices. Police forcibly dispersed crowd with baton charges.

Dublin

Richard A. Johnson, who resides in UCD, Earlsford Terrace, is court-martialled in connection with discovery of arms in Birr. When he speaks in Irish, judge demands he speak in a 'known language'. Johnson replies 'Is é seo mo teanga' (this is my language)

London

Talks to bring to an end the ongoing rail strike are progressing. But in the meantime, the lack of underground services are leading to extensive overcrowding, and lengthy queues for the remaining tram services that are running https://t.co/zISQnyEziM

Philadelphia

Eamonn De Valera arrives in Philadelphia. Such was the welcome in the train station that police tried in vain to hold people back and over-zealous well-wishers broke De Valera's glasses. He picked up 3 year old Anna Scanlan and posed for photos https://t.co/8JWCwH4M7T

New York

Patrick Egan, the former treasurer of the Land League, and close ally of Parnell and Davitt, dies in his daughter's home. Originally from Ballymahon, Longford, Egan became involved in American politics and was Ambassador to Chile during fraught times https://t.co/7ocALBjsOE

Holyhead

Precipitated by the ongoing rail strike, for the first time ever, Irish-bound mail is flown (below) from London to Holyhead in an aeroplane for transport on a mail-boat. It is speculated that soon, planes could carry mail all the way to Ireland https://t.co/WZNzESEjAq

White House, Washington D.C

President Wilson's condition is improving after some rest. He watches a film and reads some bible verses aloud. His physician, Dr. Cary Grayson, is happy with his progress

2nd October 1919

White House, Washington D.C

President Woodrow Wilson suffers a severe stroke. He is found by his wife, Edith, slumped on the floor of private quarters bathroom.  he began to exhibit left-sided hand and leg paralysis. A campaign of secret care immediately begins

Britain

Despite encouraging signs yesterday, talks between the government and railway unions have collapsed. A total of 463,561 men are striking work all across Britain

Wicklow Town

William O'Grady, a barber, refuses to remove a full page advertisement for the Dáil Éireann loan scheme from his window. Police enter his premises and remove the ad, and damage the window with their penknives and warn him not to place another ad up

Dublin 

A Dublin GAA official, upset at circumstances in which Kildare defeated them by a point in the Leinster Final, asks Kildare to play them in a challenge match for the benefit of the building of a hall for Dublin footballers

3rd October 1919

White House, Washington D.C

President Wilson's physical condition after his stroke yesterday is grave. His condition is to be kept from the American public as much as possible. Edith Wilson, the First Lady, becomes a steward for the executive branch of government https://t.co/K6spOZTltU

London

As the railway strike continues, members of the armed services are forced into other civil jobs. For instance, below RAF pilot, with years of combat experience in the War, takes to his bike and helps deliver milk throughout London https://t.co/0cLbyLdy6E

Washington D.C

The American Press reporting on the condition of President Wilson, continue to accept the official White House line that he is very ill and his condition worsened. There is no mention of yesterday's stroke that has left him paralysed https://t.co/Ql7uvFjGdK

London

The British government calls for a citizen's guard to secure and safeguard food supplies, and ensure that civil society does not falter as the rail crisis continues https://t.co/NnIqn1ZSzp

Irish National Union of Railway Men HQ, Beresford Place

Central Executive Committee of Irish railway union meet in their headquarters to consider the ongoing situation with their colleagues in Britain. So far, they have decided not to strike work in solidarity https://t.co/Nggyyj9Jau

4th October 1919

London

As railway strike continues, soldiers are stationed all across Britain to stand guard in readiness to put down civil strife. Below shows a soldier guarding milk churns in Woking Station https://t.co/6IQ5gR1Rk3

Dublin Port

The ongoing strike is leading to large quantities of agricultural produce being held up in Dublin Port. Below shows large numbers of fish boxes being unloaded from a ship as it cannot depart, and pigs that cannot reach their destination https://t.co/7m8NlHSpEQ

Washington D.C

American press reports that President Wilson's condition is improving, and that he is growing restless at being forced to stay in bed. In reality, however, the President is unable to leave bed and is paralysed on one side https://t.co/Ba1QLkG57X

5th October 1919

10 Downing Street, London

4.15pm

The British rail strike concludes as agreement is reached between the government and the National Union of Railwaymen. A minimum wage is agreed to, and talks will continue until year's end for a more secure wage plan for 1920

Kilmartin, Cork

A 7th man is arrested in connection with the Berrings church shooting. The latest suspect, Aherne, is arrested in Kilmartin, 10 miles from the shooting.

Vatican

The official organ of the Holy See, the Osservatore Romano, is forced to respond to rumours that senior Vatican officials are advising Cardinal Logue and other Irish bishops on the ongoing situation in Ireland. They deny all claims https://t.co/yEyww1BaO8

Limerick

Following on from the recent riots at the Racecourse in Limerick, John P. O'Brien, from Garranboy, Killaloe, and Ignatius O'Neill, from Miltown Malbay, are arrested on charges of unlawful assembly

Dublin

Ahead of the 28th anniversary of the death of Charles Stuart Parnell tomorrow, people gather at his monument at the top of O'Connell Street and begin to decorate with ivy ahead of memorial. https://t.co/T1oLjNoAbb

6th October 1919

Paddington Train Station, London

As rail services begin to resume, Royal Mail workers begin to distribute large sacks of overdue mail from Ireland https://t.co/wJu9uUm5aI

Islington, London

At a meeting of striking workers in a hall on the corner of Caledonian and Richmond Roads, a Trade Union leader denounced the 'capitalist press' and said the only way they had of executing Lord Northcliffe was by burning the Daily Mail newspaper

Mountjoy Prison

Midnight

Under the orders of the Officer in Command of IRA prisoners, Ted O'Kelly, 40 prisoners, including 26 transferred last week from Cork prison, barricade themselves into their cells and begin to destroy their cells https://t.co/sSu8TEjJcM

The leader of the Laois IRA, Lar Brady, kept officers, under command of Governor Monroe, at bay for two hours. They managed to put a hose through his cell door and over two  feet of water were in the cell before 6 officers burst their way in and fought Brady to the wet ground

The prisoners destroyed all of the furniture and removed all of the gas fittings. In several instances they knocked down walls in between cells. Once the destruction began all available warders and policemen in the wider area were called upon to break into the cells

Hundreds of pounds worth of damage was caused in the riot. All those involved were handcuffed and left in their wrecked cells until authorities thought of how to deal with them. They decide that O'Kelly, their leader, ought to be removed to an Ulster prison

Banbridge, Down

A large Loyalist crowd congregate at the local RIC Barracks waiting for removal of a Sinn Fein prisoner. Head Constable urged crowd to disperse, but when crowd did not, the RIC began to fire at the crowd. One boy, named Coll, is shot and wounded

Macroom

Police raid the Sinn Féin Hall in Macroom and make an exhaustive search and hold the men within, who had been holding a meeting. The meeting was led by T.D for mid-Cork, Terence McSwiney https://t.co/pQcs22aGA4

Killina, Tullamore

James McLoughlin is buried. McLoughlin was known throughout the county for his advanced years and his progeny; he died aged 98 and had 140 grandchildren, and several great-grandchildren

Kingstown Harbour

A large American four-mastered schooner, Pauline (below), lands with a consignment of Californian wheat. In a near-record crossing from San Francisco, the vessel took 70 days to reach Ireland https://t.co/4d1QjDuLnh

Dublin

The Food Controller for Ireland issues demand that no cake, bun, scone, or biscuit be sold in Ireland which has had any edible substance (icing, cherries, raisins, frosting, chocolate etc.) added to its external surface after baking.

Berlin

A large decorated genealogical tree is auctioned in Berlin. It begins with David, King of Israel, and ends with the ex-Kaiser. It also claims that Teia Tephi, the daughter of Zedekiah, last King of Judah, fled to Ireland and married Hermon, King of Ulster

7th October 1919

Mountjoy Prison

Following yesterday's riot, Ted O'Kelly, Officer in Command of IRA in the prison, is removed under military escort to Derry. All prisoners involved in the riots remained handcuffed in their cells. Among them are Patrick Griffin and Brian Shanahan

Canadian House of Commons, Ottowa

William Mackenzie King, leader of the Canadian opposition, takes to the floor of parliament and questions information coming from Washington D.C concerning condition of President Wilson. He said that Canada was deeply concerned https://t.co/ymy46vJ1n3

Pentonville Prison

The Finsbury Park murder saga, which commenced with the discovery of the body of 26 year old Lucy Nightingale ends with the execution of Frank Warren, who was found guilty of her murder.

Dublin

Senate of the National University of Ireland is elected. Among those un-elected are 3 prominent UCD lecturers; Agnes O'Farrelly (below) lecturer in Irish, Dr. George Sigerson (below with beard & glasses), and Rev. Thomas Finlay (below), Faculty of Commerce https://t.co/VUomk6O5Al

Belleek, Fermanagh

The Belleek Pottery Works Company is put up for sale. The company produces some of the finest pottery in Ireland but has struggled during the War years to maintain profits. https://t.co/D2MmKwmTjY

Ennis

A meeting of Clare farmers and traders begs the local authorities to lift the ban on fairs and markets as they say their finances are completely crippled.

Maryborough

Eamonn Corbett, Craughwell, & Cormac Hurley, Bandon, are both released from prison under Cat-and-Mouse act following hunger strike. The Prisoners (Temporary Discharge for Ill Health) Act, passed 6 years ago, was originally intended for suffragettes. https://t.co/YaaekoSThG

Toomevara, Tipperary

Posters urging the boycott of the RIC are posted on trees and telegraph poles all over  Toomevara district. The police immediately tear them down. The police in North Tipperary are under severe pressure from policy of ostracisation by public

Cork

The Cork Examiner publishes chart outlining the growth in the amount of wheat acreage in Ireland over the course of the past seven years. In 1912, there were 45,000 acres of wheat in Ireland, dropping to 39,000 the following year. Now there is 155,000 acres https://t.co/2lA1Pb1wqA

Cork

The Cork Industrial Development Society announce that Henry Ford had telegramed them indicating that he read in Cork Examiner in August an appeal for direct American shipping trade and he said he would like to increase his shipping to his existing Cork plant https://t.co/ZZ702glmV2

8th October 1919

Cork

E.T Keane, Editor of the Kilkenny People newspaper, and James Nowlan, President of the GAA, are both court-martialed in Cork. They both plead not-guilty. Keane is charged with possession of a fire arm. Keane claimed it was a keepsake, and no more than a toy

Dublin

Yesterday's NUI election continues to generate debate, especially the resounding defeat of some very prominent incumbent academics including Douglas Hyde. One of those unelected, Physician J.C McWalter writes 'as in Jerusalem of old, we stone our prophets'

@david_flood Certainly the former, pretty sure of the latter. Interesting guy!

Washington D.C

Yesterday's story in the Cork Examiner on Henry Ford expressing an interest in increasing shipping to Cork from America is confirmed in a front page article in the Washington Times https://t.co/6XD445a0ca

London

The British Cabinet continue to scramble to put together a new Home Rule Bill that can appease Unionists. The Suspensory Act, that postponed Home Rule in 1914, expires in six weeks, after which Home Rule will automatically come into force unless amended.

London

The Irish Independent publishes a photograph of the Secretary of State for War and Air, Winston Churchill, giving evidence at the Tank Inquiry in Lincoln's Inn a few days ago https://t.co/FaKg4iwzGz

Thurles

Kate Hunt, the widow of RIC District Inspector Micheal Hunt, who was shot dead in June by the IRA, is awarded £5,800 in compensation. Ms. Hunt had claimed for £12,000. The compensation is being levied off both South and North Tipperary County Councils

Newcastle West, Limerick

The Weekly Observer becomes the latest weekly Irish newspaper to be suppressed when police raided their offices in the Limerick town and dismantled the printing press.

Dublin

A verdict of accidental death is returned in the case of 4 year old Mary Cooke who was hit by a tram in Blackrock. No blame is attached to Joseph Lawler, tram driver. However, in separate police case, Lawler is charged. The girl's father is a DMP Sergeant

9th October 1919

Dublin

Police proceedings are thrown out in the case of Joseph Lawler, the tram driver that had been charged in connection with death of the daughter of a DMP Sergeant. The presiding judge agreed with outcome from Coroner's Court yesterday and ended proceedings

Dublin

William Walsh, Archbishop of Dublin, and Chancellor of NUI, writing to Evening Herald, responds to the criticism of the new NUI Senate regarding UCD's decision to commence part-time night classes. He says it is a matter for UCD to decide, and no one else https://t.co/TAZ0klwTnT

Dublin

A case involving John Johnson in connection with robbery of bikes in Swinford, Mayo, is heard. The court hears it was his 'first holiday and that he was not quite normal all the time he was holiday-making'. He was known as the Admiral in the small town

Sinn Féin H.Q

Despite the full resumption of mail services, the Sinn Féin H.Q has received no post in three days. When a query is lodged, a postman is brought in for questioning on suspicion of withholding all mail for Sinn Féin

Mountjoy Prison

The Lord Mayor of Dublin, Laurence O'Neill, visits prisoners in Mountjoy and he reveals that those Sinn Féin prisoners that were involved in riots a few days ago are still handcuffed in their cells and have not been allowed any exercise since

Stewart's Institution, Chapelizod

2 attendants, John Morrison & Robert Purcell, are shot in a sensational escape attempt from institute for mentally unwell. A 3rd man, Michael Sheehan, is also shot. William Little, an inmate, is charged connection with incident

Cork

Irish built Ford tractors continue to come onto the market in Cork. Below advertisement describes how the tractor (driven by a lady farmer in the cartoon) is easy to use, reliable, safe, and can plough an acre in an hour https://t.co/4EGgnZm1D7

Borrisokane, Tipperary

Harriet A. Biggs, a landowner in the Borrisokane area, is assaulted with a knife and tongs in her home. A quantity of farm produce was also set on fire adjacent to the dwelling house. A man called Hough has been arrested in connection

10th October 1919

Dublin

William Little, the man who shot three members of staff of the Stewert's Institution yesterday, is charged with their attempted murder. Little, who had 124 rounds of ammo on his person, believes he is a secret-service agent rounding up Sinn Féiners

280 Broadway, New York

An Irish Industrial Depot, to promote trade between the United States and Ireland is established in the iconic 280 Broadway Building in New York. It is the first independent overseas base for Irish business development https://t.co/WmMexFkwHW

Kingstown

On the first anniversary of the sinking of the RMS Leinster, mass is offered in St. Michael's church for the nearly 600 people that perished when the vessel is torpedoed by a German U-Boat https://t.co/veolr1HL8i

Sinn Féin Headquarters

It appears that the non-delivery of letters to Sinn Féin seems not to be the actions of a single postman, and rather policy from Dublin Castle. When Sinn Féin contacted the GPO, who directed to the Castle, a large batch of letters arrived

Cork

Patrick O'Keefe, T.D for North Cork, is sentenced to 18 months in prison without hard labour in connection with an illegal assembly in Charleville in May.

Maryborough

The final 3 Sinn Féin prisoners in Maryborough prison are released following hunger strike. Bernard Harte and John Doyle were both imprisoned in connection with the Three Rock incident. Patrick O'Hara, Mullingar, was found with seditious documents

Drumshambo, Leitrim

A mysterious animal is said to be stalking the Drumshambo district. Roughly the size of a pig, the creature is said to have a long snout, but has appearance of a walking seal, with a chain around its neck. It travels silently and kills hens

Hill of Slane

The filming of 'In the Days of St. Patrick' continues apace. Yesterday, a great number of extras traveled from Dublin to the Hill of Slane to film a scene in which Patrick lights the paschal fire against the wishes of the High King https://t.co/9iVlUtR3c9

11th October 1919

London

The London Gazette newspaper indicates that the insertion of curfew legislation is about to be added to Defence of the Realm Act (DORA). If implemented, any person on the streets after a prescribed hour without a permit would be in violation of the law

Meath Hospital, Dublin

Two of three men shot by William Little outside Belgrave Hotel remain in a serious condition in hospital. Robert Purcell and John Morris are expected, however, to recover. Micheal Sheehan has had an operation to remove bullet from his arm

Dublin

Richard A. Johnson, the UCD resident who refused to address court-martial in English last week, is sentenced to one year imprisonment with hard labour in connection with discovery of weapons in Birr.

Minneapolis

The Irish American newspaper, The Irish Standard, announces that De Valera will visit the Twin Cities at the end of the following week https://t.co/Hwg82e6FwA

Sligo

Alexander McCabe, T.D for South Sligo, is arrested after a chase of several hundred yards. It is believed his arrest is in connection with a speech he made in Ballinacarrow last week

Ballinasloe

On County Fair day in the Galway town, over 1,000 people gather for a Sinn Féin public meeting. At 4pm, a force of over 400 RIC Officers swarm the meeting and forcibly disperse the crowd with baton charges. Several women and children were injured

12th October 1919

Dublin

The Sunday Independent cartoonist gives his take upon a growing realisation that the British government will need to address the Irish issue urgently in order to appease American support https://t.co/gPDRZol0l8

Croke Park

Dublin make some amends for their All-Ireland defeat to Cork a few weeks ago in a victory in an exhibition game in Croke Park, albeit with much changed line-outs for both teams https://t.co/zkaqIShXEj

Belgium

Irish press publishes photographs of the long range bombardment gun that the Germans used to shell Dunkirk during the Great War. German forces abandoned it whilst retreating their lines last year https://t.co/z79kRc8dN5

Glasnevin Cemetery

Following the anniversary of the death of Parnell, a crowd gathers at his grave and lay wreaths to remember the former leader of the Irish Home Rule Party. Meanwhile in London, plans are being finalised for a revised Home Rule Bill https://t.co/CefYRqvCTA

New York

In a magazine interview, Admiral William Sims states that the Allies were very close to defeat in the Great War around March 1917 due to ongoing actions of German U-Boats. Sims credits Lloyd George's ceaseless optimism with U.K battling on https://t.co/DJF9H7RoHH

Cork 

Cove (Cobh/Queenstown) defeat Youghal to become the 1919 Cork Senior football champions. They win the title by 11 points from their east Cork rivals https://t.co/DbsWkz5tnP

London

An intriguing case involving a senior magistrate issuing a sentence of death upon a dog called Babs comes to an end when the sentence is quashed. A solicitor, H. Curtis Bennett, who led charge to save the dog is pictured below with Babs herself https://t.co/lqO2Ktrxfl

Fr. Fitzgerald, Chairman of the Cork GAA Selection Committee, speaks with two of the Croke players during the game; Sean Murphy (left) and Tim Nagle (right) https://t.co/u2nMKFurRl

13th October 1919

Mountjoy Prison

35 Sinn Féin prisoners, all of whom were involved in riot last week, and have been handcuffed since, commence a hunger strike. They begin their strike when prison authorities prevent them from attending mass.

Derry

Ted O'Kelly, the Officer in Command of the IRA for prisoners in Mountjoy, is released from Derry prison where he was taken after the riot. He is released following a brief hunger strike under cat & mouse legislation.

Carrigaloe, Cork

Three soldiers, who had boarded train in Dublin en-route to Queenstown, are joined by several civilians in their carriage in Cork. As they approached Carrigaloe, the men, who had been friendly to that point, attack the men and seize their guns

Sinn Féin H.Q, Harcourt Street.

Sinn Féin authorities confirm that their mail is being delivered after last week's break in service. However, letters are very much delayed, and indications suggest every letter and parcel is being opened in Dublin Castle

London

Reports in London suggest that another Ireland-specific DORA legislation may be coming; the requirement of all owners of motor cars to have a special military permit for use. Consideration is also ongoing for extension of permit system for motorbikes too

Paris

There are rumours that SinnFéin reps in Paris are going to sue for right to claim Napoleon's Diamond Necklace. They claim Napoleon, in 1811, misappropriated money he received years earlier from Napper Tandy, Irish 1798 rebel, for purchase of the jewellery https://t.co/wGJfTnedll

Geneva

Armand Cherpillod becomes the World Wrestling Heavyweight Champion. The Swiss man defeats his French opponent to claim the title by submission https://t.co/IggsDhQs7k

Burgh Quay, Dublin

Motorists crossing O'Connell Bridge are stopped by police officers and directed down the quays where they are all questioned and asked to produce documentation. The exact purpose of these strict searches is unclear, but causes great disruption 

14th October 1919

Ship St., Barracks, Dublin

Francis Neville, Kinnitty, King's County, is court-martialled for possession of ammunition in contravention of DORA. The Offaly man claims that they were merely in his pockets with a few other old things and had got them from soldiers

Cork

Four men that were arrested in connection with the Cork Asylum highway robbery are released without charge, the police being unable to bring sufficient evidence against the men. John Callahan, and the Coughlan brothers all walk free

Cork Infirmary

E.T Keane, editor of the Kilkenny People, and James Nowlan, President of the GAA, currently awaiting sentencing following court martial, are both ill in Cork infirmary

Youghal

Officers from around East Cork assemble in Youghal to participate in what is terms as 'bombing practice'; field practice in the use of grenades and other explosives

Mountjoy Prison

Prison authorities remove handcuffs for the first time in well over a week from Sinn Féin prisoners on hunger strike. One prisoner, John Kenny from Cork, has been removed to the Mater Hospital

Kingstown

Frederick Edwin Smith, Lord Birkenhead, the Chancellor, arrives in Kingstown and travels to the Vice Regal Lodge in the Phoenix Park for discussions with Lord French. He is pictured below (far left) on arrival, with the Chief Secretary to his right https://t.co/J3MExumXCI

Cork Female Prison

Countess Constance Markievicz is released from Cork Female Prison. She has been in prison since June https://t.co/yWK7fdNJik

16th October 1919

Mansion House, Dawson St., Dublin

On the day that the Mansion House was due to host the Sinn Féin Ard Fheis,  20 members of the DMP seize the building, followed later by 200 troops. This comes a day after Sinn Féin is banned in Dublin City and county.

Mountjoy Prison

The Sinn Féin hunger strike continues in Mountjoy. Seven men have now been moved to the Mater Hospital; Patrick O'Keefe T.D, Charles Donnelly, John Murphy, Robert Slane, Jer Mullane, and Shaun Murphy

Cork

James Nowlan, the President of the GAA, is sentenced to 28 days imprisonment without hard labour, for possession of arms and ammunition https://t.co/DT0Q2kgZLi

Cork

E.T Keane, the editor of the Kilkenny People, is sentenced to 28 days imprisonment without hard labour In connection with discovery of arms and ammunition in his Kilkenny home https://t.co/OTIJKbK624

Cork

Joseph Martin, Portumna, is sentenced to 5 months with hard labour in connection with discovery in motor car in Borrisokane, Tipperary, of official organ of Irish Volunteers containing an article that outlined how an open state of war existed in Ireland

Mansion House, Dawson St., Dublin

Professor Eoin McNeill, is stopped by DMP officers as he approaches the Mansion House. McNeill, the Dáil Éireann Minister for Industries, is one of scores of senior Sinn Féin officials turned away from the area https://t.co/HC7YsN1AeS

Dublin

The cancellation of the Sinn Féin Árd Fheis due to the suppression of the the organisation by the British Authorities causes much tension in city as large groups of people congregate outside Sinn Féin H.Q in Harcourt Street, but no violence is reported https://t.co/IxAfVuEZzb

Kingsbridge Train Station, Dublin

Constance Markievicz returns to Dublin following her release from Cork Female Prison yesterday. She is escorted to a motor car with friends and leaves the area

17th October 1919

Dublin

Ernest Blythe, T.D for N. Monaghan, is charged in connection with discovery of a document on him that may have caused indiscipline in the RIC at a meeting in Tipperary.  He was searched by forces under command of Michael Hunt, later shot dead in Thurles

Mountjoy Jail

Garret O'Reilly, from Kilbeggan, is released from Mountjoy Prison following a month's sentence in connection with an incident at an outlawed aeridheacht in Ferns during the summer

Sinn Féin H.Q, Hardcourt St., Dublin

The letters F E, I, and N are stolen from the front of the Sinn Féin Headquarters. The sign had read 'Sinn Féin Bank Ltd.'. The manager of the bank has queried the robbery with DMP officials https://t.co/OFxCfxlTTs

Dublin

The Evening Herald reports that Sinn Féin has dropped its Ulster policy that it adopted during last year's General Election; they will reportedly contest all constituencies in Ireland, Ulster included

Dublin

Alexander McCabe, T.D for Sligo North, is sentenced to six months imprisonment with hard labour following his recent arrest. The sentence relates to a speech he made in advocated for the public to purchase Dáil Éireann loan bonds

Mountjoy Prison

Several Sinn Féin hunger strikers are released from Mountjoy under Cat & Mouse legislation. In his witness statement to the Bureau of Military History, Lar Brady said he did not feel sufficiently healthy to return to prison after his release

The prisoners were escorted by the Lord Mayor of Dublin (far right) from Mountjoy Prison https://t.co/fYKL9981Il

Among those that were released were the Officer in Command of the Laois IRA, Lar Brady (left) and M. O'Connell (right) https://t.co/G7vcwOXvs8

18th October 1919

Gresham Hotel, Dublin

Fr. Thomas J. O'Donnell is arrested in his room in the Gresham. O'Donnell is a chaplain in Australian Army, and reasons for his arrest are not immediately clear. However, he has been politically active in favour of Irish independence https://t.co/j2sE9qxlJK

Sinn Féin H.Q, Harcourt St., Dublin

Police guard the entrance of the Sinn Féin H.Q in order to prevent the holding of the annual meeting of Cumann na mBan. Maud Gonne McBride and Constance Markievicz arrive on the scene and reluctantly cancel the meeting https://t.co/b0XcP0ahN2

Chappewa Indian Reservation, Spooner, Wisconsin

Eamonn DeValera visits an Indian reservation who name him 'Dressing Feather', after the founder of the reservation. The meeting is seen viewed as a meeting between the leader of one oppressed people with another https://t.co/Ddukyc1L1F

DeValera is gifted a traditional Indian headdress in a ceremony before 3,000 Native Americans. The below image, taken a century ago today, would become one of the defining images of DeValera's American mission during the War of Independence https://t.co/0AZBX4RTLB

19th October 1919

Dublin

Constable Micheal Downing, DMP, is shot dead by three IRA Volunteers. Downing is shot on High Street, near Christchurch. Downing, a member of the G Division, was 23 years of age and from Castletownbere in Cork https://t.co/sOGyxjEIkY

Downing's first words to a passer-by were 'I am shot, get a priest. Pray for me'. Unlike other ordered assassinations of Dublin Castle intelligence officers, Downing was shot by IRA as they feared that their nearby arms dump would be discovered

In an attempt to save Downing's life, he received a blood transfusion from his colleague, Constable Thomas Neary (pictured below recovering from the rushed procedure) https://t.co/a014LYglUh

Belfast

Joseph Berrills, a prominent Sinn Féiner from Dundalk is re-arrested upon his release from Belfast prison following a hunger strike under the cat & mouse act

20th October 1919

Dundrum, Dublin

25 men are arrested by RIC Officers. All of the men are suspected of illegal drilling and none of them gave their names to authorities

20th October 1919

Kilrush

Daniel Sheehan, Kinlea, dies in hospital, Kilrush. Sheehan, and his family were attacked by a party of 12 masked men. They were beaten with sticks and whips, and told to remove a gate from a wall, kneel on it, and  swear they wouldn't report attack

21st October 1919

Dublin

At the inquest of death of Michael Downing, Lord Mayor of Dublin states that he was certain that no Irish man who had their cause or religion at heart committed this crime. In reality, Downing had come upon IRA Volunteers moving arms to Marrowbone Lane

In attendance at the inquest of the death of DMP Officer Michael Downing were his brothers Daniel (left) and Maurice (right), and brother in law, William O'Sullivan (centre) https://t.co/BFOutTGoXs

Richmond Barracks

Despite calls for his immediate release, Australian priest Fr. Thomas O'Donnell remains in custody. It is though that he may face deportation

22nd October 1919

Lorrha

Margaret Brady, widow of the late Matt Brady, RIC Officer shot dead in an ambush by the IRA, serves notice upon Borrisokane Rural District Council for compensation of £10,000

25th October 1919

Strangeways Prison, Manchester

Piaras Béaslaí T.D, Austin Stack T.D, J. Dolan, Con Connolly, Daniel P. Walshe and Paddy McCarthy all rush at on guard prison warden and overpower him and drag him into an empty cell before climbing over the wall escaping

The escape, the 1st from the prison since 1888, was organised by Michael Collins, Paddy O’Donoghue and Liam MacMahon, with advice of Fionán Lynch, who had been released from there in August. The escape followed the same lines of the successful over-the-wall escapes in Mountjoy

The scale of Stack and co.'s endeavour in scaling walls of Strangeways is shown in below image, published in Evening Herald. The 'x' marks the spot from which the 6 men emerged from the prison yard. The 6 bystanders in the image give perspective on sheer height of the wall https://t.co/7O0LSlWDP7

This escape brings the total number of Sinn Féin/IRA escapes to 39; 1 from Cork, 4 from Usk, 3 from Lincoln, these 6 from Manchester, and 25 in two escapes from Mountjoy

Coroner's Court, Dublin

The inquests are held into the deaths of two labourers working on the reconstruction of the GPO yesterday. John Leddin and Henry McMahon both died when the floor upon which they were working on collapsed. Both men were in their 40s

Limerick

Four men are charged in connection with the murder of two RIC Officers in Knocklong Train Station on 13th May. The four men are Ed Foley and Patrick Maher (pictured below), Michael Murphy and Michael Shanahan https://t.co/a9hW3lHwPP

London

Pressure mounts upon the British Prime Minister on several fronts as the prospect of a General Election grows https://t.co/gNSGviapXd

26th October 1919

London

With a complex parliamentary coalition, and commanding 255 fewer seats than his coalition partners, the Tories, David Lloyd George's position in power is growing weaker as Britain's economy continues to falter and their involvement in Russia continues https://t.co/lMDXLtTdVy

Dalymount Park, Dublin

An Antrim XI lead a Leinster XI 5-0 in the closing stages of a friendly game (below shows a hapless Leinster defender watch on as the Ulstermen score again) when a spectator rushed the pitch and attacked Tom McDade of Belfast Celtic. https://t.co/lblLHcRKfa

Windsor Park, Belfast

First meeting of England and Ireland since 1914; both teams finished with a goal apiece. The Ireland team is made up of players from various clubs; St. Mirren, Newcastle Utd., Linfield, Liverpool, Glentoran, and Belfast & Glasgow Celtic https://t.co/CP27ApC4Qo

Fermanagh

As discussions continue over a possible Home Rule bill that will partition Ireland, nationalist politicians in Fermanagh are keen to ensure that they are excluded from any potential 'Northern Ireland'. They point to the small nationalist majority there

Mountjoy Prison

John Tevlin, Carnacross, Meath, is on his 4th day of a hunger strike. He was imprisoned on a charge of having ammo and weapons recently. He is among several other nationalist prisoners who commencing hunger strike immediately upon entering prison

Lisnadil, Armagh

Rev. A.E Foy is shot in the chest by a masked assailant who knocked on door of the local rectory. Rev. Foy, who is said to be a very popular man in locality, is in grave condition in hospital. RIC state the incident is not politically motivated

Isle of Wight

Authorities on the Isle of Wight, in a desperate attempt to stop the spread of a Foot and Mouth outbreak, have slaughtered over 500 cattle and buried them deep in lime.

Cork

E.T Keane, Editor of the Kilkenny People newspaper, is released from prison on health grounds

Cork

The Cork Examiner announces that a new book on the most recent expedition to Antarctica. The Kildare-born explorer was recently honourably discharged from the Army following months of training troops for combat in the arctic conditions of northern Russia https://t.co/JhChZzG7yR

Croke Park

5,000 people attend a challenge match between the All-Ireland champions, Kildare, and the Munster champions, Kerry. The game was organised for the raising of funds for a Kerry GAA official, P. Dillon, who recently lost an arm in rail accident https://t.co/HwCzKRXPJ6

27th October 1919

Binghamstown, Mayo

A young boy, Michael Hanley, is out moving cattle in a field which is near a military wireless station. He is shot through the shoulder and is rushed to hospital. Although not suffering from life-threatening injuries, locals are indignant

Skibbereen

The Southern Star newspaper is once again surpassed by military officials; the third time in 18 months. Police raided the printing press and an engineer removed key components from the printing press rendering it useless

Amiens St. Train Station, Dublin

William 'Pussyfoot' Johnson arrives in Dublin. Johnson is a leading prohibitionist and was instrumental in its introduction to America. The Evening Herald credits him for turning America as bone-dry as the Sahara https://t.co/e1eu58fqaA

Kilkenny Castle

The Marquis of Ormonde, John Edward William Theobald Butler, dies. An avid Unionist, Butler was a close friend of King Edward VII, and entertained him in his home in Kilkenny Castle when he was the Prince of Wales https://t.co/1sDatSyNJ9

Richmond Barracks

Fr. Thomas J. O'Donnell is removed from Dublin to London in preparation for formal deportation

Chancery Court, Dublin

The Freeman's Journal is sold to Martin Fitzgerald for £32,500.

Washington D.C 

The United States Navy becomes the unlikely prime bidder for the latest R Class airship being built in England at present; the R-38. They wish to purchase the vessel in order to become the first to fly across the Pacific https://t.co/35qnPIVwn8

Washington D.C

Senator Miles Poindexter announces his candidacy for the Republican nomination for next year's presidential election. His surname was not a hindrance as the term 'poindexter' comes from 30 years later and stems from a cartoon from the 1950s 

Whitehall, London

British Chancellor of Exchequer announces a revised deficit of over £473 million (over €15 billion in modern terms), over twice what he had been budgeting for. U.K is heavily indebted, with deficit representing approximately 1/2 of expenditure

Paris

Georges Carpentier continues to train for his bout with Joe Beckett for the Heavyweight Championship of Europe. Below he is pictured with the mother-in-law of his manager, and his dog, Philip https://t.co/P1T7HOiuRl

28th October 1919

London

Fr. Thomas J. O'Donnell, who had spent most of the day in the Tower of London, in a cell beside that of Roger Casement three years ago, receives a telegram from the Prime Minister of Australia, Billy Hughes (below). Hughes calls for O'Donnell's release https://t.co/EFhYNEV5Cv

Knock

There has been a surge in pilgrims to the chapel in Knock, where the Virgin Mary is said to have appeared 40 years ago, in recent weeks. This follows reports of a recent miracle when a wheelchair bound woman rose from her chair and walked away cured https://t.co/BYU3Mlnxsw

Details of the renewed fervour around Knock, once again described as an Irish Lourdes, is shown in below article by John A. Gibney for the Irish Independent, and of the miraculous cure of Limerick woman, Mrs. McCarthy, itself from the Anglo-Celt newspaper from the time https://t.co/ftwYK1j8Ya

Manchester

Reports one of escapees from Strangeways had been recaptured is untrue. All 6 men have vanished. The TDs, Austin Stack and Piaras Béaslaí, were being harboured in the home of George Lodge, and would be visited their a few days later by Michael Collins

Belfast

4 men; Michael Byrne, Patrick McShane, Owen McCreesh (all from Carnlough), and Patrick Osbourne (from Gibson St., Belfast), are all found not guilty of assaulting RIC Constable John Doggett after a Gaelic football match in Crossmaglen.

Enniskillen

Bridget Mullane is arrested in connection with distribution of seditious material in Lisnaskea. Mullane is daughter of a prominent ex-RIC Sergeant in the area who is also in prison on similar charge (her arrest came on her way home from visiting him)

Lisnadel, Armagh

Rev. Foy continues his recovery from his shooting. Police continue to state they believe personal animosity as being the likely cause of the attack. However, the Sinn Féin Club in Cookstown issue a resolution denouncing recent suspicion of them

Washington D.C

The U.S Congress vote to override President Wilson's veto on the imposition of prohibition in the United States. It means that legally all beverages must be lower than 0.5% alcohol with immediate effect with outright ban coming in mid-January 1920

Nenagh

John Joe Madden, an agricultural labourer from Lackeen, Lorrha, is returned for trial at next assizes in connection with the shooting dead of RIC Sergeant Brady in Lorrha. Wounded in the attack is main witness for the Crown, Constable John Foley.

Constable Foley and John Joe Madden were known to each other before the attack. They had a disagreement over the affections of a Lorrha woman. Also, on 9th August, Foley had issued a summons to Madden for not having a light on his bicycle.

Dublin

Francis Neville, who was recently court-martialled in connection with discovery of arms in Kinnitty, King's County, receives sentence of 3 months in prison with hard labour

London

Fr. Thomas J. O'Donnell, who had spent most of the day in the Tower of London, in a cell beside that of Roger Casement three years ago, receives a telegram from the Prime Minister of Australia, Billy Hughes (below). Hughes calls for O'Donnell's release https://t.co/EFhYNEV5Cv

Dromtrasna, Abbeyfeale

A number of homes are fired at in area of Dromtrasna, and two men are wounded; Timothy Harnett and Patrick Scannell. Following RIC searches  two local farmers, John Harnett and Denis Leahy are found with arms showing signs of discharge

29th October 1919

Dublin

The Executive of the Dublin Trades Council urges the Trade Union Conference to consider a general stoppage of work for one day, or more, in protest at the ban on James Larkin receiving a passport to return to Ireland from America

National Liberal Club, London

Horace Plunkett makes a fiery speech in London in which he demands that civil management be substituted for Prussian militarism in Ireland and that no British Army ever favour one political perspective in Ireland again https://t.co/bKVlkp4UEv

Shimla, Northern India

British led authorities in India announce that should the Mazirs and Mashud tribes reject terms on offer from them, they will be given some time to evacuate their women and children before aerial bombardment of their tribes will commence

Alexandria, Egypt

Egyptian nationalists, protesting against terms of the Milner Commission, are fired upon, killing 2 and injuring 10. 27 troops are injured as tensions rise once more in Egypt with similarities to ongoing Irish situation being raised in press

White House, Washington D.C

Health of President Wilson still makes front pages of the Washington press. His condition is reportedly continuing to improve. However, his wife continues to stand in for him in official engagements such as greeting King of Belgium https://t.co/31mVnTiZBo

Ballymote, Sligo

RIC Officers attempt to arrest Padraig O'Hegarty, leading Sinn Féin organiser in north Sligo, who flees into the home of a family called Hannon. From there, O'Hegarty successfully evades the police and goes on the run once more.

30th October 1919

Kilfenora, Clare

The latest outrage in an ongoing local dispute takes place in a bog near Kilfenora. A labourer, Curtin, under employment of Michael Neylon is getting turf when several shots are fired at him, injuring him badly and kill his horse.

31st October 1919

Derry

Patrick Hegarty, the Treasurer of one of Derry's Sinn Féin clubs, is courtmartialed following discovery of weapons. The discovery amounted to, what the RIC stated, an arsenal of weapons and explosives including 19 sticks of gelignite

Ballivor, Meath

37 year old RIC Constable William Agar (below) is shot dead when he opens the door of Ballivor Barracks responding to a knock on the door. His shock is interpreted as hesitation to arm himself. The IRA arms raid is led by Captain Jack Mooney https://t.co/VO9xLlH62E

Dillon's Bridge, Lismullen, Meath

Simultaneous with the ongoing attack on Ballivor RIC Barracks, the Barracks in Dillon's Bridge is also attacked by IRA. Heavy fire is exchanged before Volunteers retreat. One officer, Constable Matthews, is injured

Both of the Meath IRA raids on Halloween night 100 years ago were organised by the Officer in Command of the Meath IRA, Sean Boylan, with the assistance of Joe Lawless, Fingal IRA. His record of events outline his regret at the death of Constable Agar; https://t.co/Yov10a3FVo

Ballyfermot, Dublin

RIC Officers discover up to nine young men drilling in a sand-pit. Following a brief exchange of fire they are all arrested and brought to the Bridewell. All men, aged from 12 to 25, are from Inchicore

Mountjoy Prison

Ernest Blythe T.D goes on hunger strike for being refused recognition as a political prisoner. Meanwhile, the 25 men recently arrested in Dundrum are all said to be in good spirits as they await court-martial

Dublin

The Marquis of Ormonde is buried. A Union Jack covers his coffin as he his funeral cortege moves through the streets https://t.co/Fi8ltVYit7

Rathnew, Wicklow

The village of Rathnew is given honour of 'bravest village in the United Kingdom'. It is reported that every single man eligible to join the army, 180,  did so before the spring of 1916. The figures come from an army official based in Bray https://t.co/x5G4ur4TkY

Leicester

Lenny Mason, aged 16, is gaining notoriety across Britain for being 30 stone. He is pictured below with his parents. Sadly Lenny's parents profited from their sons size, and he died in 1920 from flu, caught while being an exhibit in World's Fair London https://t.co/45qmrEHiWD

Nenagh

Thomas Devanney, Pallas, Toomevara, is arrested and brought before court in Nenagh in connection with the discovery of a notebook outlining how to create gunpowder. He is sentenced to 3 months in Limerick prison.

Dublin

Sean Milroy, leading Sinn Féin organiser, is arrested. He is pictured below being escorted into a military wagon outside Great Brunswick St. DMP Barracks for transportation to Mountjoy https://t.co/1nwgOp8NfQ

Westminster

Replying to a question in the House of Commons, Winston Churchill confirms that there are 100 government vehicles in Ireland at present

Cape Town

At the South African Party Congress, the Prime Minister, General Jan Smuts compares South African nationalist aspirations as being akin to that of Sinn Féin in Ireland and that secession was only viable tactic for both parties

Harrisburg, Pennsylvania

Ahead of a trip to Detroit, a journalist for the Harrisburg Telegraph spends a day travelling with DeValera to pen a profile of the Sinn Féin leader. The column highlights Harry Boland's role in keeping him presentable for photographs https://t.co/zOI2VfYVDr

1st November 1919

Dublin

The morning press reports on yesterday evening's attacks in Meath which left one RIC Officer dead and another seriously wounded. Police in the county, being coordinated by Dublin Castle authorities are scouring the countryside for the perpetrators https://t.co/WXKzmyotLZ

Dublin

Over 1,000 carpenters down tools in the capital and go on strike. It is feared that the strike could spread to other tradesmen. The carpenters received an increase in wages in April but are now seeking a further increase

London

The worldwide increase in sugar prices begins to have an effect as the Royal Commission on Sugar Supply announces an increase in the cost of the commodity across the United Kingdom. There is a 2 million ton difference between supply and demand at present

Caledon, Tyrone

Despite being proclaimed, following opposition of local Orangeman, Sir James Stronge, an Ancient Order of Hibernians meeting takes place near Caledon, where it was originally scheduled to take place. Joseph Devlin (below) was the main speaker https://t.co/ipDFfgCOBR

United States

Tensions between coal miners unions and the government come to a head when strike action commences, as over 400,000 miners go on strike, threatening the supply of coal to the major cities in America, which have only a limited reserve supply https://t.co/gvs48EOHuH

United States

Images of ceremony in which DeValera was made Chief of Chippewa Indians two weeks ago begin to printed in American newspapers from coast to coast further strengthening his image in America as one of the most high-profile politicians in the country https://t.co/wdFy0X4mHy

2nd November 1919

Downing Street, London

As the British Cabinet continues to consider possible solutions to the crisis in Ireland, the British Prime Minister suggests that a customs control idea may be the way forward

2nd November 1919

Petrograd

As the Russian Civil War continues to rage, the fate of the city of Petrograd occupies much columns in British and Irish press. Daily reports from the city suggest that the people of the city are starving and are resorting to eating horse https://t.co/NWnjQbN70w

Dunmore, Galway

One of the first cases of telecommunications fraud in Ireland is heard. Nora Fleming charged with fraud following receipt of bogus telegrams from various people purportedly from loved ones urgently seeking money for collection in Dublin

Fiume

Gabriele D'Annunzio, who still controls Fiume, says in a speech 'from the indomitable Sinn Féiners in Ireland, from the Red Flag, which in Egypt united the crescent and the cross, all movements against the devourers of raw flesh are about to flare up'

London

German Admiral, Ludwig von Reuter, who ordered the scuttling of German fleet at Scapa Flow, protests at his detention in prison. He states that he earnestly believed that war had once more broke out due to press reports that Britain had rejected treaty

Dublin

11 women, across Dublin City, are arrested and charged with selling flags in aid of Gaelic League, one of organisations banned in the city. 8 of the women refuse to speak in English or give their names. They are all immediately remanded in the Bridewell

3rd November 1919

Tallaght

22 men are brought before court charged with illegal drilling. All men enter the court with caps on, smoking, and waving and cheering. They are offered bail, but refuse to recognise court and are lead away. They re-commence cheering (below image) https://t.co/VWQIkCbPTe

Dublin

3 of the women arrested yesterday for selling flags return to court on charges of breaking windows of their cells in Chancery Lane Police Station. They continue refuse to recognise court and shout 'Up the Republic! Up De Valera!' as they are escorted out

Schull, West Cork

RIC Constable Pratt is making breakfast in his home with his wife and 2 daughters. He takes bottle and throws it in pan, thinking it water, but turned out to be paraffin. The resultant flame struck his family, all of whom died from severe burns

Galway

Sean Milroy, who was arrested in Dublin at the weekend, is escorted to Galway where he will face charges in relation to a speech he made in Eyrecourt recently. He had commenced a hunger strike in Mountjoy, along with Ernest Blythe and Séamus O'Higgins

Ballivor, Meath

An inquest into the murder of RIC Constable William Agar is held. Coroner Corry (pictured below alongside District Inspector Molloy) says Agar died of a ruptured heart caused by a bullet. Also at inquest were (below) 3 of Agar's brothers https://t.co/rxTrvjruHa

Following inquest, Constable Agar's body is removed from the scene for burial in Carlow. His coffin was (below) loaded into a military wagon and slowly moved through the village before moving on to his native Rathvilly. He had a wife and daughter 

Melbourne

A Convention of Irish Race is held in Melbourne, the first of its kind in Australia. The 1,000 delegates were addressed by Archbishop of Melbourne, Dr. Mannix, who spoke about his personal correspondence with Arthur Griffith and demanded Irish freedom https://t.co/4QVUuZotmk