Timeline of the Irish War of Independence

30th December 1918

Belfast

Republican Wing of Crumlin Road Gaol closed off. Sinn Féin inmates, led by Austin Stack, hold a march with music and smuggled instruments and flags. Laurence O'Neill, Lord Mayor of Dublin seeks meeting with Castle authorities to end crisis.

Nenagh.

400 Volunteers march through Nenagh to mark election of Joe McDonagh. They march behind 50 torch bearers, and three Americans (two nurses and a soldier) who carry American flag and tricolour. 2,000 people gather on Barrack Street to hear speeches.

Athy.

A torchlight procession of 1,000 people, followed by a meeting, takes place in Athy to celebrate Art O'Connor's and Domhnall Ua Buachalla's victory in the Kildare constituencies. They congregate in Market Square where tar barrels are lit in celebration.

Carlow - Graigue

A large procession of people marched through streets of Carlow, headed by the Carlow-Graigue fife and drum and Carlow Pipe band, to celebrate the election of Kevin O'Higgins in the Laois Constituency.

Maryborough.

The Court Martial of Myles, Michael and John Walsh, of Tullow, Carlow, takes place - charged with possession of explosives. Myles was found not guilty. The case against John was thrown out. Michael was remanded for consideration of verdict.

31st December 1918

Dublin

Count George Noble Plunkett, recently elected Sinn Féin candidate for North Roscommon, arrives in Dublin after 7 months imprisonment in Birmingham Jail.

Nenagh

The Nenagh Fife and Drum Band parade through the town after midnight on New Year's Eve to celebrate the passing of 1918.

1st January 1919

Kill, Kildare

Kill Town Hall, a small wooden and galvanized structure used by locality for dances and events is burned to the ground.

Killaloe/Ballina

W. Darcy and P. Lyons, two popular locals, that were arrested two weeks ago on suspicion of Volunteer activity are released from Limerick Jail without charge. They receive a warm reception on their return to their homes

Dublin

Baltinglass man, John Gallagher, court-martialled in connection with seizure of documents outlining Volunteer plan to seize Tullow Police Barracks and claim important documents from the Post Office. Verdict to decided later

Belfast

Following the intervention of Lord Mayor of Dublin, Laurence O'Neill Republican prisoners in Belfast Jail, led by Austin Stack agree to end their isolation and cooperate with authorities.

2nd January 1919

Carlow

A meeting of the Carlow Guardians is told that 209 people resided in Carlow Workhouse during Christmas 1918.

Nenagh

At a meeting of local farmers, a policy of protest was adopted at the military's continued practice of commandeering hay from locals. It is stated that at a time when the army was getting rid most of their horses, the forced seizure of hay wasn't necessary

Irish Coast

A storm in the Irish Sea causes long delays to shipping and passenger ships in the Irish Sea. The same weather front causes the sinking of the HMS Iolaire off the Scottish Hebrides resulting in the loss of 205 men.

3rd January 1919

Wicklow

What the Wicklow Newsletter claimed to be 'a record' number of 100 people queued up for unemployment benefit along Main Street. £425 was distributed to those that qualified.

Ballina, Tipperary

Prominent Sinn Féiner, James McKeogh's house in Ballina is raided by 30 armed soldiers, and 15 policemen. They searched the McKeogh home on suspicion of Volunteer literature, but left without finding anything

Rathdowney

The home of E Fitzpatrick is raided by armed soldiers looking for materials in contravention of the Defense of the Realm Act (DORA). They found nothing but removed a photograph of DeValera

Thurles

Cathal Brugha is arrested. A policeman approached as he awaited train to Dublin. He asked him his name. When Brugha replied, the policeman asked 'was that Irish?' The arrest was then made. It is the first arrest of an elected official since the election.

Dublin

At a meeting of Dublin Corporation, it is unanimously decided to offer the Freedom of the city to President Woodrow Wilson, on occasion of his visit to Europe. A delegation, led by the Lord Mayor is selected, to travel to Paris to try meet him.

4th January 1919

Greystones

Much amusement was generated in the town when an 'aeroplane' was forced to land in a field just outside Greystones. He took off the following morning amid much fanfare.

Kilkenny

The Kilkenny People reports that there were 260 people residing in Kilkenny Workhouse, the same number as resided there on 4th January 1918. The average cost during the week for each person was 7s. 6d. This rose to 16 s. for those in the Fever Hospital

Killaloe

The home of an elderly woman, Mary Keogh, Main Street, Killaloe, was raided by the local RIC Sergeant, Sgt. Harrington. Photos of the Archbishop of Melbourne, Dr. Mannix, and the late Bishop O'Dwyer of Limerick are taken away.

Pwllheli, West Wales

PM Lloyd George visits his native Wales and attends function in Welsh. He praises the region for not forgetting its language or traditions. This comes hours after the release of Cathal Brugha, arrested in Thurles for giving his name in Irish

5th January 1919

Graiguecullen

A public meeting is held in the town, along with several other towns across Ireland, during which a resolution was adopted demanding the release of Irish prisoners from British Jails

Bagnalstown

Hundreds of people attend public meeting in the Market Square in Bagnasltown demanding release of Sinn Féin prisoners

'Kitchener did not live long afterwards. Like the Pharaohs of old, he and his horsemen were drowned in the sea. Maxwell still lives, but Maxwell will be left to the will of God'

Castlecomer

Mrs. A.M Laracy, member of local District Council, says at the local protest meeting 'When Kitchener and that brute...Maxwell decided to execute [Pearse] they little dreamed such a spirit as has animated Ireland with their bloody deeds ...

Ballacolla

A Sinn Féin branch is established in Ballacolla. Over 40 people are enrolled to the branch. Mr. J. Hyland presided over the meeting and they decided to call themselves the 'Thomas Ashe Club'

Maryborough

Kevin O'Higgins addresses the Maryborough public meeting; 'Sinn Féin is no longer a political party, it is the Irish nation and it speaks now with all the force, moral, and if necessary,the physical force of the people of Ireland to back its claim'

6th January 1919

Kilkenny

The main attraction at Kilkenny Cinema is 'Thelma', a six-reel adaptation of Marie Corelli's book of the same name. In the lead role is Malvina Longfellow who was embroiled in the death of Billie Carleton in London weeks before

Oyster Bay, New York

The 26th President of the Unites States, Theodore Roosevelt dies, aged 60

7th January 1919

Maryborough

John Mahon, Banagher, is courtmartialled in Maryborough. He is charged with possession of ammunition and explosives following a search of his home in November 1918. Verdict to be reached at later date.

Dublin

The first meeting of elected Sinn Féin MPs from the General Election takes place. They take an oath pledging not to attend the English Parliament and to accept nothing less than complete separation from England.

Berlin

Chaos in the German Capital as 500,000 striking workers descend upon downtown and several armed strikers occupy key buildings. The Spartacist Uprising is led by Rosa Luxemburg and Karl Liebknecht.

8th January 1919

Maryborough

It is recorded that 508 people resided in Maryborough Asylum. Three people have escaped in recent weeks, and one man died yesterday in unknown circumstances.

Cork

Four men are courtmartialled under charges against the D.O.R.A; Philip Lennon (New Ross), John Maher (Goldengrove, Tipperary), William Dwyer (Dundrum, Tipperary), and Ben Hickey (Golden, Tipperary). None of the men refuse to recognise the Court.

9th January 1919

Kilkenny

The Annual Concert in aid of the Christian Brothers School @CBSKilkenny1859 takes place in the Theatre Royal. The event is sold out and featured a performance of ‘Paid in His Own Coin’ by members of the dramatic class.

Bray

Charles Brien, from Shankill, was given a reception in Bray following a parade escort into the town’s Sinn Féin Rooms by the local pipe band. Brien had spent three months in Belfast Prison.

Rathdrum

Thomas Cullen is before court for assaulting 2 RIC Officers on day three men were imprisoned for commemorating the Manchester Martyrs. The court was packed with armed officers, a military battalion stood by in the Barracks. Cullen is remanded on bail.

10th January 1919

London

It is announced that Ian Macpherson, 1st Baron Strathcarron, is to succeed Edward Shortt as Chief Secretary to Ireland. Shortt moves to London to become Home Secretary. Lord French to remain as Lord Lieutenant of Ireland

Mountjoy Prison

Republican prisoners continue not to cooperate with officials. Extensive damage is caused to several cells throughout the jail

Killarney

Six men are brought before court charged with Volunteer drilling. Two of them are sentenced to three months prison with hard labour, another for two months, during proceedings a woman wearing a Sinn Féin badge was removed

11th January 1919

Dublin

Shortly after 10am, 30 RIC Officers raid the Sinn Féin HG on Hardcourt Street. No arrests were made, but literature was seized such as the draft constitution of Dáil Éireann and American pamphlets supporting the Easter Rising

London

F.E Smith is appointed Lord Chancellor as Lord Birkenhead. During the Home Rule Crisis he stated that Carson could rely upon ‘the most extreme action’ in support of defence of Ulster.

Dublin

The Jewish Community of Dublin make their second large donation to the Evening Herald’s ‘Boot Fund’, set up to buy shoes for poor children in the city.

12th January 1919

Dublin

A meeting of the Irish Reconstruction Committee is held at the Royal College of Science to discuss the possibility of harnessing the power of water to generate electricity

Berlin

Unconfirmed reports of the death of the leader of the Sparticist Uprising, Karl Liebknecht as he has not been seen for three days. Uprising spreads to German provinces as authorities begin to get upper hand in German capital

London

A detailed report outlining how many casualties were caused in GB by German airraids during the War is released. There was a total of 5,611 casualties, 1,360 deaths (295 children were killed)

Croke Park

@TipperaryGAA defeat @MayoGAA 2-2 to 1-4 to advance to the 1918 All-Ireland Football final. In front of 4,000 spectators, Tipperary score a last minute point to advance to the decider.

Dublin

A Sale-of-Work is held in the Royal Hospital, Kilmainham, for wounded soldiers. It is opened by Lord French

13th January 1919

Dublin

4 survivors from the sunken Schooner, Fleetwing, arrive back in Dublin. The Wicklow Newsletter reports they're in poor state after their ordeal. The Fleetwing was 45 year old, 78 ton, 2 mast schooner that sunk in a gale in Caernarfon Bay, off Welsh Coast

Nenagh

Bill Hoolan, prominent Nenagh Volunteer, returns to town from six month’s imprisonment in Belfast Prison. En-route from Belfast he dropped into Michael Collins in GHQ inquiring as to why Austin Stack’s plan for a break out of Belfast prison was blocked

Dublin

Trouble in Mountjoy continues. In protest at treatment of prisoners, several men refuse to return to their cells after exercise. One of the most prominent is William Sears, TD. Rathdrum men are also imprisoned including John Byrne and James Barnes.

Dublin

Despite judiciary being present, and a jury sworn in, the Quarterly-Sessions are told that there was no case from Dublin to proceed with. The Recorder notes it is a good omen that 1919 will be a peaceable year for the city and district

Arklow

A meeting of the Arklow Urban Council passes a resolution demanding the release of all Irish prisoners in English prisons unanimously

Maryborough

Amidst a downpour, a large military funeral takes place. Tom Greene, of Lyster’s Lane, is buried. Members of the Leinster Regiment attend as his coffin, draped in a Union Jack, is brought to graveyard

Naas

The local Sinn Féin club forcibly acquire a room in Naas Town Hall for their club rooms.

Buenos Aires

Violence between police and striking workers in the Argentine capital increase as violent mobs attack Jewish quarters of the city. Hundreds of people are feared dead in Argentina’s Semana TrÁgica (Tragic Week)

14th January 1919

Paris

Amount of delegates each country is allowed at the Peace Conference is decided upon. USA, UK, France, Italy and Japan will have 5 delegates each. Brazil, owing to ‘its important population’, will have 3. China will only have 2, same as Belgium and Serbia.

Belfast

Work ceased in shipyards at noon to allow for a ballot for either 47 or 44 hour working week. Tensions rise as spectre of a widespread strike grows

Mountmellick

An inquiry is held into an incident whereby Sergeant Timothy Hegarty unlawfully arrested the local Methodist Minister, and that he was on the same day guilty of drunkenness and of being improperly dressed. Verdict to be announced at later date

Arklow

After the Fair was held in the town, local farmers met in the Hibernian Hall and formed themselves into a cooperative.

15th January 1919

Berlin

Rosa Luxemburg and Karl Liebknecht are arrested in Berlin by paramilitary Freikorps and brought to the Eden Hotel where they are tortured for hours

Luxemburg is shot dead afterwards and thrown in a canal. Liebknecht is forced out of a moving car and shot in the back, to give impression he died whilst evading capture, which was the official line that was given to the world’s press

Liverpool

Horace Plunkett departs for America. Before he leaves he states he had hoped that the War would have brought England and Ireland together, but that President Wilson could represent the Irish people far better than the PM at upcoming Paris conference

Boston

A massive tank full of molasses burst in the North End District of Boston. It releases millions of gallons of the thick black substance which hurtled at 35 mph into the adjoining neighbourhood. 21 people die.

Of the 21 that die, 10 are Irish American;

Patrick Breen (44)

William Brogan (61)

Bridget Clougherty (65)

Stephen Clougherty (34)

John Callahan (34)

William Duffy (58)

James Kineally

Micheal Sinnot (76)

James McMullan (46)

Peter Shaughnessy (18)

2 more men who died, Peter Francis (64) and Tom Noonan (43) are Irish born

16th January 1919

Paris

Widespread dismay as it is announced that Peace Conference will be held behind closed doors, away from press. The Paris PA correspondent says ‘The governments of the 5 great powers have decided to keep the press at arm’s length and the public in ignorance’

Athy

A Sinn Féin victory celebration was held in a packed town hall in Athy. The modest entry fee was put towards costs accrued during the recent campaign.

Nenagh

A strike continues in McCurtin’s bakers in the town. An ITGWU rep told the Nenagh Guardian that the striking bakers demanded 10s increase in wages, or a reduction in output, or the hiring of an extra baker

17th January 1919

Paris

On the eve of the opening of the Peace Conference, international newspaper condemnation of a press shutout imposed during talks continues. They suggest that the implied secret diplomacy which could occur was opposed by President Wilson and PM Lloyd George

Clonmel

A large fire destroys a large store to the rear of Fitzgerald’s Printing Works on Parnell Street. The Fire Brigade, in the knowledge that the fire could not be put out, focused on containing it and stopping its spread to the adjoining buildings

Dublin

The third meeting of Republican members of parliament is held in Dublin. Sean T. O’Kelly presides as discussions are held over conduct of business for the first proper public parliament meeting which will take place on Tuesday next in the Mansion House

Barcelona

Ahead of a rumoured strike of up to half a million workers, martial law is imposed in Barcelona. It is stated that the group organising the strike are 'Bolshevik' in nature, and some newspapers comment upon Lenin himself being in the Spanish city

Finuge, Kerry

The Kerryman reports an incident where a group, armed with sticks and stones, and fueled by pints of porter assembled in centre of village demanding Sinn Féiners fight them. After their call is unanswered they break a few windows and retire to rest

Monard, Cork

Two soldiers guarding the Monard Rail Bridge are shot at close range by two men behind a fence. One of the men, Private Hardman, is shot in the head. They are immediately conveyed to hospital, where Hardman's condition is said to be serious

Belfast

Bernard Campbell, solicitor is sentenced for one month in prison for using seditious language at a Sinn Féinn meeting. When speaking about a Volunteer that fought in Ashbourne in 1916, he said...

'That man was a true patriot and a great Irishman who fought at Ashbourne, and there accounted for 20 or 30 of the greatest enemies of Ireland - the Royal Irish Constabulary. Those men have always been greater enemies of Ireland than even the English themselves'

Cambridge University

The compulsory study of Greek in the University, which has been in place for 90 years, is overturned by a vote of 162 to 14

Dublin

At Bank of Ireland's half yearly meeting it is announced that they have made a profit of £214,000 in the last six months. They have deposits of £20 million

18th January 1919

Paris

The Peace Conference opens in the Clock Hall of the French Foreign Office with a speech by French President, Raymond PoincarÉ. He concludes by pledging a league of nations as a guarantee against any fresh assaults upon the rights of peoples

Dublin

The Irish ‘Government’ meets in Dublin Castle. It includes Viscount French (Lord Lieutenant), Denis Henry (Attorney-General, Solicitor General), James Macmahon (Irish Under Secretary), General Sir Frederick Shaw (Commander in Chief of Forces in Ireland)

19th January 1919

Three Rock Mountain, Dublin

2 RIC Officers come upon 50 Volunteers drilling in the Dublin Mtns. The Volunteers rushed at the Officers, based in Stepaside, and tied them up, relieving them of their weapons and ammo. They took off in direction of city.

Kildalkey, Meath

Dry January in evidence in Kildalkey as the local temperance movement enrols 10 new members, brining total membership to 160. They pledge to organise a protest against alcohol for St. Patrick’s Day

Croke Park

@OfficialWexGAA defeat @louthgaa to win the 1918 Leinster Football Final. It is their sixth title in a row

Tullow

A meeting of Sinn Féin clubs from Carlow is held. Represented were Tullow, Ballyhacket, Carlow, Clashganny, Clonegal, Clonmore, Hacketstown, Leighlinbridge, Myshall, Rathanna, Rathvilly, and Tynock

Maryborough

A meeting of workers is held with a view towards organising a county-wide labour movement. Representatives from ITGWU, Land and Labour Association, and Queen’s Co. National School Teachers Association spoke at event

Gragara, Kilkenny

An angry crowd of farmers meet in the townland of Gragara to voice their anger at the unfair division of land by Lord Bellew. A resolution is passed demanding that fairness and justice is sought in a non-violent manner

Athlone

It is reported that an RIC Constable, Private Grehan, who was missing, presumed dead following the sinking of the Leinster in October 1918, turns up at his mother's home alive and well

20th January 1919

Tipperary Town

Patrick O’Dwyer begins his 7th morning watching Tipp barracks, keeping an eye out for a load of gelignite to be transported to @SoloheadbegC. After fruitless day he went to a disused house on SeÁn Hogan’s farm in hope his watch would end tomorrow

Dublin

The London Times Cork correspondent doubts that Sinn Féin have any ‘extra-parliamentary’ plans ahead of the first Dáil tomorrow. He says that talk of a general strike among other things are ‘an amateurish imitation of the old land-league’

Sinn Féin Headquarters, Hardcourt Street, Dublin

By 11am there are only 20 tickets left for gallery for tomorrow’s meeting of Dáil Éireann. The final tickets are quickly snapped up and a notice is placed on the door of the SF HQ stating no tickets are remaining

Cootehill

Over 200 people gather in Cootehill in expectation of a public meeting to form a local labour movement. However, after over an hour of waiting, they are forced to disperse in disappointment as nobody from the ITGWU HQ turns up, as had been agreed

Navan

Tensions rise as Meath SF call on members to stop hunting until the release of all SF prisoners in England. The Meath Farmer’s Association responds by denouncing the call to cease hunting.

Carlow

The Carlow branch of the Women’s National Health Association (WHNA). The WHNA is a women’s movement set up to eradicate TB among the poor in Ireland and to reduce infant mortality rates.

Graiguecullen

Gearóid O’Sullivan is arrested. He is charged with making an illegal speech in Ennis. He is held until a motor car arrives from Clare with RIC Officers. O’Sullivan is released after they state he was not the man that gave the offending speech

Arklow

The problem of unemployment in the town is shown once again, when nine men are moved to Wicklow to work in the local Manure Works, but several had to return as lodgings could not be secured for them

Navan

The local Sinn Féin club condemn the action of some members who maliciously broke windows from certain townspeople’s windows on same evening as their victory celebration following the election

Athlone

600 operatives go on strike bringing work in the local Woollen Mill to a standstill. They are all members of the English Trade Union, the National Union of General Workers. They object to some co-workers who refuse to join the union

21st January 1919

12.05pm

Tipperary Town

Patrick O’Dwyer observes a cart of gelignite leaving the barracks, being driven by James Godfrey, accompanied by a County Council Officer, Patrick Flynn, and two RIC Officers. O’Dwyer makes his way to Soloheadbeg to report to Sean Treacy

12.40pm

Soloheadbeg

When cart of gelignite reaches Soloheadbeg, 8 Volunteers await. Dan Breen & Sean Treacy call ‘halt, put your hands up’. When the two RIC officers move to aim their weapons they are shot dead. They are James McDonnell and Patrick O'Connell.

3.35pm

Dawson Street, Dublin

27 men, who were elected in the 1918 General Election to Parliament, enter the Round Room of the Mansion House. They were greeted by prolonged cheers from the men and women that had gained entry to the room #Dail100

3.45pm

Mansion House

A hush fell over the packed gallery once Count Plunkett began to speak in Irish. He proposed that Cathal Brugha be appointed President of the assembly for the day #Dail100

This was unanimously agreed to and the Dublin man, representing Waterford County became the first leader of an Irish legislative assembly since John Foster, the last speaker of the Irish House of Commons before the Act of Union

3.55pm

Mansion House

Brugha read out the names of each person invited to attend, including all Unionist and Irish Parliamentary Party MPs. There was much laughter when Edward Carson’s name was announced and noted as absent.

Usk Prison, South East Wales

Frank Shouldice, Joe McGrath, George Geraghty and Barney Mellows escape from Usk Prison late in the evening. Their escape plan had not been shared with GHQ and put under threat ongoing efforts to break DeValera out of Lincoln Prison

Belfast

Another outbreak of violence in the Crumlin Road Jail as cells were smashed by republican prisoners. Authorities entered the wind and forcibly handcuffed 40 prisoners in an effort to subdue them

Lincoln Prison

SeÁn Etchingham, elected MP for Wicklow East, is released from Lincoln Prison on medical grounds. His release is seen as a move to stop any potential trouble had he died in the prison, where he was incarcerated along with Eamonn deValera

Nenagh

The @NenaghGuardian points to the tragedy in Soloheadbeg; though the system they represent is one of the most anti-national in the entire world. The Irish people have recognised that it is alien spirit in control and not the ordinary constable at fault

Richmond Road, Dublin

Mr. Alfred Pearson, a middle-aged man, was found dead on a footpath near his home with gunshot wounds

Arklow

A major search is carried out by 7 RIC Officers of the premises of T. Kavanagh, Railway Tavern, in connection with an associate of Kavanagh’s, Mr. Gregory, who is secretary of the Arklow SF Club. Another search is carried out of McGraths on Main St

Maryborough

John Hayden, Offaly St, Athy, is courtmaritalled for possession of documentation likely to cause ‘disaffection to his Majesty’. Hayden refuses to recognise court and when proceedings concludes he sings ‘Soldier’s Song’ as he is dragged away

Maryborough

The local Cumann na mBan are allowed to give dinners to the men that were being courtmartialled, including John Hayden, and 3 others. The DORA prisoners were very grateful for their kindness

Avoca, Wicklow

Michael Traynor is expected to his home in Avoca following his release from Belfast Prison. He had played a pivotal role in the food strike in the prison and events there last Christmas and New Years

Kells

The Meath Farmer’s Association ramp up their opposition to Sinn Féin and formally pass a resolution denouncing their call for a stop on all hunting in the county until release of all republican prisoners in English jails

Killaloe

Derrycastle House is destroyed by fire. The house had been owned by the Spaight family, and there had been much rancour at prospect of unfair division of attached lands in 1918. W.L Hodgins, Nenagh Solicitor, ended up buying the house in late 1918

Westminster

A bill is read in the House of Commons relating to the potential application of the system of Proportional Representation voting for Irish local elections

22nd January 1919

Hardcourt St., Dublin

Having heard that SeÁn Etchingham had a message from Lincoln Jail for him, Michael Collins rushes back to Dublin from England. He bursts into a room in HQ and demands of Con Collins and Piaras BÉalsaí where he was...

Having no idea where he was, Collins left and soon caught up with the released man. Capping off a hectic day, Collins then covertly left Dublin for England again that night to continue plans for an attempt to spring DeValera from his majesty's hospitality in Lincoln

22nd January 1919

Coachford, Cork

The remains of Constable Patrick O'Connell arrive by motor car from Tipperary ahead of funeral. Constable James McDonnell will be interred in St. Michael's Cemetery in Tipperary tomorrow

23rd January 1919

Tipperary Town

Constable James McDonnell, one of the two men that died in the Soloheadbeg Ambush, is buried in St. Michael's Cemetery in Tipperary

Dublin

Laurence O'Neill is re-elected for a third term as Lord Mayor of Dublin. He says 'they were passing through dangerous times did not know what fate might be in store for them and that that the year to come wasn't going to be one of sublime sunshine'

Cork

William F. O'Connor is elected Lord Mayor of Cork

Belfast

John C. White is elected Lord Mayor of Belfast

Kilkenny

Peter DeLoughry is elected Lord Mayor of Kilkenny. He is currently imprisoned in Lincoln Jail and is deeply involved in plans for an escape of DeValera from the prison

Limerick

Phons O'Mara is re-elected Lord Mayor of Limerick

Dublin

Sean Etchingham and George Lyons, who were released on from Lincoln and Usk prisons, give detailed interviews to the Evening Herald and Irish Indo on their experiences. Etchingham described how DeValera hosted daily Spanish and Irish classes in Lincoln

Tipperary

Patrick Flynn, the County Council worker who escorted the consignment of gelignite to Soloheadbeg on Tuesday, is hospitalised for stress. He collapsed yesterday at the official coroner's inquest into the deaths of the 2 RIC Officers

London

A landmark case continues in which a hotel is appealing that government owes it rent for having its premises commandeered during the war for military purposes. In defence, a government solicitor quotes statutes set out by Henry VIII in the 16th Century

Tipperary South Riding

Tipperary South Riding is declared, by the Army Council and the Chief Secretary, a special military area following the Soloheadbeg ambush. Armed troops begin to flow into the district

The towns of Cashel and Ballyporeen see a number of companies of troops take residence for the first time as Crown Forces continue their investigations

Tipperary

The 2 men arrested in connection with the Soloheadbeg ambush are released. They are Patrick O'Gorman, Chruchfield, Donohill, and Edward Brown, Ballagh, Dundrum.

London

The English Morning Press newspaper reporting on the Soloheadbeg deaths states that there has been open conflict in Ireland for years now, and that Irish and British men are being shot in the open streets or from behind hedges.

Lincoln Prison

A letter written by Michael Collins is smuggled into DeValera. Collins explains that the next attempt to break out of the prison will take place on 28th Janaury

Nenagh

Michael Guilfoyle is unanimously re-elected as chairman of Nenagh Urban District Council for the 29th year in a row

Tuam

J. Hoey, Michael Moran, and Thomas Dunleavy were arrested by RIC officers in Tuam. All were members of the SF Club. Amidst the scuffle in the arrest of the three men an officer's rifle was accidentally discharged, narrowly avoiding one of the men

Kilbride, Meath

Several homes are raided in the area including those of John Ballesty, James Hanley, and Thomas Daly. During another raid of the home of P.J Bartley, the clerk of Oldcastle Union, several copies of republican songs are taken away

Thurles

The @NenaghGuardian notes that for the first time ever, there are no criminal cases to be brought before the County Court Judge in the town. Criminal activity seems to have ceased and the town is peaceable...

24th January 1919

Caherciveen

As labour unrest grows around the country, the Post Office authorities draft in several men to complete the work of laying a cable to Valentia Island which had begun by local men on strike for better wages

Mullagh, Cavan

Four men and their horses, that were surfacing roads in the area, go on strike in protest at Cavan County Council not paying them for the past five weeks. The Meath Chronicle poses the question why would Cavan not pay their men and Meath would..?

Templederry

Pat Cash, who had spent month in Limerick Prison for putting up a Sinn Féin poster, returned home to a remarkable reception. He was led into the village with a torchlit procession of hundreds of young men amid flaming tar-barrels and the local band

Dublin

A libel case between Laurence O’Neill, Lord Mayor, and Irish Times begins. O’Neill objects to the Times, in an article on 26/6/18 in which it is claimed he was trying to smuggle the Mansion House Anti-Conscription petition to Woodrow Wilson

Lincoln Prison

Frank Kelly delivers a cake to the prison. Within, are two keys, made in a Manchester locksmith under orders of Harry Boland, who had brought the cake from the home of Liam McMahon, whose housekeeper baked it. The keys, however, did not work

25th January 1919

Dublin

The libel case that Laurence O’Neill, Lord Mayor, takes against the Irish Times ends. Jury are unable to reach a verdict after several attempts by the Judge to offer legal guidance. The foreman eventually stated it was hopeless, and they were discharged

Belfast

Belfast dock workers cease work at noon. The street lights are not lit as the city is plunged into darkness owing to workers in electricity and gas works downing tools too. It will not be clear how significant the strike will be until Monday

Clones

Patrick McGoldrick and Patrick O’Halloran are sentenced to a month’s imprisonment for their participation in an unlawful assembly in the town. McGoldrick was charged with using seditious language such as ‘Up Dublin’ and ‘Up the Rebels

Newry

A play, ‘For the Cause, Story of ‘98’, is banned from continuing in the Town Hall. It is replaced by the non-political ‘My Irish Home’

Rathfarnham

Margaret Pearse is present as RIC Officers search St. Enda’s School. Little material of use to them is found.

Tipperary Town

As part of the designation as a special military area, military roadblocks block farmers entering Tipp Town for the market.

England

Wartime divisions of football in England continues. Despite losing their first game of the season to Man. City, Everton lead the Lancashire section. Nott. Forest lead the midland section. Brentford beat Cry. Palace 6-1 to secure their lead in London.

26th January 1919

Macroom

At 8pm a party of 5 soldiers were attacked by a group of unknown men in an attempt to seize their arms. It is the first time that such an incident has occurred in the twelve months that soldiers had taken up a base in the town

Tipperary

At Sunday masses, priests and bishops condemn the ambush in Soloheadbeg and the needless taking of life. Archbishop Harty, speaking in Thurles Cathedral, said that 'we all look on the horror of the deed and the outrage against Christian morals'

Belfast

Street lights remain out, and tramlines grind to a halt as the labour chaos grows in the city. Electricity is only being supplied on an emergency basis to some hospitals

Fleet Street, London

The Daily Mail publishes an article outlining how a number of well-known Dublin citizens had occupied an island in Dublin Bay and solemnly declared it to be a Republic and prepared a message to the Free Nations of the World

Kilkenny

A 'competitive smoking concert' is held in the CYMS Hall. Smoking concerts were popular events in 1800s, they were evenings of music before a male-only audience. The term smoking came from fact that men indulged in smoking liberally w/out women present

Maryborough

The Leix and Ossory Sinn Féin Executive meet. Representatives from all over the constituency come together to discuss plans for 1919. The attendees are as follows;

Mr. P. J. O'Neill, Vice-President, Leix Executive...

T. Delaney and E. P. McEvoy (Abbeyleix)

J. Muldowney and D. Sheil (Ballinakill), P. Flynn (Ballybrittas), R. Hipwell (Courtwood), T. McHugh, and Mr. Broderick (Ballyadams), J Fleming and Mr. Hurley (Ballylinan), Mr. Bolton, and Mr. McEvoy (Graiguecullen)...

M J Phelan and J. Delaney (Rathdowney), E. J. Poole, (Rosenallls), Arthur Costello, and M. Tynan (Portarlington)

J. Campion and Mr. Hyland (Cullobhlll), E. P. Tarrant, and M Moore (Castletwon), P. O’Flanagan and Mr. Farrell (Durrow), M. Fogarty and Mr. Delaney (Errill), M. D. Egan (Kyle), S. Lynch and W. Kavanagh (Mountmellick), Mr. Morris and Mr. Rourke (Mountrath)...

J. Ramsbottom (Timahoe), M. O'Connell (Vicarstown), T Dunne end J. Fleming (Wolfhill), T. Hyland (Borris-in-Ossory), Mr. Tynan and Mr. Delaney (Camross), P. Brennan and Mr. Davis (Clonaslee), W.J. O'Connor (Ballacolla), and

Mr. Wrafter (Clough)...

P. Connor and Mr. Gorman (Killenard), T. Carpenter and Mr. Byrne (Kllcruise), J.Ramsbottom and P. J. Brophy (Knock), W. Ramsbottom (Heath), J. J. Delaney and P Case (Maryborough), Mr. Scully and Mr. Malone (Emo),

M. T. O'Connor and Mr. Fingleton (Stradbally)..

Croke Park

@LimerickCLG defeat @OfficialWexGAA 9-5 to 1-3 to win the 1918 All-Ireland Hurling Final, their 2nd title and 1st in 22 years.

27th January 1919

Belfast

On the first working day since the beginning of the strike, the full impact of withdrawal of labour is felt. Gravediggers from City Council join the growing list of workmen striking in sympathy with their colleagues in the docks

Derry

Two hand grenades are thrown into Derry gaol. One of them did not go off. The one that did caused significant damage to the women's section of the prison, but nobody was injured

Wolfhill

Sean McDermott Sinn Féin club join a growing list of clubs to ban hunting in their area until the release of political prisoners in England is secured

Durham

Eamonn Bulfin and Frank Bulfin, two sons of Señor Eamonn Bulfin, the Birr-born writer based in Argentina, are released from Durham prison. Eamonn Bulfin was the man that raised the green 'Irish Republic' flag over the GPO during the Rising

Tipperary

A group of school children find a 1lb stick of gelignite near Allen Creamery. It was discarded by the Volunteers that carried out the ambush the previous Monday in Soloheadeg. RIC subsequently found other explosives in the area discarded too

Cappawhite, Tipperary

Military officers search homes in the Cappawhite area, as well as in Creenane. A dance that was taking place in the hall in Cappawhite was broken up by police and the military took occupation of the building

28th January 1919

Belfast

Crisis continues to deepen as strike continues. A large fire at the lower end of Donegall Street damages several buildings and warehouses exacerbating the menacing outlook the city finds itself in

Bray

A man is arrested and charged with the attempted murder of an RIC Officer the previous June in Tralee. The arrested man is John Cronin who also went by the aliases Richard Macrear and Joseph Hegarty.

Sandycove

John Doyle, Summerhill Avenue, Sandycove, is arrested and charged in connection with the incident involving a group of Volunteers attacking two RIC Officers on Three Rock Mountain

Dublin

Famous cartoonist, Jack Morrow, is brought before court charged in possession of government files with intent to distribute. As proceedings opened Morrow asked was the court recognised by Dáil Éireann. When told it wasn’t he refused to register a plea.

Soloheadbeg

The Evening Herald publishes an article outlining the significance Soloheadbeg has played in Irish history before. It was there, in 968, that Brian Boru’s Dalcassians defeated the Danes which led Boru’s occupation of Limerick.

Emly

The military block the fair in Emly. As farmers entered the area they were all searched before being turned back

Kilkenny

Frank Lloyd’s adaptation of Dickens’ ‘A Tale of Two Cities’ gets top billing in Kilkenny Cinema

Lincoln

De Valera prepares for another attempt, their third, to break out of Lincoln Prison. However, the keys that are sent into the prison, in a cake delivered by Harry Boland, do not work again. De Valera’s frustration grows

29th January 1919

Tipperary

Appeals are made to Brigadier-General Prescott Decie, the officer in command of troops in South Tipperary, to ease restrictions in the proclaimed area. Clonmel and Kilsheelan Coursing Club appeal for their Tipperary Cup to be held as normal

Great Britain and Ireland

172,000 people are on strike across the country. Alongside the 60k in Belfast, there are strikes growing in London, Glasgow, Leith, and Manchester.

Clonliffe Road, Dublin

RIC Officers enter a hall on the Clonliffe Road in Dublin where they find 40 men. 12 of them are arrested and charged with illegal Volunteer drilling. They are brought to the Bridewell but refuse to give their details in English or Irish

Belfast

As the city remains in overnight darkness, there is a night of looting with police charging at mobs of young men in various parts of the city centre. The only illuminated buildings, post offices, attracted violence as many windows are broken

Bombay, India

Labour unrest is prevalent elsewhere in the Empire too. 150,000 people are on strike in Bombay. News reaches Ireland of riots a few days ago where two strikers were killed by the bayonettes of troops keeping the peace

Monaghan Town

100 attendants and staff of Monaghan Asylum seize the building as part of strike action. They are led by Peadar O’Donnell, ITGWU Organiser from Donegal. A red flag is hoisted over the building as 180 officers come to assess the situation

Barcelona

Catalan leaders, who continue their pursuit of independence, make American President Wilson, an honorary citizen. He Secretary of State replies, thanking them for their ‘compliment’. Meanwhile, his freedom of Dublin City is greeted with formal silence

Macroom

The town of Macroom is proclaimed following attack on officials a few days ago. A public ITGWU meeting is broken up by RIC. Organiser, Pat Coates shouts ‘long live James Connolly’ as he leads the group to local hall where meeting continued

30th January 1919

Belfast

Builders and labourers join the striking workers in Belfast bringing the total number of people withdrawing labour to 70,000. People begin to question Edward Carson’s silence on such a critical matter

Belfast

The world’s biggest rope factory, in Belfast, closes when a section of key workers bring to a halt the production line. 4,000 people are left without work as a result.

Paris

Europe’s first regular commercial airline service gets a setback as officials in Paris block initial plans for service from London. It is deemed necessary to draw up set of internationally recognised rules for air travel before any service should commence

Paris

Discussions at peace conference hit stumbling block over what to do with some of the captured German colonies such as German Kamerun (Cameroon) and German Samoa. Japanese officials are especially annoyed at prospect of losing newly gained territories

Dublin

The Evening Herald publishes details of Private Thomas Bennett, Royal Irish Regiment, died on his way home from the War, three days after the signing of the Armistice. He was originally from Templeogue.

Tipperary

Patrick Flynn, Chief witness to the Soloheadbeg Ambush, is released from hospital after being admitted for a few days the day after collapsing at the inquest into the deaths of the two RIC Officers

Monaghan

The Monaghan Asylum Soviet continues. A dance is held in the Asylum dining area for all inmates organised by the striking workers. It is said that the inmates of the asylum are delighted with the turn of events and excitement caused

Tullamore

P.J Egan is re-elected the Chairman of Tullamore Urban District Council

31st January 1919

London

The Daily Express newspaper reports that there are being moves made once more to introduce a Home Rule Bill in Ireland to quell growing unrest, and to curb support for Sinn Féin

Ireland

There is now labour unrest in Belfast, Derry, Lurgan, Donegal, Limerick, Dublin, Dundalk, Monaghan and Maryborough

Glasgow

Approximately 25,000 striking workers make their way to George Square. At 12.10pm they are charged by police and chaos breaks out. The leaders of the strike, David Kirkwood and Willie Gallacher, are arrested #blackfriday #battleofgeorgesquare

Aghada Aerodrome, US Navy Base, Cork

At the American naval base in Aghada, 2 RIC Constables are arrested by American servicemen. They are detained in Cork Prison. They were found in the military stores after hours. They are reportedly based in neary Whitegate

Yarmouth

The Nimrod, the ship that Ernest Shackleton led his Antarctic expeditions on, sinks off the coast of Yarmouth. 10 of the 12 crew drown. Nimrod had rested in Thames as a museum ship from 1909 to 1911, but was sold and refitted for commercial use again

Killaloe

A soldier, back home from leave, causes a significant disturbance when he smashes the windows of several homes and businesses late at night. The @NenaghGuardian notes ‘he was labouring under the influence of drink’

1st February 1919

Rome

A day after plans for a commercial airline to begin operating from Paris to London were scuppered, the Italian Caproni Aero-Bus service begins their service from Rome to Naples

Dundalk

The strike of men employed on Dundalk quays for the past five weeks has come to a settlement. Employers agree to a modest increase in workers’ wages which was immediately accepted by strikers that were struggling without payment since before Christmas

Belfast

George Cumin, the Chairman of Harland and Wolff, dies. It is a blow to striking workers as he was said to have been a sympathetic voice among the Directors of the company

Glasgow

After yesterday's tumult, peace returns to the streets of Glasgow. Hundreds of military guard key points in the city. It is stated that they are fully armed with fixed bayonets in anticipation of more trouble.

Kingstown

Brennan Whitmore and Con Donovan arrive into Kingstown by boat following their release from Usk Prison. They were released due to ill health and were said to have alighted the boat in blankets and were ushered away for urgent rest and recuperation

Drumcondra

The 12 men that were arrested a few days ago in a hall on the Clonliffe Road are sentenced to 6 months imprisonment. Evidence is given of RIC Officers hearing commands from within the hall like “Forward’, “About Turn’, and “Stand at Ease’. The imprisoned men, none of whom recognised the court, are Patrick O’Daly, John Forde, Joseph Leonard, Patrick Fogarty, Patrick Farrelly, Stephen O’Connor, Henry Morgan, Patrick McCullen, Edward Lehane, Dermot O’Shea, John Irvine, William Finucane

2nd February 1919

Dublin

As opposition to Sinn Féin's boycott against hunting grows, a letter to the Irish Times poses the question how do the really think they're action would make any difference to the plight of their prisoners in English prisons?

Ireland

Parish priests announce that on the following Sunday there would be an announcement regarding the monies collected as part of the Anti-Conscription fund. The fund, which is it suspected collected a great deal of money, is seemingly now without purpose

Dublin

Patrick Cullen, one of the men imprisoned as part of the raid on hall on the Clonliffe Road, is further remanded for breaking a window in the Bridewell, where he was kept before trial. Cullen said his hand slipped. The judge waived a sentence

Curragh

Soldiers in the Curragh Camp voice their growing frustration at lack of demobilisation which, they say, is moving far too slowly, given fact that was is over nearly three months

Sackville Street

A protest is held at the Parnell Monument against occupation of St. Enda's School by military. Speeches made by Countess Plunkett, and Michael Staines. It is suggested that they purchase the school outright for £10,000 and gift it to Mrs. Pearse

Monaghan

The Monaghan Asylum Soviet continues. All inmates are brought to mass and life goes on as conditions remain satisfactory. Attendants in Clonmel Asylum call for a reduction in their working week and threaten similar action in a few days time

Tipperary

3 men, arrested in connection with Soloheadbeg investigation are released. They are Michael &his son, Matthew Ryan, Donour, Greenane, &; Matthew Riordan, a workman for the Ryans. It comes after discovery of more discarded explosives on the Ryan's land

Carlow

Nora Connolly, daughter of James, addresses town hall ITGWU meeting. She says that women now realised their importance in machinery of the world and have finally put a value upon themselves.

Trim

South Meath Sinn Féin Comhairle Ceanntair pass resolution demanding a cessation of hunting in the area until all political prisoners in English jails are released. They say that, if needs be, they will take strong steps to enforce their decision

Oldcastle

Joseph Cullen, Loughbawn, a prominent local farmer, was travelling from mass with his wife in his pony and trap when, from behind a hedge, he was shot at. No motive is theorised upon, although it may be related to a local land dispute

Donaskeigh Cross, Tipperary

There are plans to hold a public meeting to form a branch of the ITGWU after mass. However, two motors, full of military personnel arrive in trench helmets, and take up positions. The crowd disperse, no attempt made to hold a meeting

Dublin

After the St. Enda's protest at the Parnell monument, a group of people follow 2 detectives through streets shouting abuse. The crowd chanted 'Up Tipperary' until they sought refuge in the Gresham Hotel. The eventually dispersed, singing 'Soldier's Song'

3rd February 1919

Belfast

As the Belfast Strike continues, striking workers march through the streets in defiance of the police

6.30pm, Lincoln Prison

Eamon de Valera, Sean Milroy, and Sean McGarry have a meal of fried eggs, bacon, and fried bread, cooked by Paul Dawson Cusack, Sinn Féin prisoner from Granard, Longford

7pm, Lincoln Prison

Frank Kelly gives Michael Collins and Harry Boland a rope ladder outside Lincoln Prison, which was to be used in event that the doors could not be unlocked. Kelly then takes up watch on Wragby Road, as Collins and Boland cut through a fence

7.40pm, Lincoln Prison

At the agreed time, Boland flashed a torch at de Valera's window. To Boland &; de Valera's horror, the torch would not extinguish, forcing Boland to hide it. de Valera responded to the signal by lighting a few matches. The escape was on...

7.50pm, Lincoln Prison

As Boland and Collins awaited the prisoners to make their way to the door of the exercise yard, one of them, in their haste, tried to unlock the door with a key that Boland had made in Manchester. The key, however, broke in the lock...

7.55pm, Lincoln Prison

The 3 prisoners reach the door. Boland tells them there was a broken key in the lock, news that was greeted with dismay. De Valera inserts key de Loughry had made into lock from his side. It pushes out the broken key and the door opens

8pm, Lincoln

As 3 soldiers, accompanied by 3 women, approach the escapees, Boland gives deValera a fur coat and tells him to link him. As they pass, Boland, pretending to be drunk, jokes with the soldiers. They pass by and the escapees get in a taxi and flee

10.40pm, Lincoln Prison

After much delaying tactics by remaining Sinn Féin prisoners, which included drawing out card games and inviting warders into cells to share a drink, the alarm is raised of an escape. But by that stage, they had a three hour head-start

Ireland

As the number of influenza cases grow, there are fears that another epidemic could spread. People, should they experience symptoms, are advised avoid crowds &; 'remain cheerful' A London physician recommends alcohol as great medicine for those suffering

Tipperary

For the first time in Ireland, the authorities use a plane in their search for evidence in the Soloheadbeg ambush investigation. A plan flew low over the lands around the area as they continue to search for those responsible

Mountainstown Estate, Meath

An attempt is made to hold a hunt, but several members of the local Sinn Féin club, along with many others from Navan succeeded in stopping proceedings

4th February 1919

England

Amidst the breaking news of the escape of de Valera, McGarry, and Milroy from Lincoln Prison, speculation grows that there will be releases of prisoners from English prisons. There are 60 Sinn Féiners still interred. They are...

Durham Prison - Darrell Figgis, M. Fleming, P. Sugrue, M. Spillane, M. Trayers, D. McCarthy

Birmingham Prison - Dr. McNabb, Dr. B Cusack, Messrs D. Doherty, S. Jordan, B. Fallon, G. Nicholls, B. Higgins, J O'Hownhane

Reading Prison - W.T Cosgrave, W.T Cole, R Davys, F. Fahy, J. Hurley, Dr. R Hayes

Gloucester Prison (cont.) - Joseph McBride,J. J. O'Connell, J. N. Dolan, P.J McCann, T Hunter, P.J. Cahill, S. Morkan, L. Ginnell, R. Brennan

Holloway Women's Prison - Kathleen Clarke, Countess Constance Markievicz

Gloucester Prison - Gloucester - Messrs. J. J. Clancy, P.J. Berrill, E. Moore. Tadhg Barry, P. Hughes, J. Minahan, F. Lawless, J.R . O'Reilly, P. Haskins, W. Loughran, P. O'Keefe, F. Drohan, Dr. T. Dillon, J. McGuinness,S. MacEntee , D. Fitzgerald,Arthur Griffith ...

Lincoln Prison - Sean O'Mahony, Peter De Loughry, P. Monohan,J. Corcoran, P.F.Burke, M. Lennon, Sean Dobbyn, P. D. Cusack. M. P. Collivet, S. O'Flaherty, S. Cotter, V. Galligan

4th February 1919

Ballyvaughan, Clare

7 armed and masked men enter Gregan's Castle, the residence of F. Martyn, and take 2 double-barrel shotguns, 2 revolvers, ammo, a pair of binoculars, and a sum of money

Cashel

Timothy O'Dwyer, Clonkelly, Dundrum, and Patrick McCormack, Cappamurragh, are arrested on charges of possession of seditious literature. O'Dwyer has not long complete a one month's sentence for giving his name in Irish to a policeman

Ravensdale House

The home of the Earl of Arran is raised by masked men in search of arms. Two old rifles, two old shotguns, a couple of swords, and a bayonet are taken from the stately home between Dundalk and Newry

Iniscarra, Cork

In accordance with edict from local Sinn Féin club, angling is prohibited, in same manner as hunting, until the Sinn Féin prisoners are released from prison. 50 young men armed with sticks patrol the Lee scaring away fishermen

Dublin

News reaches the evening press of De Valera'a escape from Lincoln Prison, with McGarry and Milroy. Rumours are rampant, but speculation wisely surmises that some sort of master key must have been employed, and that it may have been thrown in over the wall

5th February 1919

London

Amidst a strike of London Tube workers and electricity suppliers, an act is passed under DORA, making it illegal for anyone employed in supply of electricity to break their contract under penalty of 6 months imprisonment

Dublin

Speculation mounts on whereabouts of de Valera. Rumours vary from Paris, and an imminent appearance at the Peace Conference. Other rumours suggest he is about to burst into the House of Commons and take his 2 seats, disrupting the election of the Speaker

Paris

Emir Faisal, leader of the Arabs in War, speaks at the Peace Conference requesting a single Arab confederacy in the lands previously held by the Ottomans. Faisal was close ally and friend of T.E Lawrence

USA

A fight is announced between the reigning champion, Jess Willard, and Jack Dempsey for the Heavyweight Championship of the World

Paris

Discussions in the Peace Conference move towards the fate of Palestine. It is understood that there will be agreement that the area will be granted to the Jewish people and will come under the stewardship of the British as per the Balfour Declaration

New York

At a meeting of teachers at Irish Carmelite Schools in New York, prizes are given out to winners of a Gaelic League competition. Liam Mellows won lilting contest

Glasgow

Tensions in Glasgow subside as people begin to return to work. The military maintain a heavy presence though, with the arrival of six tanks into the city.

6th February 1919

Dublin

1918 Election expenses for Irish candidates are released. Some notable sums include that of Constance Markievicz (£355) and the defeated Alfie Byrne (£426). The highest released figure is £801 for Robert McCalmot, elected Unionist MP for East Antrim.

Bow Street Court, London

Joseph McGrath, a railway clerk in Kentish Town, and William Burrow, a manager in a Birmingham arms manufacturer, are sentenced to six months imprisonment for possession of arms and ammo intended for use in Ireland

Nobber

8 men are arrested by RIC Officers. They are charged with intention to illegally plough lands in Spiddal amidst an ongoing land dispute. They are John Cahill, Pat Eogan, William Halpin, Hugh Ward, Pat McMahon, Peter Halfpenny, Michael Boyle, Hugh McMahon

7th February 1919

Washington

The House of Representatives pass a resolution approving a report of the Foreign Relations Committee, in which the hope is expressed that Congress will ask the Peace Conference to consider favourably Ireland’s claims to self-determination

Dungarvan

The Tipperary hurling team train in Dungarvan, owing to the military imposition in their own county. They are accommodated in a playing field occupied by Daniel Fraher.

Killarney

A postcard arrives from South Africa, via aerial mail, a newsworthy event at the time.

Macroom

Macroom Urban Council are notified that their meetings may proceed, following prohibition of gatherings by the military in the area. The ban was roundly opposed in the community. Posters, informing bans of fairs, are taken down too.

Cork

The Cork Examiner publishes a photo of the most expensive fur coat ever made. At $75,000 (around $1 million in today’s money) the coat made from Siberian pelts, was made for Mabelle Corey, the 2nd wife of steel magnate, William Corey.

Ireland

Members of the RIC are told that they are not permitted to join the National Union of Police and Prison Officers. They are informed that as they are a semi-military force, they come under the auspices of the army, more so than the police

London

As rail services slowly start to resume, aggrieved soldiers began a protest in the West End. Tensions rose as some windows were smashed at Victoria Train Station

Belfast

Hopes for an end to the strike grow as workers and employers meet for six hours of talks. The talks were chaired by Lord Pirrie, a senior figure in Harland and Wolff

Tipperary

James Browne, Killshenane, is sentenced to a year’s imprisonment for possession of a revolver with ammo without a licence.

North Tipperary

A @NenaghGuardian journalist notes the apparent loneliness of life in the countryside, lamenting apparent idle gossiping among young men of the area

8th February 1919

London

Following on from yesterday's disturbances involving disgruntled soldiers, a group of up to 500 soldiers in uniform, many of whom were armed marched to the War Office demanding clarification on their status. They argued that they were being left in limbo

Dublin

A fresh perspective on the 1914 'Curragh Mutiny' is offered by Hubert Gough, retired General in charge at the time. He states he was offered chance to either resign or send troops to Ulster, and that he wanted to take the former option.

9th February 1919

Belfast

Former boarder in Portarlington school, and 'hurler' with TCD Hurley (not hurling) team, Edward Henry Carson turns sixty-five

Tuam

A large horse racing meeting is cancelled in Tuam. The meet was to be a Red Cross 'Our Day' charitable event. It is reported that cancellation is due to threats made by local Sinn Féin clubs in accordance with policy of stopping sporting events

Dublin

More election expenses released. The latest details include those of Eamon de Valera (£263), and Harry Boland (£356). Similar to last release a few days ago, the highest claim comes from a Unionist MP, William Allen (below, £763)

Thurles

John Brett, Drombane, is sentenced to two months imprisonment for drilling the previous March. Bail is denied after Brett refused to recognise the Court

Kilkee

James Behan, Cahirfeenick, goes against standard Volunteer policy and recognises the Court that tries him for leading drilling. For this, and for promising not to do it again, he is granted bail and walks free

Sligo

Joseph Berreen, Mullinabreena, gets 1 month for illegal assembly. He led group of Volunteers at funeral of the leader of the Gurteen Volunteers, Owen Tansey, in which they fired a rifle volley over his grave. Berreen blocked RIC from entering the graveyard

Paris

Sean T. O'Kelly arrives in Paris in an effort to engage with the Peace Conference on Dáil Éireann's behalf. In doing so, his delegation becomes the first Irish diplomatic mission

Dublin

As tensions among armed forces grow as to their status, and concerns over plans for demobilisation, full page ads are taken out in daily newspapers urging patience, and outlining who will be demobilised, and the rates of pay for those willing to stay on

Tipperary

There is a noticeable ramping up of military activity in south Tipperary as the perimeter for searches relating to the Soloheadbeg ambush widen out from Tipperary town

Kilcruise, Laois

The local Thomas Ashe Sinn Féin Club denounces the continuing practice of fox hunting in Queen's County whilst Sinn Féin prisoners are still in English prisons

Maryborough

Lar Brady is re-elected as the President of Maryborough Sinn Féin Club

Ballinahinch, Tipperary

Sean Treacy and Seamus Robinson continue to be on the run from the RIC, as they stay with James Hewitt in his home in Ballinahinch. They stay for one week before moving on towards near Castleconnell

10th January 1919

Tokyo

Members of the Japanese Diet question the government as to the apparent policy of military retrenchment in the face of growing American influence. Reassurances are made that Japanese military might will grow to meet that of the USA

Berlin

Further Sparticist unrest in the German capital as 8 protesters are shot dead in the Alexanderplatz region of the city

Dublin

Controversy as details emerge of a large budgetary overrun on a publicly funded building project.....

£25,000 of extra funds will be needed for the construction of social housing in several sites in the city

Macroom

The apparent easing of restrictions a few days ago in the Macroom area are reversed as the proclaimed perimeter is extended from three miles from Macroom Town Hall, to six miles. Fairs in Dooniskey and Kilnamartyrs are prohibited

Mansion House, Dublin

Pictures are published of the All Ireland Trade Union Congress meeting. A universal demand for a 44 hour week is made, and for a 150% increase in wages compared to pre-war rates.

Dublin

The chronic problems of structure of RIC are outlined in a letter to the Irish Independent. The amount of RIC constables around the time of the famine was 9,500. Despite the population being millions smaller, there was almost the same amount of officers

11th February 1919

London

King George V delivers his speech to open parliament. He says that the position in Ireland caused him great anxiety, and he hoped that conditions improve so that a suitable settlement to the current difficult situation presents itself

Belfast

For the first time in 16 days, the trams begin to run in the city. The unexpected turn of events is greeted with cheers as the tram drive jovially smiles and receives his applause as he sets off from Royal Avenue

Ireland

Influenza has returned to the island, and there is grave concern over its potential spread. There are multiple outbreaks in Dublin, but the worst affected areas for the time being are in Newry and Enniscorthy

Greystones

In an interview with the Evening Standard, Sinéad de Valera said she only knew as much as papers on her husband's whereabouts. Speaking of her new home, she says that Greystones is almost entirely Unionist and they are strangers without friends there

Berlin

Friedrich Erber is elected the first president of Germany. By trade he was a saddler, and is a Socialist. He will earn £50,000 per annum for role, more than the Presidents of the United States and France combined (they earn £25k and £24k respectively)

12th February 1919

England

The flu threat increases in England, in the past week the following died; Liverpool - 55, Wigan - 29, Manchester - 28, Huddersfield - 25, Bradford - 37, London - 169

Cork

One theory proposed on renewed spread of the flu is offered by Dr. Donovan of the Public Health Committee. He thinks that clothes worn by soldiers in France are being sold unwashed and are spreading the disease. He urges for all such clothes to be burned

Belfast

After yesterday’s optimism, and the resumption of the trams, pessimism returns. The trams ceaseto operate again as all operations reliant upon electricity are forced to re-close

London

The out-of-work donation scheme has been in operation since November. The first utterances of grave misappropriation is brought up in the House of Commons. Sir John Butcher claims that is leading to idleness in Ireland

Curragh

Patrick Gavin, 45, is shot dead by a sentry near Tully Springs in the Curragh. Gavin was tending to animals when a 17 year old soldier, Private Jay, approached and asked him who he was. When little reply was given the inexperienced soldier shot him

Maryborough

A meeting is held in Courthouse to set up 'Comrades of the Great War' branch, Attendance was good, there were about 50/60 ex-soldiers there. However, it is noted that owing to apprehension as to the branch's purpose, public attendance was small

Dublin

Joseph McDonagh is granted a week's parole from Reading Gaol to visit his ill nephew, the six year old son of 1916 leader, Tomas McDonagh. He says that his fellow inmates are in good spirits despite health issues brought on by prison diet

Holloway, London

Kathleen Clarke, wife of executed 1916 leader, Tom Clarke, is released from Holloway Prison. She makes her way to the West-End of London to rest before making plans to return to Dublin.

Dublin

It is reported that Margaret Pearse is gravely ill. The military, despite recent protests, still occupy St. Enda’s in Rathfarnham

13th February 1919

Paris

As talks continue, there are rumours that the Germans will be forced to give up their Merchant Navy. Also, President Wilson states that failure on Germans’ part to adhere to armistice will result in renewal of war

Dublin

Thomas Fleming, Shillelagh, is courtmartialled. He is charged with having a pamphlet at time of election with image of a 1916 executed leader saying “are you going to send Irishmen to an English parliament ... that did this’. Verdict to be released later

Clonmel

The prestigious Tipperary Coursing Cup, organised by Clonmel &; Kilsheelan Coursing Club, reaches its semi final stage. One of this year’s favourites is this dog, owned by a Mr. W O’Sullivan from Kerry. His name is Commandant Pearse

London

As questions continue to arise over the handling of the out-of-work donation payment in Ireland, it is stated that so far, £550,000 has been given out to 82,500 Irish people

Enniscorthy

The flu continues to wreak havoc town. One man, Michael Dempsey, Kilcotty, has buried 4 children, 2 on the same day. Principal of Monageer N.S, Mrs. Sinnot also died. Several people that attended recent dance in Davidstown sick, 2 already dead

London

Kathleen Clarke continues to rest in flat of Eva Gore Booth. Clarke’s sister, Mrs. Daly, will travel from Limerick to meet her. Eva’s sister, Constance Markievicz, is the only SF woman imprisoned now, but remains in good spirits

Wicklow

Women are forced to queue throughout the night in order to secure their out-of-work donation payment in a building, formerly a shop, next to the 'Doctor's Steps' in the town. The queue stretched down the quays but the weather was relatively pleasant

Tipperary Town

Military continue to exercise tight control in Tipperary town. The pose for a photoin front of Fitzpatrick's in the townwhich is submitted to the national press

14th February 1919

London

Kathleen Clarke talks on her time in Holloway. She said that the Doctor, said to her that she had “Irish tongue and Irish wit’, but turning to Markievicz he said “you have neither’. She replied “that’s the drop of Sassanach in me!’

Belfast

A ballot of striking works to decide upon an offer made by employers is taken. 8,777 accept, but 11,963 reject the proposals.

Limerick

A strike in the Limerick City Asylum continues. Male and Female attendants, as well as tradesmen are striking over a number of matters, mainly pay and working hours

Clonmel

Rumours that swirled around the town that Micheal Ryan, County Councillor, Chairman of Clonmel No. 2 RDC, had been arrested proved false. Ryan is, in fact, on the run from the RIC

Paris

President Wilson presents the proposed consitution of a League of Nations; 'The miasma of distrust ... is cleared away, We are brothers and have a common purpose. We did not realise it before.This is our covenant of fraternity and friendship'.

15th February 1919

Belfast

The Lord Mayor, John Campbell White, issues a proclamation outlining how he had secured military protection for those people willing to work in municipal facilities. He urged upon anyone willing to work to make their presence known to authorities

Dublin

As de Valera is still at large, the Evening Herald summarises the different places he is rumoured to have been seen; Grimsby, Newcastle, Gravesend, London, Glasgow, Paris, Dublin, Skibereen, Queenstown. A very well travelled fugitive indeed!

16th February 1919

Cork

Quaker Oats places an ad in the Cork Examiner extolling the virtues of purchasing food with due consideration to their calorific content. They suggest that not to do so, would be like burning money.

Croke Park

Wexford defeat Tipperary by a single point to win the 1918 football championship, their fourth All-Ireland football title in a row

Newcastle West

The military have taken over the local Carnegie Library. When challenged over the sudden occupation, those in charge stated that they had obtained permission from the County Council. However, no such permission was sought or granted.

London

It is revealed from the Treasury that Ireland has contributed £26,865,000 to the UK economy in 1918.

Tullamore

When the police discover that a Gaelic League meeting, due to be held in the Forester’s Hall, is to be addressed by Fr. Michael O’Flanagan, they demand assurances that no seditious language be used during his speech.

Mountrath

Tom Farren, ITGWU Organiser, addresses a meeting in Mountrath of 150 men with a view towards establishing a branch. A similar meeting in Borris-in-Ossory has 100 attendees. In nearby Castletown, Farren addresses another large meeting of 110

Wicklow

A Parish Priest in Wicklow town, in his Sunday sermon, speaks out against the women of the town queuing all night for their unemployment benefit. He does not see purpose in them beginning their vigil at 9.30pm on a Thursday, to receive payment at 9.30am

17th February 1919

Greenane, Tipperary

Two boys, Jack and Tom Connors are arrested as part of the Soloheadbeg Ambush investigations. They are subsequently released without charge. Authorities also search a graveyard in the district for the stolen gelignite

Dublin

Kathleen Clarke returns to Dublin. She arrived into Kingstown on the morning mail boat. The crossing was rough and little fuss was made as she entered a taxi waving to well-wishers that had gathered to welcome her back

Dublin

Gerard Norman Reddin, of Reddin &; Reddin Solicitors, takes possession of St. Enda's School, Rathfarnham, on behalf of Margaret Pearse. The school had been in the military's hands for several weeks

18th February 1919

Belfast

It is reported that the strike in Belfast may be coming to an end. This morning, several thousand men returned to their posts in various engineering works, and the Rope Factory re-opened too

19th February 1919

Liffey St., Dublin

The Gaelic Press offices are raided for the fourth time since the start of the year by police. Nothing is seized, but owing to the past raids, and forcible dismantling of the printing presses, the Press is forced to close

Dublin

The Court Martial of James Greene, Bernard Harte, John Doyle, and Michael Hegarty. They are charged in connection with the incident on 3 Rock Mountain, when 2 policemen were bound and relieved of their arms

Kildare St., Dublin

Maple’s Hotel burns down. At the turn of the Century, under the stewardship of Frederick Maple, the hotel was one of Dublin’s finest. But since his death, in 1906, its fortunes became mixed.

19th February 1919

Paris

The French Prime Minister, Georges Clemenceau , is shot. His condition is described as “dangerous’ as he suffers gunshot wounds to the back and shoulder. Despite this he walks home from scene of shooting where he was treated. Emile Cottin, a 22 year old anarchist, is tackled by police and bystanders and is eventually arrested. His mugshotshows his swollen face, a result of his rough handling by onlookers and police alike

Dublin

Charles Cameron, the Ireland’s chief physician, gives advise as the flu continues to get worse. He urges people who feel ill to isolate themselves, and for persons that must enter room of a sick person, to wear a garment that does not leave the room

Glasnevin Cemetery

21 people are buried in Glasnevin, most of whom have succumbed to the flu. During the same period in 1918, only 13 people a day were being buried. A similar spike is also being reported in Mount Jerome on the south side of the city

Kilkenny

Mid-week “gaiety’, if not “frivolity’ in Kilkenny as hundreds of people go against medical warning and attend two dances in “the gay city’. One of the dances was hosted by Richard Smithwick in Birchfield House.

The Wicklow YMCA, on the other hand, decide to postpone their dance to St. Patrick’s Day owing to the prevalence of the flu in the town

Bray

One of the most prominent victims of the current outbreak of flu is the Town Clerk of Bray, Denis Mullally. The 41 year old is laid to rest in the town today. He had been Clerk since 1914, and had recently lost his wife tragically

Dublin

After 2 failed trials, the trial venue of John, Patrick, and William O’Brien is moved to Derry. They are charged with the murder of George Sheehan, Silvermines, in a raid for arms in Jan '18. The court are told SF were having influence on jurors in Cork

South Tipperary

Brigadier General Prescott Decker announces Martial Law in all of South Tipperary outside of Clonmel and Carrick-on-Suir. All public assemblies, markets and fairs are banned

Tipperary

There are multiple arrests, including relatives of Sean Hogan and Dan Breen, who are still missing. John Connors, 1 of the boys arrested a few days ago, is lifted in secret and conveyed to Dublin by train. His mother is very anxious for his well being

Late-February 1919

Seumas Robinson, 1 of the leaders of the Volunteers that instigated the Soloheadbeg ambush grows angry at Crown Forces’ treatment of people of South Tipp. He drafts a proclamation threatening death to any supporter of the forces. GHQ rejects his suggestion.

Tipperary

There are multiple arrests, including relatives of Sean Hogan and Dan Breen, who are still missing

Late-Afternoon, Kilmacanogue

Liam McMahon, leading member of Manchester Republican movement, and prominent figure in the Lincoln Prison escape, stays in a house in Kilmacanogue, near Bray. Whilst there he receives word from Michael Collins to travel to Dublin

Evening, Dublin

Liam McMahon meets with Michael Collins in Vaughan's Hotel. Collins tell him to travel immediately back to England to retrieve de Valera from hiding. An issue has arisen between Arthur Griffith and Cathal Brugha, and de Valera was needed to resolve

Night, Dublin

Liam McMahon boards a boat. He has a letter from Collins to give to de Valera who is required in Dublin immediately. McMahon travels through night en-route to home of Mary Healy, Cumann na mBan, in Victoria Park, Manchester, where de Valera is in hiding

20th February 1919

9am, Victoria Park, Manchester

Liam McMahon, who has travelled all night from Dublin, arrives at home of Mary Healy to speak with de Valera, who is in hiding there. McMahon gives de Valera Collins’ letter. He asks when is he to go. McMahon replies “today’!

Liverpool

De Valera is brought by a taxi by Mary Healy, Kathleen Talty (both Cumann na mBan) and Paddy Donoghue. From there Neal Kerr and Steve Lanigan make arrangements to have him smuggled on to a ship bound for Dublin

Unbeknownst to most in attendance, de Valera is en-route to Dublin on a boat from Liverpool

Mansion House, Dublin

At the first Sinn Féin Ard Comhairle meeting of the year, was convened. Fr. Michael O’Flanagan, Sinn Féin VP presided. A letter from de Valera is read out aloud. It states he escaped prison to do the country’s work, and he is doing it.

Paris

When questioned for attempted assassination of French Prime Minister, Emile Cottin replies “well, there are red-letter days in a man’s life. [Yesterday] was my red-letter day!’. Meanwhile, Clemenceau is said to be recovering well

Nenagh

Frank McGrathis released from prison for two-weeks parole on health grounds. He is accompanied to Nenagh by Art O’Connor

Miltown Malbay

Nine young men are arrested in the dead of night and are conveyed by military to Ennis. They are charged with driving cattle off the land of a man currently in Crumlin Rd. Prison for reading a Sinn Féin manifesto

Dublin

Edward Nicholson is sentenced to six months in prison for illegal drilling in Finglas. Drilling, and general Volunteer activity is so bad in Finglas, it is reported, that the DMP have moved to establish a permanent increased presence there

Dublin

Eamonn de Valera returns in secret to Dublin on a boat from Liverpool. He is quickly taken away into hiding once more and no overt suspicion is raised

Dunshaughlin

The Ward Hounds met, but were met by a crowd of protesters armed with sticks. After being told they could not conduct hunt owing to the SF prohibition, the Master ordered it off. As they left there was a scuffle and a valuable horse was shot

Raphoe, Donegal

In the Royal School, 27 rifles, and 7,000 rounds of ammo are seized. They are the property of the Ulster Volunteers.Their seizure has caused consternation from local unionists

Castleterra, Cavan

3 masked men break into the home of Rev. D.M.W Hamilton and seize a rifle. They gained entry through a trap door at the rear of the house

21st February 1919

Munich

Kurt Eisner, the Premier of Bavaria, is assassinated by Lieutenant Anton Arco Valley. As the assassination is denounced in the Bavarian Diet shots ring out from the public gallery killing a deputy and wounding another

London

The Daily Chronicle reports that de Valera spent the weekend in Balbriggan where his sister-in-law owned a business

Philadelphia

On the eve of the 3rd Irish Race Convention, final preparations are made for the arrival of 5,000 delegates to the event organised by the Friends for Irish Freedom movement.

22nd February 1919

Dublin

Three schoolboys from Donnybrook, Francis, James, and Roland Redmond are charged with breaking into the unoccupied Ardmore House on the Stillorgan Road (now on @ucddublin ) and stealing 2 carbine rifles.

Paris

At the Peace Conference, it is suggested that the entirety of the German navy be sailed into the deep Atlantic and sunk. It is noted as being a deliberately dramatic possibility, and would show the world the detest to which the German navy is held

Philadelphia

The 3rd Irish Race Convention discusses the Election, the meeting of Dáil, imprisonment of Sinn Féin leaders. De Valera’s escape from prison was feted. Although, official programme spelt his first name as “Eamow’.

Bavaria

After events in Munich, the German state falls into chaos as trade unions announce a Soviet Republic. As the confusion grows there are reports that Kurt Eisner had been shot as he was on his way to resign to the parliament

Derry

A vacancy arises in the North Derry constituency. The by-election will see Unionist, B.T Barrie, take on Sinn Féin candidate, Patrick Magettigan

Dublin

A party of Dublin Castle Intelligence Officers raid Quinn and Co. premises in Abbey Street and seize copies of a song called “Erin, Remember 1916’

Paris

Sean T. O’Kelly writes to French Premier, Clemenceau, seeking recognition for Ireland as independent. Clemenceau, who was shot 3 days ago, was bedridden as doctors urged people to stop visiting. O’Kelly's letter received no reply

23rd February 1919

Philadelphia

At the concluding day of the Irish Race Convention, the delegates pledge to raise $1 million in 6 months for Irish cause. Cardinal James Gibbons, Baltimore, leads resolution seeking President’s recognition of independence of Ireland

East-Limerick

There are rumours abound that certain areas of Limerick, on the Tipperary border, such as Oola, Galbally, Pallas, and Cappamore are to be made military areas in the coming week

Dublin

Robert Barton, who was arrested last week, is moved to Mountjoy Prison

Glen of Aherlow

The local amateur dramatic group put on a performance of Charles Kickham's 'Knocknagow'

North London

At a meeting of London Irishmen, a letter from de Valera is read. After summarising the state of republicanism in the various cities in Britain, it concludes; 'Ireland beyond the seas is waking up, and freedom is within our grasp'

Cork

The American ship, Bavaria, sends a wireless message to shore stating that they needed to alter their course and land to get medical attention for Edward Lyons, the ship's carpenter, who was ill with influenza

Dublin

At a meeting of the Irish Women's Franchise League, the ongoing imprisonment of Countess Markievicz is debated. It is noted that she is now alone in the Holloway, following Kathleen Clarke's release.

Hollywood, Rathgate

A meeting of the Ward Union Staghounds is eventually held without protest. They had experienced virulent opposition in the past few weeks from Sinn Féin supporters

Dunmore Park, Kilkenny

Owing to technical difficulties, an aeroplane forced land in Dunmore Park, outside city. It is a source for great curiosity as people travel far and wide to look at it. It is hoped that engineers from the Curragh can fix it by week's end

Tullow

Up to 600 people attend a meeting in Town Hall in Tullow with a view towards of establishing a branch of the ITGWU. Tom Farren, who was organising several branches all over the midlands in past fortnight, was chief speaker

24th February 1919

Dublin

An inquest into the death of Frances Phelan, Foley St., held. A doctor entered the flat to find Frances in bed huddled with her husband and baby. Frances was dead from flu, and the other two died soon after. A Sister-in-law who also lived there died too

Lauriston Estate, north of Cork City

The Northern Harriers hunt meet successfully, without interruption from Sinn Féin protesters. The strategy of opposing bloodsports seems to be waning across the island

Boston

President Woodrow Wilson returns to the United States aboard the Steam Ship, Washington. He makes an stirring address in which he states that the world pins their hopes on America as being a friend to mankind

Dublin

Chief Secretary gives speech to deputation from Municipal Association of Ireland outlining how the fate of Ireland was in hands of Irish people, but that political/economic disturbances would 'retard the realisation legitimate industrial ambitions'

Kilkenny

The shop of Miss A. Brophy, High Street, is raided by RIC Officers. Several pamphlets relating to the proceedings of Dáil Éireann last month are seized

25th February 1919

Dublin

The circumstances that led death 4 members of Phelan family in Flat 85C of the Corp.Buildings,Foley Street again discussed in Boardroom of Dublin Workhouse. Details poor management of the hospital ambulance, poor decisions on doctor’s part were discussed

Boston

Reports emerge of the foiling of the assassination of President Wilson as he moved through the streets of Boston. Andrew Rogosky, from Worcester, is arrested and had a revolved seized from his following suspicious behaviour

Dublin

Oxo, in an ad in the Evening Herald, claim that their produce, when taken 2-3 times a day, will prevent influenza

Wicklow

The townspeople of Wicklow were treated to an unexpected airshow when 4 biplanes undertook a series of loops, and spirals over the town. One of the pilots was Edgar Hodgson and he took the opportunity to land nearby and visit his parents

In a remarkable day for early fans of planes in Wicklow, news also broke on 25/2/19 of an application to Bray Town Council from the Northern Aerial Coy., Liverpool, for option to construct aerodromes on the shore at Bray. Prospect of Bray hosting a future Irish airport grows

Kill

Five fully armed troops accompany RIC Officers to Kill Quarry to oversee the blasting of rock with gelignite. This is part of increased security around County Council owned explosives since the Soloheadbeg Ambush

Dublin

Maud Gonne McBride and Hanna Sheehy-Skeffington speak at a meeting of the Women's Franchise League on the deplorable state of women's prisons in England and, once again, call for the release of Constance Markievicz from Holloway Prison

Kenmare

John Lyne, Gamekeeper to the Earl of Kenmare, who was shot yesterday is recovering well. He was shot in thigh by 2 masked men who broken in, possibly for acquiring arms. Lyne said he let off a shot towards the men but does not know what affect it had

26th February 1919

Thurles

Drombane Volunteer, Thomas Ryan arrested for drilling. Before court, D.I Hunt says he caused a lot of trouble. When charges put to Ryan, he says “We were Bolshevicks I suppose. I don’t recognise this court, and only recognise authority of Dáil Éireann

Kenmare

Patrick Casey, 25, from Blackvalley is found dead on roadside, with part of skull blown away. Casey is found 30 yards from where John Lyne was shot two days ago. Lyne had said that he shot at his 2 attackers but was unsure if he had injured either man

27th February 1919

Paris

Georges Clemenceau, French Prime Minister, returns to work at the Parisian War Office after an assassination attempt on him

Dublin

Owing to the flu epidemic, all National Schools in the city closes. The worst affected areas are reportedly Grangegorman, North King Street, Drumcondra, and Glasnevin

Belfast

“Moist’ weather conditions have led to a worrying spread of the flu in Belfast. The North, and East of the city are worst affected. 90 men working on the tramways were off sick yesterday

Ireland

Flu is reportedly spreading in Wicklow, Waterford, Carlow, Waterville, Listowel, Tralee, Mallow, Charleville, Mullingar, Newry, and parts of Donegal

Dublin

As the flu epidemic threatens to grow into as big a crisis as it did last year, there are calls for the government in Westminster to create a dedicated Irish Health Ministry to adequately manage health services in Ireland

New York

Daniel Cohalan, Chairman of the Irish Race Convention, sends a telegram intended for de Valera. In it he states that he will work tirelessly to solidify American opinion behind Ireland’s insistent demand for complete self-determination

Paris

Considerable interest is growing in Sean T. O’Kelly’s delegation in Paris. Several French newspapers are approaching him for comments on the Irish position, and on the whereabouts of de Valera

Thurles

William Loughnane, Quarry St., is arrested and brought before Petty Sessions Court. He has been on the run for over a year

Batterstown, Meath

Another meeting of Ward Hunt is abandoned following protest from local Sinn Féin supporters. The Earl of Fingall, James Plunkett , the acting Master, decides to call it off to prevent trouble

Gloucester

10 Irish prisoners are removed from Prison suffering from flu. Among the men removed are 3 MPs; Paudeen O'Keefe, Thomas Hunter, and Pierce McCann. They are moved to a nursing home in Beaufort Buildings, Spa Road

28th February 1919

Dublin

Charles Cameron believes that the current flu epidemic in Ireland will peak this week before going into decline in March. He also prohibits all visitors to Crookslings Sanatorium and the Pigeon House Hospital in Rialto

Owestry, Shropshire

Of the 140 people that attended a dance in Owestry hall last week, 122 have contracted the flu, and 12 have died

Paris

At the Peace Conference, the issues of creating a Jewish state, with an influx of 2million Jews, without infringing on Palestinians’ rights is discussed. It is noted that it should not be a problem if undertaken by “an enlightened government’

Gloucester Prison

Arthur Griffith telegrams from Gloucester Prison on the condition of the removed prisoners. He notes that there is no need for any relatives to be overly concerned

Maryborough

Kevin O’Higgins gives a talk in the town hall to hundreds of enthusiastic supporters. Speaking on the Irish deputation at the Peace Conference he says “it embarrasses the enemy, the protectress of small nations, has her heel on a small nation’

Kells

It is reported that Kells has the highest rate of unemployment in Ireland by virtue of fact that is has the highest pay-out of out-of-work donation payment per capitaof any urban area on the island

Dublin

The Irish Independent publishes full-page ad for a SF collection to be taken at masses across country following day. The ad says “in the year that the map of Europe is being recast the map of the United Kingdom [must] be recast’

1st March 1919

Dublin

Sean T. O’Kelly gives interesting account of de Valera’s escape to French journalists. He said that Irish girls were used to flirt with guards whilst the three prisoners made their escape. When asked where was he, O’Kelly said he’d ‘be on time when wanted’

Washington D.C

The White House issues a statement denying that Wilson told the Congressional Foreign Affairs Committee that Ireland’s issue was with England alone, and that they ought not to have any voice at the Peace Conference.

Dublin

Kathleen Clarke is reportedly gravely ill. Recently released, she has been bed-bound since reception in Gresham Hotel when she arrived from Holloway. She is being tended daily by Dr. Kathleen Lynn, Easter Rising and ICA Veteran

2nd March 1919

Nenagh

In Nenagh, as elsewhere, money collected during the conscription crisis is returned, but people are urged to give the money to Sinn Féin's self-determination fund which had its collection today across the country

Ireland

At Sunday masses in churches across country, bishops deliver their Lenten pastoral sermons. Many of them refer to the ongoing mis-management of affairs in Ireland, and in Tipperary diocese, the ongoing martial law in the south of the county is criticised

Kellistown, Carlow

Demonstration on the division of land from the Doyne estate. Those in attendance demanded that land be divided among the descendants of those who were dispossessed. The Ballon Fife &Drum Band, and the Myshall Players added music to the occasion

Curraghboy, Roscommon

As the GAA Season gets under way, the challenges faced in organising games at the time is epitomised in the cancellation of a football tournament in Curraghboy. Not one of the teams turned up owing to inability to secure transport

Dublin Castle

The RIC County Inspector's Report for February 1919 in the King's County arrives for review. He states that the county is in a peaceable condition, but discusses the ban on hunting by local Sinn Féin clubs as a sign that disaffection is growing. He also mentions that Piaras BÉaslaí and J.J Walsh were in the county during the month on Volunteer duty. He concludes by stating that the most active organisations under watch in the county in February were Cumann na mBan (3 branches, 140 members), the Women's Workers Union (1 branch, 60 members) and the ITGWU (11 branches, 1,337 members)

Dublin Castle

The RIC County Inspector's Report for February 1919 in the Queen's County arrived for review. He notes that it has been relatively quiet politically, and that only thing of note happening is growth of the labour movement, and some agrarian unrest such as the case in Cuddagh, Castletown, where a farm of 65 acres was purchased against wishes of locals who wanted it divided

Dublin Castle

The RIC County Inspector's Report for February 1919 in Westmeath arrived for review. He discusses 3 incidents of note in connection with the Volunteers. The first was a raid for arms on the Roscommon side of Athlone in which 4 men were arrested, and remain in Mountjoy prison. Another incident involved the seizing of literature in 2 stationary shops in Mullingar. The 3rd incident was at the funeral of a Volunteer on 4th February in Ballynacargy. Michael O'Connell, Draper from the village, ordered 4 other men to fire revolvers over the coffin, 3 of whom were known to police. Subsequent searches of the men's homes yielded nothing

Dublin Castle

The RIC County Inspector's Report for February 1919 in North Tipperary arrived for review.

Whilst the county is in a peaceable condition, 'the community appear to be in a great sense of anxiety as to what will happen. The Sinn Féin party is maintaining a very careful silence as to its intentions'. A clear illustration of the attitudes towards proto-social welfare schemes from British authorities in Ireland is shown when he states that the out-of-work donation scheme is 'a scandalous and incomprehensible scheme [that] has greatly demoralised the county'. On 24th February, the police came upon 30-40 men in field near Drombane. When discovered they all fled. RIC believe they were preparing for illegal drilling. The County Inspector notes he has requested military help in patrolling the south of his jurisdiction to end such activity. The first official mention from the area of what would become Sinn Féin courts is mentioned in this dispatch. It is noted that at a meeting of the mid-Tipp Executive in Thurles, the setting up of arbitration courts to settle disputes was brought up...

3rd March 1919

London

It is reported that a meeting of an organisation called the 'Ultra-Irish Society' held a midnight meeting in London, during which a letter from de Valera was read. The letter concludes with 'prove to the civilised world that you are Paddies evermore'

The report is met with confusion in Sinn Féin HQ as Harry Boland prepares a statement denouncing it as a hoax

Westminster

Sir Maurice Dockrell, Unionist M.P for Rathmines ‘ takes to the floor and asks Bonar Law the following question about a radical infrastructural project connecting Ireland and Britain; 'In view of the advantage to both GB &Ireland which would accrue from a closer connection between the 2 countries, has any recent estimate been made of cost of connecting them by tunnel; and will this question be considered in conjunction with any scheme for tunnelling Channel?'

Gloucester

Arthur Griffith telegrams an update on the condition of prisoners with flu. He states that no body is in a serious condition, and that no family members should be concerned. Among those who are recovering are, Griffith states, Pierce McCann

Dublin

In an effort to curb the continuing spread of flu, all concerts in the Mansion House are postponed indefinitely

Dublin

The condition of Kathleen Clarke is said to be improving

London

The Evening Standard Newspaper continues to offer their opinion on where de Valera is hiding. Their latest theory is he is in Spain, or maybe Portugal....but most likely Spain, near the French border, awaiting news that the Peace Conference will receive him

Sydney

As the flu spreads in Australia, controversy erupts as clergy men are prohibited from entering quarantined areas to administer communion. Waterford-born Archbishop of Sydney, Micheal Kelly, makes a personal appeal ‘ for admission

South-Kildare

A severe snow storm hits the south of County Kildare and surrounding areas. Several inches of snow falls in the fist heavy snow in the area of the winter

4th March 1919

Dublin

The Evening Herald is 1 of a number of prominent newspapers forced into acknowledging report they published yesterday on a meeting of the 'Ultra-Irish' in London was a hoax. The Herald places the blame on PA (Press Association) who disseminated the report

The report, when read closely, was clearly high farce, with references a Mr. Bouchaleen Lynch, as the man who delivered the letter from de Valera, which was also fabricated.

He added that the only genuine correspondence from de Valera, was the letter that was read out at the Sinn Féin Ard Comhairle in which he stated that he escaped Lincoln Prison to do the country's work

Sinn Féin HQ, Dublin

Harry Boland denounces yesterday's publication of a hoax meeting in London, and questions the newspapers in question as to their standards. Boland suggests that the hoax was the latest in a string of anti-Irish propaganda coming from Britain

Washington D.C

The US House of Representatives votes in favour of a resolution calling for self-determination for Ireland by a majority of 216 votes vs. 41 votes

Mansion House, Dublin

The final event in the Mansion House before closure owing to flu takes place. The star guest at the Robert Emmet memorial concert was Sean McGarry, one of the three men that escaped Lincoln Prison

Dublin

Piaras BÉaslaí, M.P for West Kerry, is arrested in Dublin at 11.15pm on his way home from the Robert Emmet Memorial Concert in the Mansion House. As BÉaslaí is being arrested by Sergeant Smith, 33 year old James Foley, a demobilised Royal Marine, approached the officer and shouted at him that he could not arrest this man. Foley then punched the officer and grabbed him by the throat. He was arrested, along with BÉaslaí

New York

President Wilson confidently announces in speech before his return to Europe that ‘I am convinced by unmistakable evidences from all parts of the country that the United States favours a League of Nations. No party, in the long run, will care to oppose it’

Wilson was annoyed as during his speech, and a reference to small nations, a body of people interrupted him by shouting 'what about Ireland?' Wilson animosity towards Cohalan stretched back several years. In 1912 Cohalan had criticised his nomination at Democratic Convention

New York

A delegation from the Friends of Irish Freedom seek to meet with President Wilson in the Metropolitan Opera House where he was making his League of Nations speech. Wilson refused to meet them until Judge Daniel Cohalan left the room.

There was also Cohalan's ooposition to the States declaring war on Germany.

There was also the purportedly forged 'Bernstorff Correspondence' ‘ which perpetuated Irish and Imperial German links

Wilson reportedly expressed little interest in what the 23 members of the Friends of Irish Freedom had to say. One account from a recent study states that he was tempted to tell the Irish-Americans to go to hell

5th March 1919

Cork

J.J Walsh was arrested in Cork, and brought to Dublin to the Bridewell. It is stated that he, and Piaras Béaslaí are arrested due to their activities in Offaly, which were mentioned in the RIC County Inspector’s Report a few days ago

Dublin

James Foley, who was arrested yesterday at the scene of the arrest of Piaris Béaslaí for punching an officer, is brought before court. It was stated he had drink taken but was well able to handle himself. He was remanded until later in the week

Gloucester

A telegram is sent to Dublin indicating that Pierce McCann is gravely ill. A solicitor from Belfast, on business visiting other prisoners, calls in on McCann in the Nursing Home where he was being kept. He did not believe he would survive the night

His parents travel from Tipperary to be at their son's side

6th March 1919

2.30am

Beaufort Buildings Spa, Gloucester

Pierce McCan, M.P for East Tipperary, dies. He succumbs to influenza contracted whilst an inmate in Gloucester Prison

Sean Nunan, originally from London, is sent by Sinn Féin to organise the bringing home of the remains

Late-morning

Sinn Féin H.Q

Rumours reach the Sinn Féin Headquarters of the death of Pierce McCan, They are confirmed by a telegram from Patrick O’Keefe, M.P for North Cork and fellow inmate in Gloucester

Westminster

The Chief Secretary, Ian MacPherson announces that all Sinn Féin prisoners in English prisons are to be released. The release only applies to prisoners in England and Wales. Any Sinn Féin prisoners in Irish prisons will remain behind bars.

Dublin

A telegram to the Governor of Gloucester Prison from the Irish Independent asking into the circumstances of McCann’s death is replied to with the following; ‘No Inquest Necessary. Died Nursing Home.'

Dublin

Robert Brennan said that initially McCan’s illness was considered least threatening in beginning. But that he suddenly developed pneumonia &temperature of 104. He revealed that he had complained that authorities were not doing enough prevent spread of flu

Dublin

Preparations are made for small receptions for the returning prisoners. W.T Cosgrave and Laurence Ginnell are expected to land in Kingstown in the morning. However, given the death of McCan overt celebrations will not take place

Kinmel Military Park, North Wales

15,000 Canadian troops were stationed in cramped conditions in the camp awaiting repatriation. After a number of weeks of rising tensions, a full scale mutiny breaks out. Five people are killed in ensuing riots

Ballymacarbry, Waterford

Micheal Ryan, Tipp South Co. Councillor, and Clonmel U.D.C Member, continues to evade arrest. 2 attempts were made to apprehend him today, at 3.30am and 8.30pm. But he slipped RIC on both occasions, the second from the home of Mr. Condon

7th March 1919

Kingstown

W.T Cosgrave and Laurence Ginnell arrive in Kingstown following their release. They are pictured below, sitting beside Bridget Burke, W.T’s mother. Behind them are (L to R) Thomas Burke (W.T’s step-father), Alice Ginnell, Ald. Tom Kelly, Fr. Flanagan

Among the prisoners awaiting release from English prisons are;

  • Peter Hughes, Chairman Dundalk Urban District Council
  • Paul Galligan, M.P for Cavan West
  • Desmond Fitzgerald, M.P for Dublin Pembroke
  • Arthur Griffith, Founder of Sinn Féin, M.P for East Cavan
  • Walter Leonard Cole, Founder of the Sinn Féin Printing and Publishing Company
  • Dr. Brian Cusack, M.P for Galway North
  • Sam O’Flaherty, Donegal Volunteer
  • William T. Cosgrave, M.P for North Kilkenny
  • Sean Milroy, Easter Rising Veteran
  • Robert Brennan, Sinn Féin National Director of Elections
  • Darrell Figgis, Hon. Secretary of Sinn Féin
  • Thomas Hunter, M.P for Cork East
  • M.J Lennon, Editor of Young Ireland
  • Rory Haskins, Belfast Volunteer (gravely ill)
  • Joseph McBride, M.P for Mayo West
  • Joseph McGrath, M.P for Dublin, St. James’
  • Dr. Richard Hayes, M.P for Limerick East
  • J.J Clancy, M.P for North County Dublin
  • Art O’Connor, M.P for South Kildare
  • Frank Lawless, M.P for North Dublin
  • and Frank Drohan, South Tipp. Volunteer
  • Sean O’Mahony, M.P for Fermanagh South
  • Peadar O’Hourihan, Cork Volunteer

Dublin

Both Ginnell and Cosgrave spoke out against their treatment in prison. Whilst at times, they were treated reasonably fairly, the continued poor food and cramped conditions left their toll upon them

Gloucester

Several of the Sinn Féin prisoners in Gloucester Prison are too ill to be released. Arthur Griffith is said to be worst off, with Patrick O’Keefe badly off too. Rory Haskins has improved somewhat, and his life is no longer in danger

England

Several of the imprisoned Sinn Féin members in other rare too ill to be released too. Among them is Art O’Connor, M.P for South Kildare. 13 prisoners are fit to be released across various prisons

Holloway Prison

Countess Constance Markievicz is released from prison at 5pm, after 10 months incarceration

Gloucester

The remains of Pierce McCan are removed from the Nursing Home in which he died. Amidst pouring rain a small crowd Irish mourners walk behind the hearse. As the procession passed by, locals removed there caps and bowed for the coffin draped in tricolour

Kilkenny

Kilkenny People reports Thomas Burke, W.T Cosgrave’s step-father, has telegramed William O’Meara, Treasurer of the City’s Sinn Féin club informing them of Cosgrave and Ginnell’s return. They are unsure of when the Lord Mayor, Peter deLoughry is returning

Ballinlough, Meath

A very successful ceilí is held in the primary school in Ballinlough in aid of St. Enda’s School, Rathfarnham, which recently was vacated by the military and was handed back to the Pearse family

8th March 1919

Kingstown

The mailboat, Ulster, from Holyhead docks in Kingstown Harbour. Aboard are the remains of Pierce McCan. Accompanying him are several released prisoners including Dr. Richard Hayes M.P, Patrick O’Keefe M.P, and Peter deLoughry, Lord Mayor of Kilkenny

Kingstown

On the pier to receive the remains are Fr. O’Dwyer from Thurles, Harry Boland and Michael Collins representing Sinn Féin, and Mrs. McGuinness and Ms. Smith representing Kingstown Sinn Féin Club and Kingstown Cumann na mBan respectively

Kingstown Train Station

The coffin, draped in a tricolour, is placed on a train bound for Westland Row. Accompanying them are two large wreaths, one with a note ‘Comrades in Gloucester Jail’ and another ‘Wives of Gloucester Prisoners’.

7am

Westland Row Train Station

The train arrives into Westland Row. The remains are then brought to the Pro-Cathedral for Requiem Mass, celebrated by Rev. Fr. John G. O’Reilly

11.05am

Pro-Cathedral

The chief mourners, McCan’s parents (centre with beard and head bowed), Josephine Aherne, McCann's fiancÉ and McCann's mother lead the procession towards Kingsbridge Station

Dublin

The procession, which took two hours to reach its destination, moves down O'Connell Street, Westmoreland Street, Dame Street, Parliament Street, and finally down the South Quays past Guinness to the train station

Dublin

The procession contains thousands of Volunteers, Cumann na mBan, Dáil Éireann members, and members of the general public.

Wellington Quay

As Procession passes Grattan Bridge, 2 lieutenants and sergeant of the RAF, Collinstown, in a motorbike with carriage attempted to cut through. They are surrounded by crowd, who take motorbike and throw it in the Liffey. The Officers flee the scene

12pm

Kingsbridge Station

Michael Collins, Harry Boland, and Sean O’Muirthile carry Pierce McCan’s coffin into the train station. It is placed upon the train bound for Thurles. Accompanying the remains are Cathal Brugha, W.T Cosgrave, and Darrell Figgis.

Leinster

The train passes through Sallins, Kildare, Portarlington &Ballybrophy. At each stop the train is met by local members of Sinn Féin and Cumann na mBan giving tribute to the late McCan. There are also large displays in Monasterevin, Maryborough &Mountrath

5.30pm

Thurles

The train is met by two columns of 500 local Volunteers who lead the procession to the Cathedral in Thurles. Thousands more Cumann na mBan, and the general public also join the march, led by the Thurles Brass and Reed Band

Thurles Cathedral

Archbishop of Cashel, John Harty, receives the remains in the cathedral. He says ‘Now Pierce McCan is dead, and beyond the tyrannical power of the British Government’. McCan lies in state for the night as thousands of locals file past

Paris

German Officials at the Peace Conference refuse to give up their Merchant Naval Fleet unless they receive a guarantee of 2 million tons of food aid to be supplied between now and the harvest to stave off a potential summer famine in the country

Tipperary

On the same day that the remains of Pierce McCan are brought to Tipperary, ten men are arrested in relation to the Soloheadbeg ambush. They areArthur, Matthew, and John Barlow, Shrough; Joseph and Patrick Callaghan (workers on Barlow’s farm), Patrick Power (worker at Matt. Barlow’s sawmills), Denis Noonan, Maurice Crowe, William Hartnett and Patrick Maloney (son of P.J Maloney, M.P for South Tipperary)

Tipperary

The whereabouts of John Connors, the boy arrested on 19th February, is still unknown. His family are frantic with concern as authorities refuse to share information with them amidst ongoing military area precautions

8th March 1919

Cliftonville, Belfast

The second Irish Cup Semi-final takes place between @Glentoran and Belfast Celtic before 16,000 supporters in. In a ferocious encounter, Glentoran take a 2-0 lead, before scenes in the stands turn ugly. Bottles begin to be thrown as one group of fans begin to sing the ‘Soldier's Song’. The excitement in the stands then shifted to the pitch as several fouls began to break up the play. With 5 minutes remaining large group fans burst on to the pitch and began to chase the players. The referee abandons game as bottles and stones fly across the pitch.

Damage is done to Cliftonville Pavillion. However, the hefty gate receipts (the price of tickets having been raised for the game according to the Belfast Newsletter), £712, were secured.

9th March 1919

Dublin

The Sunday Independent publishes a cartoon of Erin knocking upon the Gates of Liberty seeking the right to self-determination

Dublin

The role played by Lord French, Lord Lieutenant of Ireland, in the release of the prisoners is discussed. It is stated that the main factor in the release was not the conditions that they faced, or the death of McCan, rather it was French's threat to resign

Oxford University

The prestigious Oxford Union declares its sympathy for Sinn Féin and their efforts for the self-determination of Ireland by a majority of 18 votes

2.30pm

Thurles Cathedral

The remains of Pierce McCan are removed, led by the Thurles Confraternity Brass and Reed Band playing the Dead March. The procession marched at a slow pace out of the town, but sped up to Horse and Jockey before slowing once more to Dualla

Dualla Graveyard

After passing by Ballyowen House, the home of the McCan's, the procession reaches its destination after a 3 hour journey. There are thousands of people at the graveyard, and the remains are received by scores of clergy at the graveside. Cathal Brugha delivers the graveside oration. He states that there are creatures among them spying on them and sending reports to Dublin Castle. He reminds them that these creatures exist owing to the goodwill of the people present in Dualla

Dublin

The Irish Independent reports that one of the three boys that were lifted by authorities in Tipperary, and whose whereabouts is unknown, Matthew Hogan, has a brother, John (Seán), who has been missing for two months and is wanted by police...

Kingstown Harbour

28 Sinn Féin members, that had been imprisoned in England, return Irish soil. Among them is Arthur Griffith who spoke about the lack of fresh air that they had access to in Gloucester Prison and he speculated this had a detrimental affect on McCan

New York

The Freeman's Journal reports on the death of Dr. Thomas Addis Emmet. He was grandson of United Irishman of same name, and grand-nephew of Robert Emmet. He is recognised as the founder of modern-day plastic surgery andwas a pioneer on women's health

Washington D.C

The Washington Daily News publishes a photo of President Wilson &his wife aboard deck of the George Washington, the ship the is bringing him en-route to France. Wilson is said to be ill with flu in the mid-Atlantic and his health is being monitored

Washington D.C

Ahead of their highly anticipated World Heavyweight Title bout in July, Jack Dempsey and Jess Willard are busy training

10th March 1919

New York

The perils of international journalism are shown in the reporting of a speech by former President, William Taft. It was reported yesterday that Taft said 'The Irish question should be settled by the Peace Conference'. However, Reuters telegrammed today .. stating that Taft had actually said 'The Irish question should not be settled by the Peace Conference'. Quite the correction! Taft's comments were met with a mixture of cheers and hisses in New York

Mansion House

Lord Mayor of Dublin, Laurence O'Neil ‘ proposes a vote of sympathy to the family of Pierce McCan. He says 'it is difficult for moderate men to control their words when faced with such an act of infamy, an act arising from mis-government ... 'by which our tyrant masters hope to destroy the spirit of our race, by persecuting our men, by endevouring to break the hearts of our women, and frighten the love of our country from the breasts of our children'

'Do they think that the sight of Pierce McCan's corpse going through the streets of Dublin, and carried to its last resting place in the golden vale of Tipperary will make Irish people more loyal to their enactments? What fools they are! What fools they will remain!

Kingstown

As further Irish released prisoners return, James Nolan, M.P for Leitrim, returns to the news that his sister is ill with pneumonia in the Meath Hospital. He immediately makes his way there, where he meets just before she dies

Liverpool

Samuel MacFarland, a 23 year old quartermaster, is charged with desertion. He assumed the identity of a dead comrade called Lawson and fled the War using his assumed name.

London

The Star interviews Constance Markievicz. When asked does she know where deValera - 'of course, we all do.' 'What a lovely fairy tale that was about his escape, I drew a sketch of it'. She then produces a cartoon of a guard making love to a woman ... by the prison wall, and deValera and his two co-escapees had a giant key opening the front door of the prison. She also states that she replied to Lloyd George's letter of invitation to parliament, but the censor spared his blushes and did not deliver it to him

11th March 1919

Paris

Terms for a future German army are discussed. It will be proposed to them that they are not permitted a naval war fleet. They will not be permitted to have any tanks. Their army shall consist of a maximum of 100,000 men each on 12 years service

Paris

A Committee finds that it is not possible to bring charges on the Kaiser and his advisors for starting the War under international law

Dublin

The general theory among the medical community in Dublin is that influenza is on the wane, and that the current wave has reached its zenith. The death toll from the flu in the city, whilst still high, has been reducing about 30% week on week

Westminster

Frustrations are expressed in the House of Commons at the recent passing of a resolution in the U.S House of Representatives on self-determination for Ireland. It is felt that interference from a foreign legislature was not appropriate.

Durham Prison

8 Sinn Féin prisoners are released from Durham Prison. Among them are PádraigSiochfhradha (An Seabhac), Seamus O’Neill, Rockwell College, and Eamonn Morkan, Birr. They were greeted with celebration at the prison gates, and also in Manchester

Durham Prison

Frank, and Eamon Bulfin, Birr, are not among those released, however. There is confusion as to the reasoning behind their ongoing detention

Durham Prison

Art O’Connor, M.P for South Kildare, remains too ill to be released and he is still recovering in the prison hospital

7.30pm

Optic Lodge, 146 Richmond Road, Dublin

Alfred Pearson, the occupier of the Optic Lodge ‘, is shot dead. A party of up to four men enter the house, and after a brief struggle shot Pearson. He staggers outside and dies on the footpath

10pm

Kilkenny

There are jubilant scenes in Kilkenny, as the city welcomes home its Lord Mayor, Peter deLoughry ‘ Out of the respect of the late Rev. M. Walsh, Adm., whose remains were lying in state in St. John’s Church, opposite the train station, there was no cheering when he emerged from the carriage, but the welcome was none the less warm. Having been greeted by Alderman Nowlan and other members of the Corporation, the Mayor and Mr. William T. Cosgrave (the Lady Mayoress, Mrs. de Loughry accompanying the former) took their places in a motor car in a procession to the city centre. Nowlan addressed the crowd ... 'Fellow citizens, at special meeting of the Corporation I was appointed welcome Peter deLoughry on their behalf. As you are all aware he was, 10 months ago whipped away out of the country by the emissaries of King George of England and kept in a British Dungeon up to this night.

DeLoughry, in his reply, said 'He and his comrades had come back to Ireland when the greatest cloud that had ever darkened the world was lifting and when the English Government and the English people in the delirium and delusion of triumph, were clapping themselves on the back .. and shouting form the rooftops; Behold, we are the masters of creation. The Turk we have beaten to her knees, the Austrian Empire annihilated, and the once proud German people are now before us looking for terms’, but they had overlooked one fact ...which stood out clear and indisputable and that was the fact that they had not yet beaten the Irish nation.' W.Cosgrave also addressed the large crowd saying that Ireland was ready to take her place among the nations of the earth. Below is the enthusiastic

12th March 1919

Dublin

Laurence Flanagan dies. He is Sinéad de Valera’s father. Defying expectations that Eamonn de Valera would come out into the public for the occasion, he remains in hiding.

Dublin

Considerable intrigue is generated by the Optic Lodge shooting. It emerges that there were 2 women in house at time of death, Kate Doran and Kate Orr. They state that they met Pearson in a pub in Ballybough, before returning to his home

New York

Statistics published from the city’s army recruitment department, show that proportionally, around 45% of eligible Irish American men joined the army, the highest among the ethnic groups in the city. 41% of Italian Americans enlisted

Dublin

At the King’s Bench Division, a request is made to have the trial of the O’Brien brothers, charged in connection with the Silvermines murder, to be held before a special jury. The request is granted

Canningstown, East Cavan

An Orange Hall is opened in the small village of Canningstown. A representative of the Order states that they are every bit entitled to self-determination as anybody else

13th March 1919

Dublin

Inquest into the death of 46 y/o Alfred Pearson is held. One of the women in the house at the time stated that merely 5 minutes after arriving there was a knock on the door, followed by a scuffle. A masked man appeared brandishing a revolver before fleeing

East Berlin

Reports emerge of extraordinary violence in the German capital between Spartacist insurgents and Freikorps. The death toll from the past few days is said to be over 1,000

Dublin

An announcement is made regarding plans in two day’s time for a public reception welcoming home Constance Markievicz to Dublin

Birr

Eamonn Morkan receives warm welcome from Birr following his return from Durham Prison with a torchlight procession led by Volunteers from Birr, Eglish, Killyon, Shinrone, and Banagher. Frustration is expressed at the continued imprisonment of the Bulfins.

Wolfhill, Laois

Eamonn Fleming is welcomed home from Reading Prison. In a speech to his well-wishers he speaks about the poor health he had whilst behind bars, but had nothing but kind words to say on prison officials

14th March 1919

Kingstown Harbour

Harry Boland &Michael Collins greet 7 more released prisoner. They include Thomas Hunter and Sean McEntee. 5prisoners remain. Art O’Connor, Rory Haskins, and Willie Loughran are all too ill to travel. The 2 Bulfins are still not at liberty

Washington D.C

Communications come from the U.S stating that de Valera will only be allowed enter the country with a valid passport amidst speculation that he is either already en-route to, or will soon depart from Ireland for America

Dublin

The Irish Independent publishes a front page ad for the Gaelic League reminding readers that the Irish language was under threat, and that Lloyd George’s assertion that the Irish had no language to claim nationhood was false.

Paris

President Woodrow Wilson arrives in Paris for the conclusion of the Peace talks.

United States

In newspapers all over America, an article by Ralph F. Couch on the Irish situation is printed. It features legitimate quotes from de Valera, as well as Boland and Fr. Flanagan. It is a great coup for SinnFéin propaganda.

Dublin

Ahead of St. Patrick’s Day celebrations, the main national newspapers print Irish translations of the main Catholic prayers. The Irish translations are phonetically spelt to allow people to pronounce the words easier

14th March 1919

7.15pm

Liberty Hall, Dublin

Countess Constance Markievicz arrives for a public reception in honour of her return from imprisonment in Holloway Prison

She arrived to Liberty in a car accompanied by Michael Collins, Madame Gonne MacBride, Mrs. Wyse Power and other members of Cumann na mBan. Markievicz moved in procession down Eden Quay, Westmoreland Street, Dame Street, Lord Edward Street, Cornmarket, and Francis Street, to New Street where she gave a rousing speech.. Large bodies of the Dublin Metropolitan Police were present at various points of the procession, but the events passed off peacefully.

16th March 1919

Wexford

Just over one year since the death of John Redmond, a massive day of commemoration takes place. A procession of over 5,000 people pass through the streets of Wexford town to listen to a speech ‘ by Joseph Devlin, leader of Irish Parliamentary Party

Wexford

The procession of 5,000 is lead by Devlin in a motor car, accompanied by the Mayor of Wexford, William Archer Redmond, and the Mayor of Waterford, David McDonald

Wexford

The procession is made up of the remaining supporters of the Irish Parliamentary Party, which is mainly concentrated in pockets of nationalist Ulster and, especially, Redmond's own south-east of Wexford and Waterford

Dublin

17 members of the G Company, Dublin Volunteers, assemble to hear of plans of a mission they are to carry out that night. Peadar Clancy and Rory O'Connor outline details on a blackboard. The mission; to break Robert 'Bob' Barton out of Mountjoy Prison

Michael Collins had smuggled a file into Barton, who had sawn away the bars of his prison cell window. The escape plan involved Volunteers throwing a rope ladder over the high prison wall, and Barton leaping to freedom once at the top

Mountjoy Prison

Once the Volunteers move into position, Mick Downs, from Clara, tosses the rope ladder over the prison wall. Barton eventually begins to climb the ladder, Downs' strength providing a counter-weight for the climbing prisoner. Once at the top of the wall, Barton jumped into a taut blanket, held by four volunteers. However, Barton's weight was to great and he hit the ground hard. He was, however, uninjured, and he entered a car and was taken to refuge in Donnybrook

17th March 1919

Dublin

The main national newspaper publishes a genuine letter from Eamonn de Valera on their front page. The letter is published by the Gaelic League, who reminds its readers to keep the page as it will become historic

Dublin

The letter begins with reminder that saving the Irish language is special duty of the Irish people; whilst the struggle for independence is reliant upon the will of other nations, saving Irish is entirely up to Irish people

Dublin

De Valera starkly warns, 'the language is dying, tomorrow it will be too late. shall we not save it today, when we may?'

Dublin

The English section of the letter concludes with de Valera pointing towards President Wilson claiming to Clemenceau he spoke 'American', and how Wilson would have loved to have had a true language of its own for his nation..

Dublin

Clery's Department store run a highly-stylised ad in the Irish Independent for their Irish products. The ad has the crests of the 4 provinces in the corners, and 2 'Déanta i nÉirinn' (Made in Ireland) logos on either side

New York

At a special dinner in his honour, the tenor, John McCormack, officially becomes a naturalised American citizen. The Westmeath man marks the occasion with a rendition of the 'Star-Spangled Banner'

8pm

Killahurk, Leitrim

John Hand, a 45 y/o father of two, sits down to St. Patrick's Day supper in his farmhouse. A masked man bursts into the house and shoots Hand dead at the kitchen table. Local animosity over litigation over a right-of-way is possible motive

Paris

Despite recent comments to the contrary, the strong opposition to the League of Nations, especially among Republicans, is causing alarm among Peace Conference delegates. The prospect of the League being established without the U.S as a member grows

Cairo

Following the arrest of Saad Zaghloul ‘, leader of Egyptian independence movement, protests against British rule of Egypt and Sudan escalate into widespread violence. Below, three women, holding a Sultanate of Egypt flag, protest against British rule

Dublin

News breaks of Robert Barton's audacious escape from Mountjoy. He leaves a letter behind for the Governor in which he saysowing to discomfort he left, and he asks for him to keep his baggage safe until he sent for it

Dublin

The National Holiday is celebrated vigorously in Dublin. The Irish Language Fund sells miniature tricolours outside every church service, as every major business in the city closes. Scenes are reminiscent of pre-war holidays

Baldoyle

The main attraction in Dublin #OTD in 1919 was the Baldoyle Horse races. It is estimated that over 10,000 people made their way to the Northside venue to witness the spectacle

Waterford

The exception to the peaceful enjoyment of the day was in Waterford City. One day after the Redmond Anniversary in Wexford, there are widespread riots between Redmondites and Sinn Féiners.

London

Field Marshal Lambart, the 10th Earl of Cavan, presents shamrocks to members of the Irish Guards to celebrate St. Patrick's Day

Kilkenny

Lord Mayor, Peter deLoughry, leads the St. Patrick's Day procession through the streets of Kilkenny, cheered on by thousands of people. It is the largest such event in the City's history for many decades

2am

Macroom

The RIC Patrol of Macroom is set upon by a large group of young men and are beaten. One officer, who became separated, discharged his revolver into the air several times, but was charged at by the group. A nearby wake was subsequently raided by police

18th March 1919

Mountjoy Prison

Officials in the capital's largest prison are left embarrassed by reports on Robert Barton's escape. Rumours as to how Barton fled wildly vary, and some weight is given to rumour that he fled in an aeroplane!

Phoenix Park, Dublin

After much condemnation in British and Irish press, the whereabouts of the children that were taken by military forces in connection with the Soloheadbeg Ambush investigation is confirmed; they are in the military depot in the Phoenix Park

19th March 1919

Washington D.C

Republicans in Senate threaten President Wilson, that if he does not negotiate a satisfactory agreement in Paris, Congress will vote to terminate the War with Germany. They argue that as Congress has the power to commence a war, they can end it too

Harcourt St., Dublin

At 5.30am, a party of British soldiers walk up Harcourt St, making a lot of disturbance, and allegedly firing rifles into the air. A window in Sinn Féin HQ is broken by a missile. Police are investigating

Belfast

The Belfast Newsletter reports that at a meeting in London it was announced that wireless messages had been successfully exchanged from Canada to Ireland

Belfast

After several days of rain, Belfast is hit with significant flooding. The worst affected area was around Donegall Road.

London

As agreement nears on emergency food supplies for Germany, Punch magazine publishes a cartoon commenting upon the acute food crisis in Romania, and how the Allies are seemingly feeding their enemies before their friends

Parnell Square, Dublin. Approx. 10pm

At least 25 Volunteers, mainly from the 1st Battalion, Dublin Volunteers, meet in Parnell Square. Some were dressed in British Army Uniforms. They await transport for a massive arms raid upon Collinstown Aerodrome, near Swords

20th March 1919

Midnight

Parnell Square

The 25 members of the Dublin Volunteers leave for Collinstown Aerodrome. They depart in four cars. They all depart towards the Santry Road, before splitting; two head toward Ballymun and two heads towards Swords

Approx 1.30am

Collinstown Cross

The Volunteers congregate at Collinstown Cross and go towards the Aerodrome on foot under the light of a bright moon.

The dogs that guarded the perimeter were asleep, having been knocked out with morphine-laden meat given to them by two Volunteers that worked there as they left work the previous day

The Volunteers surprised the guards and easily disarmed them. Tying each of them up. They proceeded to raid the strong-room and take 75 rifles and 16,000 rounds of ammo

2am

Collinstown Aerodrome

Commandant of the 1st Battalion, Paddy Holohan, dressed as a British Officer approached the perimeter hoping to surprise a sentry. Frustrated at finding none, he shouted ‘Come on, lads!’ and the Volunteers charged the hut

Collinstown Aerodrome

The sentry, that should have been guarding the perimeter, was in hut warming feet by fire when the Volunteers burst in. Fearing strong reprimand, he called to the Volunteers as they were leaving ‘for the love of Jaysus, don’t leave me here! So the Volunteers took him outside, and rolled him around in the mud, with his permission. They then brought him back inside and tied him by the legs to a rack completing the illusion that he put up the strongest fight

North Dublin

The Volunteers make their getaway. One Ford Model T car carried 12 Volunteers back to the city centre. Another car’s tyres burst under the weight of the rifles. The driver, Owen Cullen, proceeded with the burst tyre to the arms dump at the Nag’s Head, The Naul. When the guns were taken out, he tried to drive back to the city, however it made too much noise so they abandoned it. The car belonged to ‘Alderman’ Paddy Corrigan, who was, among other things, an undertaker in the city. He had ingeniously anticipated that something might happen. He had arranged, prior to lending the car to the Volunteers, to have it transformed into a motor hearse. When hearing that car was abandoned, and being guarded by the RIC, he went to the mechanics and asked for an update on how work was going. The mechanics, Callow’s of Westland Row, said they hadn’t got the car from him. Corrigan insisted he had given it to them the previous day. The mechanic lined up some of his employees and asked Corrigan which one of them had taken his car the previous day. Corrigan immediately raised a fuss and said that it was none of them and he reported the car stolen to police. Naturally enough, the RIC, having possession of the car anyways, safely returned the car to its owner and nobody was any the wiser of its gun-running role the night before

Dublin

The evening press report on the raid on Collinstown Aerodrome. The Evening Herald notes that it was the most daring and sensational raid for arms in Ireland to date. They save their best line of their report for the end; they reliably inform readers that no aeroplanes were missing.

21st March 1919

Paris

Discussions turns towards German reparations at Peace Conference. It is apparent, despite fact there is universal agreement Germany should pay hefty price monetarily for War, they are unable to pay a penny. The prospect of payment of over 50 years is raised

Korea

Riots ‘that commenced at the start of the month across Korea subside. It is the first violent expression of Korean calls for self-determination. The peninsula has been under Japanese rule since 1910

Dublin

Reaction to yesterday’s massive arms raid on Collinstown Aerodrome continues. In interviews with press, Aerodrome guards speak of how the Volunteers moved about silently like ghosts ‘or those Japanese dummies that ye sometimes see doin’ tricks on a stage’

Dublin

Fr. Michael O’Flanagan ‘, Vice President of Sinn Féin, is refused a passport to travel to Americ

Egypt

The situation in Egypt continues to deteriorate; riots spread in opposition to British rule. Turkish flag, as seen below, is being flown several towns and villages in the west of the country. British reinforcements are expected in Cairo in the coming week

Rathfarnham

Margaret Pearse receives a telegram in St. Edna’s from Eamonn Bulfin. The past pupil of the school assures Mrs. Pearse that he is being deported from England to Ireland. His uncle, Frank, is also expected back in Dublin in a few days

Dublin

In the wake of raid on the RAF guards, Collinstown Aerodrome, Crown Forces are now ordered to shoot individuals should they refuse to halt when commanded to do so. This is the first such order of the present conflict and is seen as a significant escalation

Paris

The La Gazette Franco-Britannique comments upon the situation in Ireland. It comments on how 700 years of occupation have not been able to diminish her noble sentiments. It urges the Peace Conference to hear from Sean T. O’Kelly.

Bagnalstown

All of the mill hands employed with Brown and Crostwaith Mill are dismissed. They refused to handle produce that was to be sent to Graig where fellow ITGWU men are on strike. The development has caused significant consternation in the area

Navan

In between Liscarton House and Batchelor’s Lodge, Navan, a ‘large and powerful two seat plane with gun’ landed owing to engine trouble. It rested there for a few days before being fixed. It was subject much local attention from townspeople of Kells &Navan

Kilkenny

Labour tensions continue to rise in the city. A procession is held of workers in support of striking clerical workers in Stathams Ltd. in the city. It is decided to postpone a mass meeting in the city centre until Sunday evening

22nd March 1919

Dublin

The national press reports that Eamonn de Valera will return to Dublin in five days time. It is reported that the Lord Mayor will greet him at the City Gates and bring him to a reception in the Mansion House

23rd March 1919

Piazza San Sepolcro, Milan

Former member of Italian Socialist Party, Benito Mussolini, speaks at gathering demanding all to oppose the ideals of socialism. The movement that grew from the meeting became known as Sansepolcrismo, precursor to Italian Fascist Party

Pembroke, Wales

Colm O'Donovan, prominent Sinn Féin organiser in Bandon, whilst being escorted back to Hereford prison, escapes from the custody of his escort in the railway station. Authorities are carrying out investigations

Collinstown Aerodrome

All 800 employees in the Aerodrome are let go. They include carpenters, electricians, fitters, masons, and labourers. An obvious rumour spread that this was due to last week's arms raid. However, this is likely not the case ... It becomes clear that the contractor working on the site had been asked by the RAF to complete by 1st Feb. An extension was granted, but when the contractor admitted there was still 3 months work left, the contract was terminated. The hope is that those let go will be re-hired

Dublin

Mass protests, after mass, take place at the treatment of prisoners in Belfast. Below is image of protest outside the pro-cathedral. The image shows Fr. Flanagan seconding the resolution, read by Fr. Bowden

Dublin

Lieutenant K. V. Dan seeks £150 compensation for his motorbike that was tossed into the Liffey by mourners marching in Pierce McCann's funeral procession. Dan, drove the motorbike into the procession to which the mourners took grave exception

Thurles

Toomeva, led by the great Widger Meagher, defeat Boherlahane to win the 1918 Tipperary Senior Hurling Championship. Toomevara were scoreless at half time, but a strong 2nd half saw them win on scoreline of 6-0 to 3-4.

Kilkenny

A strike of clerical workers in Sthatam's Motor Works in the city is causing a great deal of strife in the city. At a large public meeting in the city centre today, Mr. Power, of the Waterford Clerical Workers Organisation, accuses the Kilkenny People ... of refusing to support the strikers by not printing some material for them. The newspaper responds firmly. They confirm that they did not print one particular piece of literature as it could easily be construed as a document of boycott, and should not be printed in the city

Mullagh, Cavan

On her way from Ballyjamesduff to Bailieborough Workhouse, the baby of a traveller named Rose McKenna died in her arms. She presented herself to the RIC Barracks in Mullagh seeking help as no one would take her in ... The Officers took her in and gave her food and shelter before escorting her to the Workhouse. The tragic case illustrates the harshness of life for members of the traveller community in Ireland at the time and the struggles that they faced on a daily basis

Budapest

The Hungarian situation continues to deteriorate. Two days ago a Socialist Republic was declared in Budapest , which led to communists streaming through the streets in celebration ‘Today, Vladimir Lenin orders Béla Kun, de facto leader of the Hungarian Communists ‘, to remove the Social Democrats from power

24th March 1919

Dublin

Mary Kate O’Kelly, wife of Sean T., is refused a passport to America. She is the latest in a string of prominent members of Sinn Féin, or associates, to be refused documentation

Dublin

Sinn Féin advertise further details of De Valera’s homecoming in a few days. The event is being viewed as potentially very significant. It is the first such reception in Dublin since the visit of Queen Victoria 19 years

25th March 1919

Paris

The situation in Hungary highlights a perceived fear of the Bolshevik menace in Eastern Europe. The Peace Conference discussions are viewed as a race between Peace and Anarchy

Dublin

Military authorities issue a proclamation prohibiting all public gatherings in Dublin. This puts tomorrow’s prominent homecoming event for de Valera in grave doubt

Cork

RIC Constables Cornelius Cadogan, and M.L. Rogers are found guilty of robbery of the American naval base in Aghada. They receive 9 and 3 months imprisonment with hard labour respectively

Late evening

Dublin

Eamon de Valera makes an official request to cancel his homecoming tomorrow. This is in the face of the prohibition of public gatherings in Dublin and the potential for bloodshed should the event take place

26th March 1919

Dublin

Alarming stats on Irish mortality rates during final quarter of 1918 are published. 20,006 babies are born, but 26,656 people die. The death rate in Leinster is 29.8 per 1,000 whilst birth rate is only 19.2 per 1,000. The starkest stat is that of infant mortality rate in urban areas; 128 per 1,000 versus 61 per 1,000 for rural areas

In total, 87,563 people were born in Ireland in 1918, and 78,685 died

Dublin

The Irish Times publishes a letter which considers the potential impact of the possible introduction of PR-STV voting in Ireland for General Elections. It’s stated 10 Anti-Catholic Orangemen, 14 Anti-Protestant Hibernians, 18 Rational Unionists, 27 Rational Nationalist, and 33 Sinn Féiners would be elected. This is in keeping with rising commentary in the press of the fact that Home Rule sentiment/policies may not be totally dead

Dublin

Businesses in O’Connell Street were boarded up in anticipation of violence surrounding de Valera’s planned return. Despite de Valera’s own request the night before, crowds of people began to gather at Mount St. Bridge and the Mansion House

Dawson Street became overrun with onlookers, and the military had to use forceful means to regulate the flow of traffic. After a few hours, it started to rain heavily and the crowds dispersed in disappointment

Dublin

A massive military operation commences from the early morning in Dublin with thousands of troops and DMP Officers taking position at key positions in the city. 100 Cavalry patrolled the North Circular Road. Several machine gun units were also set up. Sean O’Duffy, Dublin Volunteer was escorted among the heavy military presence by DMP Detective Officer Cavanagh by way of warning to Sinn Féin not to have de Valera enter the city. O’Duffy raced to Sinn Féin HQ and relayed this information

Nenagh

W.L Hodgins is awarded £3,100 in damages for the burning of his property, Derrycastle House on 22nd January. Malice was proven in proceedings; Hodgins had only acquired the property a week before its destruction

27th March 1919

Dublin

John Harney, from Curragh, Athlone, is court-martialed. He was charged with being in possessions with two documents. One was entitled ‘Ruthless Aggression’ and described how anybody that aided conscription in Ireland should be treated as a foreign enemy

The other document, titled ‘The Leinster Outrage’, asked why there was never a proper inquest into the sinking of The Leinster. It mentions how ships sailed through the debris and ailing passengers in the water, one such ship had former Chief Secretary, Edward Shortt on board

3pm

Dawson Street, Dublin

Eamonn de Valera steps off a tram with Cathal Brugha and makes his way to the Mansion House for a low-key meeting with the Lord Mayor

28th March 1919

Paris

Marshal Ferdinand Foch, the Commander of Allies in War, is summoned to meeting of Council of 4. Other senior Allied military leaders also called in. Despite curtain of secrecy upon agenda, it is assumed that deepening crisis in eastern Europe was discussed

Aintree Racecourse, Liverpool

Poethlyn wins the 78th Grand National. The horse won the unofficial National the year before, and came in at 11/4, the hottest favourite to ever win the race. Poethlyn was ridden by Ernest Piggot father or Keith,grandfather of Lester, great-grandfather of Tracy

Transcaucasia, Russia

There are reports of a famine in the Transcaucasia region of famine with people resorting to desperate means to secure food

Dublin

The court-martial of J.J Walsh, M.P for Cork City, commences in Ship-Street Barracks. He is charged in connection with a speech delivered in Edenderry, King’s County, in late February

When asked was he going to represent himself, Walsh said ‘I refuse to recognise this farce’. When Chair listed names of all officers present, and asked Walsh had he any objection to anybody, he said ‘I am not in the least bit concerned’. When summing up evidence, the Chair said ‘it might seem unfortunate to court that here in the 19th Century, anyone should hold these medieval sentiments which the accused honestly maintained’. Walsh replied, ‘you are a century out!’ The verdict is to be announced at later date.

29th March 1919

Paris

An Associated Press journalist interviews Sean T. O’Kelly. O’Kelly indicates that if the question of Ireland is not brought up immediately, then Irish Americans will block the ratification of the League of Nations in Congress

2.30pm

Drumcondra Road

A large number of Volunteers make their way by bike to Cotter’s Cycle Shop on the Drumcondra Road, near the Royal Canal. They park their bikes and make their way inconspicuously towards the walls of Mountjoy Prison. They assume position without being noticed and await the clock to chime 3pm

2.55pm

Mountjoy Prison, Exercise Yard

Sinn Féin prisoners go about their afternoon’s exercise observing the positions of warders in preparedness for the chiming of the clock for 3pm

3pm

Mountjoy Prison, Exercise Yard

When the clock strikes 3, Mick Downs, the same man that had thrown a wooden rope over the same wall less than two weeks ago when Robert Barton escaped Mountjoy, throws another rope over the wall. Inside, several prisoners assault warders and hold them up with imaginary guns. Amidst the chaos, about thirty Volunteers make their way towards the rope and begin climbing. The first two to escape are Piaras Beaslai and J.J. Walsh. At least 18 other prisoners follow them, all aided in their escape by a growing crowd of supporting onlookers. One man, pausing on wall, quoting ‘To Althea, from Prison’ shouts ‘Stone walls do not a prison make, Nor iron bars a cage’. The escape ends when reinforcements arrive.

The escape lasted for 10 - 15 minutes in all. Several policemen were engaged in the Phoenix Park races which helped them to get away to safehouses. The instigator of the escape, Laois man Padraig Fleming, fled to the home of Louise Gavan Duffy, where he stayed for several weeks

The break-out was the largest ever from an Irish prison. Some of the other escapees were Henry Morgan, Sean Forde, Martin Fleming, Liam Tannan, Dermot O’Shea, and Stephen O’Connor

Ireland

Ireland enters Daylight Savings time for the third time since its introduction in 1916

Washington D.C

It is confirmed that passports have been issued to 4 prominent Irish Americans to travel to France. They are official representatives of the Irish Race Convention, and they hope to make known Ireland’s cause at the Peace Conference. They are ...

  • Michael J. Ryan, former City Solicitor for Philadelphia
  • Edward Fitzsimons Dunne, former Governor of Illinois and Mayor of Chicago. His father was a prominent Young Irelander who fled after the failed rebellion
  • And Frank P. Walsh, prominent lawyer and champion of American working classes
  • John W. Goff, born in Wexford, former member of New York Supreme Court

New York

William Taft, former American President, givesspeech at public forum in Church of the Ascension, New York. He is heckled by the crowd shouting ‘Ireland’. Taft’s position on not supporting Ireland’s call for a voice at the Peace Conference is well-known

Kilkenny

In an extraordinary escalation of the labour strife in the city with striking workers of Stathams, the Kilkenny People newspaper announces it is to cease operation in two weeks time. It says that striking workers interfered with the papers' sale last week. The Kilkenny People had refused to print some handbills for the striking workers as they felt that to do so would be an act of supporting a boycott, and they believed such a document should be printed by somebody outside of the city

11pm

Newport Road, Westport

John Charles Milling, the Resident Magistrate in the town, leaves his wife, Katherine, in the drawing room of his home to go to another room to change the clock to daylight savings ... As he moved across the hall four shots are fired at him through the window, two of which hit him. He crawled along to another room, another shot is fired, narrowly missing Katherine. Milling slumps to the floor and Katherine faints. When she comes to, she raises the alarm.

Doctors immediately come, but his condition is grave. A massive military operation commences in the Westport area once the alarm is raised

Sinn Féin Headquarters, Hardcourt St.

Eamonn de Valera takes up his office in HQ for the first time since his escape from Lincoln Prison. He gives numerous interviews to journalists and sets out the movement’s aspirations for a totally free and independent Ireland

30th March 1919

Westport

John Charles Milling, Resident Magistrate, shot yesterday in his home in Westport, dies. His murder is the first political assassination of the War of Independence

Dublin

It is reported that ten of the men that escaped from Mountjoy Prison yesterday were among the twelve men sentenced in connection with Volunteer Drilling in a hall on the Clonliffe Road on 29th January

3am

Western Road, Cork

Two RIC Constables are on patrol when they happen upon a suspicious looking man. The man refuses to answer their questions and he produces a revolver and fires 3 shots in their direction. 1 of them strikes Const. Hayes in the hip. His colleague, Const. Creed attempts to grab the man but he makes his escape towards Cross Street. Hayes is in a serious but stable condition in hospital. This is the most serious incident to date in Cork City this year

Whitehall, Rathfarnham

17 young men, the oldest of whom is 19, are arrested in a field and charged with illegal Volunteer drilling. They were surrounded by RIC Officers as they marched around the field and could not flee

Cootehill, Cavan

In one of the largest public gatherings in Cootehill's recent history, over 10,000 people gather to welcome Arthur Griffith to the constituency for the first time since his release from prison

New York

The New York Times produces a special commemorative issue for the massive homecoming parade through 5th Avenue for the official returning of the 27th Infantry from the War. Over 2 million people lined the streets on 25th March to welcome the troops home

31st March 1919

Dublin

The Irish Times publishes a scathing editorial on the state of the Irish prison system and states how ‘the sanctions of the law are dissolved more swiftly and utterly by laughter than any other agent’. This is in response to the Mountjoy prison break-out

London

The Times, in reporting on the shooting dead of J.C Milling in Westport, says that the situation in Ireland is making the Irish executive look ridiculous

London

In its report on the Mountjoy escape, The Times comments that the escape of Sinn Féin prisoners has become so commonplace that that it excites little wonder, ‘though much disgust in the minds of the public’.

1st April 1919

Dublin

Dáil Éireann meets in private. Cathal Brugha, outgoing President, nominates Eamonn de Valera as President, a motion which is unanimously supported. The session is attended by 52 elected members. They conclude by agreeing to meet tomorrow again

Mountjoy Prison

Patrick Daly, one of 12 men arrested in a hall on the Clonliffe Road in connection with Volunteer drilling is released on parole following the death of his wife. There is now only one of the twelve in prison, following the escape of 10 of last week

Westport Courthouse

An inquest into the shooting dead of J.C Milling is held. The local RIC District Inspector, a brother-in-law of the deceased stated that Milling whispered to him on his death-bed 'they have got me at last'

2nd April 1919

Westport

Amidst an influx of military following the shooting, for only the second time in Ireland, a plane is used to search the area as part of investigation. At noon, there are reports of machine gun fire over the town from the circling plane

Dublin

The Dáil meets for the fourth time. The first order of business is the nomination of ministers.

Secretary for Defence

Cathal Brugha

Proposed by J. MACGUINNESS (Longford).

Seconded by PIARAS BEASLAI (East Kerry).

Secretary for Home Affairs

Arthur Griffith

Proposed by LIAM DE ROISTE (Cork City).

Seconded by P. O MAILLE (Connemara).

Secretary for Industries

Eoin MacNeill

Proposed by CATHAL BRUGHA (Waterford Co.).

Seconded by SEAN MACENTEE (S. Monaghan).

Secretary for Labour

Countess Constance Markievicz

Proposed by LIAM DE ROISTE (Cork City).

Seconded by S. ETCHINGHAM (East Wicklow).

Secretary for Foreign Affairs

Count George Noble Plunkett

Proposed by A. GRIFFITH (East Cavan).

Seconded by P. O MAILLE (Connemara).

Head of Department of Propaganda

Laurence Ginnell

Secretary for Local Government

William T. Cosgrave

Proposed by JOHN O'MAHONY (S. Fermanagh).

Seconded by R.C. BARTON (W. Wicklow).

Secretary for Finance

Micheal Collins

Proposed by A. MACCABE (South Sligo).

Seconded by H. BOLAND (S. Roscommon).

Head of Department of Agriculture

Robert Barton

Dublin

Dáil Éireann, meeting in private, decide to set up a select committee to look into the following;

  • Imprisonment of absent Deputies and other POWs
  • The Tipperary children 'kidnapped by English agents'
  • The 2 internees in Reading and prisoners in Scotland

3rd April 1919

Ireland

All upcoming local Guardian and Council elections are postponed owing to the introduction of proportional representation system of voting to Ireland

Cork

Arthur, Matthew, & John Barlow, from Shrough, Tipperary, who were arrested on same day that Pierce McCan’s remains were brought to the county, are court-martialled. John, who was 17, was released without charge. Verdicts on other two will be made known soon

Dublin

Bovril takes out a large ad in the daily papers responding to claims that they were engaged in profiteering during the War years. They say that their produce is the same price now as it was in July 1914

Westport

The first arrest in connection with the murder of J.C Milling is made. Thomas Connor, Drumindoo, is arrested when a rifle is found buried in his garden

Listowel

Daniel J. Flynn, a member of the local Urban District Council, is arrested in connection with the sale of seditious literature. In default of bail, he was sentenced to three months in prison

Berlin

The Irish Independent publishes a photo from Berlin illustrating the recent chaos that engulfed the city. It shows a scene in a street as a Spartacist controlled aircraft fires upon soldiers below who are attempting to flee

Westminster

The 1st Irish Debate of 1919 takes place in House of Commons. The London Times notes novelty of Ulster Unionists being largest Irish representatives in the House for generations, but that they could not match fire and humour of absent Irish nationalists

4th April 1919

Dublin

Dáil Éireann meets again in private. One of the first things discussed is the establishment of law courts for arbitration matters. Sean O’Mahony raises the question and Arthur Griffith replies that a committee had been set up to look into the matter

Dublin

Dáil Éireann discusses the children that were taken from Tipperary by British forces on 19th February, including Seán Hogan’s younger brother, Matthew. They decide to make case to various foreign Consulates and Child Protection Societies throughout Europe & U.S

Dublin

At the private meeting of Dáil Éireann, Michael Collins and Laurence Ginnell announce that they will commence a Dáil loan scheme where members of the public can purchase bonds in value up to £1,000

6th April 1919

2pm

Limerick Workhouse Infirmary

A large group of Volunteers from the 2nd Limerick Battalion commence an operation to rescue one of their own. The operation would leave two men dead and spark off an extraordinary period in the history of Limerick City. Micheal 'Batty' Stack visits fellow volunteer Bobby Byrne, who was under RIC custody, in recovery from illness in Limerick gaol. Stack informs Byrne that an attempt to rescue him was about to begin. Stack quietly leaves the ward and loops around by a different route. Whilst Stack was making his way back around, other volunteers, including Jack Gallagher entered the ward under the premise of visiting other patients. Gallagher and Stack were the only armed Volunteers in the operation

3pm

Stack re-enters the ward and blows a whistle. The unarmed Volunteers rush at the RIC Officers guarding Byrne. A melee breaks out and Const. T. Spillane shoots Byrne, Stack shoots Spillane in response. As Byrne is being freed Stack also shoots Const. Martin O'Brien

Constable Martin O'Brien dies of his gunshot wound. He is the third member of the RIC to die in the War of Independence. When Workhouse Officials made their way to the ward and discovered O'Brien in a grave condition Canon O'Driscoll, chaplain, administered Last Rites

Byrne is taken to a horse drawn carriage and is given a disguise by Cumann na mBan member, Mary Giltinane. They make their way to home of John Ryan in Knockalisheen. Bobby Ryan dies of his gunshot wound at 8.30pm. He is the first Volunteer to die in War of Independence.

Other wounded officers include Constable Spillane, Constable Goulden, Constable Fitzpatrick, and Constable Tierney. They all make recoveries

Limerick

On hearing of the events in the Workhouse, Bobby Byrne's mother and aunt make their way towards the house that Byrne is taken to. They are preceded by military and on arrival both women are arrested and kept in custody for several hours

Croke Park

Wexford and Tipperary face each other in a repeat of 1918 All-Ireland attended by over 25,000 people in aid of Irish Republican Prisoners' Dependencies Fund. The game, refereed by Harry Boland is very poor, Wexford winning 0-2 vs. 0-1.

The game is the first such exhibition since the general release of Sinn Féin prisoners in England a few weeks ago. It is attended by significant members of Dáil Éireann. De Valera threw in the ball to commence proceedings. Arthur Griffith, Eamon De Valera, Lord Mayor Laurence O'Neill and Michael Collins sit pitch-side enjoying the game.

Dublin

Gordon Brewster, one of the Sunday Independent's main cartoonists, has his cartoon on self-determination published. It depicts Yankee pointing out to John Bull that Irish question needs to be sorted before matters can proceed in Paris

Athletic Grounds, Cork

Galway University take on UCC in the Ashbourne Cup Camogie final. Galwa are defeated heavily by their southern opponents 7-0 to 0-1.

Dublin

Hanna Sheehy Skeffington writes a letter to the Editor of the Freeman's Journal on the plight of the Tipperary children held in custody in the Phoenix Park. She appeals to all Irish women to protest until the boy's release is secured

Athy

Art O'Connor is welcomed to the town for the first time since his release from prison. He addresses a crowd of thousands and thanks them for their continued support

Nenagh

In summarising the state of North Tipperary during March 1919, the RIC County Inspector says that despite the fact that there is outward appearance of peace, 'there is an anxiety among the respectable classes as to what tragedy may happen'

10pm

Great Brunswick St. D.M.P Station, Dublin

Eamon Ned Broy, a clerk, begins his shift in the Intelligence Branch of the Dublin Metropolitan Police, known as 'G' Division. He anxiously goes about his work awaiting a phone call at midnight.

11.50pm

Sergeant Kerr, a colleague of Broy, eventually leaves Broy's office and retires to his quarters to sleep for night. A relieved Broy sits by his phone awaiting a call from a man who would call himself 'Field', and ask for 'Long'. Field was none other than Michael Collins

Vaughan's Hotel

Collins hangs up his phone. Collins' had had a busy day with the I.R.P.D Fundraiser in Croke Park and an IRB meeting that had just concluded in the hotel. He had asked Sean Nunan to hang back after the meeting and he suggested that they take a stroll

7th April 1919

Midnight

Great Brunswick St. D.M.P Station, Dublin

Ned Broy's phone rings. In his own words; 'At twelve o’clock, Mick rang up, saying, ‘Field here. Is that Long?’ I said: ‘Yes. Bring a candle.’

1am

Great Brunswick Street

After walking around city for some time Collins and Nunan reach the D.M.P station. Collins had filled Nunan in on his plan; they were to trawl through secret records for the identities of the leading DMP intelligence officers in Dublin

1.45am

Great Brunswick St. D.M.P Station, Dublin

Ned Broy lets Collins and Nunan into the building, pointing out the back entrance to Townsend St. should they need to make a quick getaway. Just then a drunken soldier threw a stone through a window. Shaken by the interruption the three men wait until the soldier is arrested and taken to the main section of station. They then proceed to office of Inspect Neil McFeely. Broy opens a steel safe. Collins and Nunan look through files for almost four hours and leave at dawn

Limerick

The Military authorise the publication of the following in all newspapers;

'In consequence of the attack by constables and the brutal murder Limerick on yesterday, the Government has decided to proclaim the district as a special military area'

Dublin

James Greene, Bernard Harte and John Doyle, all arrested in connection with the Three Rock incident on 19th January, are sentenced the three years penal servitude

Sligo

William Parkinson is sentenced to six months in prison in connections with two speeches given on the day of the Robert Emmett Anniversary and St. Patrick's Day. He refuses to recognise court and pay bail

Meanwhile, recently released M.P, John J. Clancy does pay bail after his arrest in connection with seditious literature. He says he does not recognise the court either though. These contrasting cases show a shifting attitude in Sinn Féin with regards main members paying bail

Ballyfin, Queen's County

A grim reminder of the social stigma, and near absence of understanding of mental health is shown when a man from rural Laois 'attempted suicide'. The case is reported in a number of regional newspapers. He is committed to local asylum

Kilkenny

Ahead of Easter festivities in two weeks, the cinema in Kilkenny shows the 1914 American film 'The Sign of the Cross'

Roscrea

Patrick O'Byrne, son of Count O'Byrne, Corville, is among four men summoned before Major Dease R.M in Roscrea Court in connection with collecting money for the Irish Language Fund on St. Patrick's Day. The case is dismissed

8th April 1919

Mansion House, Dublin

At a meeting of Sinn Féin Ard Fheis, President Eamon de Valera makes his first major public speech since his escape from prison.In a wide-ranging speech he asked supporters not to back President Wilson himself, rather his principles. If President Wilson did not stand by his principles the Irish race would stand by them, and if no other people would lead the way the Irish people would do so, and see that justice and right were done

Referring to the Volunteers, he said ‘The Volunteers had placed themselves at the disposal of the elected Government of the Irish people. They would stand by that Government, and would do exactly as that Government commanded them’.

Referring to Germany, he said ‘The men who met England's army here a couple of years ago in order to vindicate the spirit of Irish nationality would have equally well stood against Germany if Germany were cutting in here’

Carrowreagh, Roscommon

Reports of an extraordinary episode in rural wooded area. People have heard an eloquent voice in woods, with high-pitch, preaching in Irish proclaiming that a great war is approaching, but voice is apparently emanating from invisible source. A few days ago 00s of people from neighbouring areas flocked to the wood to hear the voice. The local RIC sent armed officers to the wood to keep the peace. After waiting for some time nothing happened, but high-pitched voice came from another part of wood saying rosary in Irish. The crowds rushed to the part of the wood the voice came from, but upon reaching its apparent source nobody could be seen. A search by RIC officers yielded nothing either. The case is a mystery, many locals feel it was a visitation by a higher power

Limerick

Tensions are extremely high as military parties scour the area as part of their investigation into the death of Constable O’Brien. 5 people are in custody, all apprehended in vicinity of the house that Robert Byrne died in

Limerick

After an inquest into the death of Robert Byrne, Byrne’s body is brought to St. John’s Cathedral in a cortege of 10,000 Volunteers. His funeral will be held tomorrow

9th April 1919

Mansion House, Dublin

At the concluding day of Sinn Féin Ard Fheis, George Nesbitt comments that £50,000 was raised during election campaign for Sinn Féin, and it is separate to Anti-Conscription Fund. However, Sinn Féin has only £688 in the bank, and £1,000 cash

Birr

RIC Constable Martin O’Brien’s funeral takes place in Birr. A large funeral cortege passed through the town. In the cortege was District Inspector for King’s County, D.I Knox, as well as many local members of the Sinn Féin party

Mansion House, Dublin

A very revealing debate takes place at the Sinn Féin Ard Fheis on the application of Proportional Representation Single-Transferable Voting (PR-STV) to Ireland. Laurence Ginnell and Pádhraic MacEnri oppose the system. They say that the introduction of the PR-STV will harm them electorally. Ginnell states that for all that they will gain in Ulster by removing the first-past-the-post system, they would lose in the other three provinces.

Ginnell and McEnri are opposed by most of party. Hanna Sheehy Skeffington said ‘if a man had only 1 vote he would never throw it away on a woman. It was important women should be represented at local elections, and under of proportional representation they give women a chance’. Danny McDevitt, Belfast, pointed to Labour, who gained a third of the vote in Belfast for a generation, but had never won a seat. He said the opposite of Ginnell; they could afford some losses in the south to get a gain in Ulster. Ginnell and McEnri’s resolution is defeated

Dublin

Cadbury’s publish an idyllic ad for their chocolate and cocoa products with a scene from their production base in Bournville

Amritsar, India

The Hindu festival of Ram Naumi is celebrated. There are unprecedented levels of cordiality between the Hindus and Muslims in the city. This is interpreted as a political act by the authorities. The Lieutenant Governor of the Punjab, Michael O’Dwyer, born in Limerick Junction, Tipperary, orders the arrest of two leading figures in the city; Dr. Saifuddin Kitchlu and Dr. Satyapal

Delhi, India

Separately, a 49 year old activist from Gujarat, Mohandas K. Gandhi, is also arrested for defying an order not to enter Delhi to organise a peaceful protest

Eyeries, Cork

3 RIC, Sergeant O’Connell, Constable Cummins and Constable Ronan are shot by unknown assailants as they made way back to Castletownbere. Wounds are not serious, seem to have been weak pellet shots. The local RIC are very concerned at the incident

Dublin

A habeas corpus motion is brought before King’s Bench into continued holding in police detention in Phoenix Park of Timothy Connors, a young boy arrested several weeks ago in connection with Soloheadbeg shootings. The motion will be passed to RIC

Limerick

Military authorities announce, ahead of the Byrne funeral tomorrow, they do not wish to interfere, but that they accept no responsibility for consequences of the public not obeying an order banning any military shows during the funeral.

Limerick

Joseph Keane, Chair of the Limerick Guardians, who had authority over the Workhouse where the shootings took place, condemned the arrest of Mrs. Byrne as she sped to her dying son’s side

Dublin

Following the motion of habeas corpus, 11 year old Timothy Connors is released from custody in Phoenix Park. He joins Matthew Hogan, younger brother of Seán (still at large), who was also recently released.

10th April 1919

Paris

It emerges that a telegram that was sent by President Wilson to the American warship, George Washington, to return to Brest, to bring him back to America, was held up in London and never reached its destination. It is the latest in a series of wild rumours around Paris suggesting that peace talks are nearing collapse

Mansion House, Dublin

The second public meeting of Dáil Éireann convenes. Those in attendance are (pictured on the day below) EAMONN DE VALERA, ARTHUR GRIFFITH , PAUL GALLIGAN, BRIAN O'HIGGINS, RICHARD MULCAHY, PATK. O'MALLEY, SEAN DE ROISTE, T. McSWEENEY, P. O'KEEFE, PROF. EOlN McNEILL, J. O'DOHERTY, P. WARD, S. McSWEENEY, S. O'MAHONY, DR. CUSACK, P. O'SHANAHAN, P. BEASLAI, D. O'BUCKLEY, ARTHUR O'CONNOR, WM, MAC COSGAIR, S. O'MARA, SEAN O'DOLAN, W. P. COLLIVET, DR. HAYES, C. COLLINS, JOSEPH McGUINNESS, SEAN O'KELLY, E. O'DUGGAN E. BLYTHE, SEAN McENTEE, DESMOND FITZGERALD, KEVIN O'HIGGINS, COUNT PLUNKETT, ALASDAIR McCABE, J. McGRATH, M. STAINES. MADAME MARKIEVICZ, ALD. THOS. KELLY, S. A. BURKE, JOSEPH McDONAGH, P. J. MOLONEY, CATHAL BRUGHA, L. GINNELL, SEAN ETCHINGHAM

In his first public speech to the Dáil, De Valera announces publicly details of the Dáil Loan. He says ‘The Minister of Finance is accordingly preparing a prospectus, which will be shortly published, for the issue of a loan of one million sterling. £500,000 to be offered to the public for immediate subscription, £250,000 at home and £250,000 abroad, in bonds of such amounts as to meet the needs of the small subscriber’

Greenane, Tipperary

Margaret Connery, representing the Women’s Franchise League, gives details of how Timothy Connors had been surrounded by military forces and forced into a vehicle on his way home from school in February. She also gives an account of Daniel McGrath, Grantstown. Military came to farm where he lived and forced him into outhouse and questioned him on Soloheadbeg ambush whilst other troops held his mother. It took intervention of a local woman of social standing to end child’s ordeal

Glengarrif Parade, Dublin

10.30pm

Detective Officer O’Brien, walking back to his home, is set upon by group of six masked men. He is bound and brought to an alleyway and searched. When they found nothing the retreated. O’Brien is a member of the G Division, DMP

Norfolk Road

Meanwhile, another G man, Detective Sergeant Halley is attacked by a man just outside his home. Halley produced his pistol and discharged shot to warn off his attacker. Several other masked men, who were trying enter Halley’s home, retreated at the sound of the shot

Both events come mere days after Michael Collins and Sean Nunan’s search through top-secret personnel files in the Great Brunswick St. Station, accommodated by Ned Broy

Limerick

Thousands of people line the streets of Limerick City for the funeral of Robert Byrne. There is a heavy military presence in the city, but the procession passes off peacefully. Sections of soldiers with fixed bayonets were stationed along funeral route

Dublin

A front page ad in the Irish Independent urges readers not to forget about ‘Loyal Russia’ who gave more lives in the War than any country. The organisation called ‘Russian Liberation Committee’ urges people to write to it to help defeat bolshevism.

Amritsar, India

Following yesterday’s arrests, protesters throw stones at British troops as tensions in the city mount. The soldiers respond by firing on the protesters, killing 20 of them. A hartal is declared in the city - a mass protest - and rioting spreads. Up to five Europeans are killed. The Superintendent of the City Mission Schools, Frances Sherwood, defies warnings of her Indian friends and cycles into city alone. She runs into a group of young men who attack her, beating her with their own shoes. She is left badly wounded

11th April 1919

Tipperary

Timothy Connors, the boy released from RIC custody, speaks to journalists on his experiences. He was brought to Dublin Castle three times a week and questioned about Soloheadbeg ambush. Each time he told them he was in school and knew nothing about it. He said a policeman slept in the same room with him and accompanied him for daily walks in the Phoenix Park when the weather was fine. He was given plenty to eat and the police were kind to him and frequently played handball with him

Mansion House, Dublin

For the first time, Dáil Éireann meets in public for two days in a row. The League of Nations is discussed. De Valera says Ireland would join provided that the principle of equality of rights among nations great and small is upheld.

Seán MacEntee was most ardent critic of America. He said ‘President Wilson had a deep and secret purpose when he hoped to impose a sham League of Nations on prostrate humanity, and that it was meant to make easy subjection of small peoples at hands of huge commercial empire.

He added ‘We must try and save France from herself. If there is a Peace imposed on Germany now, there will be a desire for revenge on the part of German people later on. The new Treaty will be violated like the Treaty of Versailles, and another war of revenge must surely follow.

Alexander McCabe said Wilson could not think of admitting the yellow races on terms of equality, and there could be no real world League without equality. A powerful, self-respecting, and ambitious nation like Japan would never come in on any other terms, and who could blame her

Amritsar, India

Brigadier General Reginald Dyer arrives in Amritsar to take command of British troops in the city. Fearing a rebellion similar to that of 1857 he begins planning for a military crack down on protests in the Punjab Province

12th April 1919

London

The Morning Post newspaper publishes a story stating that De Valera is willing to accept dominion status for Ireland and he will abandon the Sinn Féin party. De Valera rubbishes the report and says it is 'too ridiculous to discuss'

Hull

For the third time in as many weeks, the Conservative half of the government coalition are heavily defeated in a by-election, losing almost a third of the vote they had gained in December. Joseph Kentworthy takes the seat.

13th April 1919

Jallianwala Bagh, Amritsar, India

20,000 men, women, and children gather in the walled enclosure of Jallianwala Bagh, many of whom to celebrate the Sikh festival of Baisakhi, others part of the non-violent satyagraha group. The enclosure had only one entrance. Brigadier-General Reginald Dyer had issued a decree the day before prohibiting all public meetings. When hearing of the gathering in Jallianwala Bagh he brought 90 men to area to break up the gathering. The entered the narrow entrance lane and blocked the only way in or out.

Dyer then orders his men to shoot indiscriminately into the crowd. The British troops fire upon the unarmed crowd for ten minutes, and expend nearly 1,700 rounds of ammo. After the shooting stopped, the troops largely left the dead and dying in the enclosure. The official death toll of the shooting was 379. In reality well over 1,600 people are believed to have lost their lives. The atrocity would have a lasting impact upon the history of India

Grafton Street, Dublin

Celebrating 100 years in operation, Barnardos Furriers advertise some summer wears including Ostrich and Marabout feathered throws and capes.

Limerick

The Limerick City United Trades and Labour Council decide, after lengthy discussions, to call a general strike to commence tomorrow

44 Parnell Square, Dublin.

Cumann na mBan HQ

Members of Cumann na mBan are informed by a sympathetic DMP officer that their HQ was to be raided that evening. They immediately removed all sensitive materials and literature. The raid, at 6pm, yielded nothing

Westport

The special proclamation of the town as a military area continues. Loads of turf and/or potatoes are not permitted into the town, and fears are growing of a food and fuel crisis among the town's poorer residents

14th April 1919

Limerick

A general strike of workers commences in Limerick. All businesses in the city close, among them Cleeves Condensed Milk factory, the largest of its kind in the world

Westport

The Westport Sinn Féin hall is seized by the military. They lock up the building, and deface the front display with tar, and cover all of the windows on the ground floor with tar too. Also, an armoured car sped through the town on several occasions

P.J Doris, editor of the Mayo News newspaper is forbidden to leave the town by military authorities to conduct his journalistic work around the county

The commencement of the strike in Limerick is causing the pilots concern, however, as they have 600 gallons of fuel stored in the city. Should it be necessary, the military may be called upon to requisition the fuel for the plane

London

The race to complete the first transatlantic flight continues. Captain J.C.P Wood, and his co-pilot, Captain C.C Wylie, intend on flying their plane from London to Limerick where they will commence their attempt from Bawnmore

15th April 1919

Limerick

As the general strike in the city continues, the supply of food begins to be curtailed. Queues of people formed outside the city's bakeries that were allowed to open on special permission of the strike committee.

St. Joseph's Asylum for the Blind, Drumcondra

Seven RIC Officers enter the Blind Asylum in Drumcondra and conduct a search for over an hour, raiding every building and room of the complex. It is believed they were searching for stolen arms

Limerick

Five men remain in custody in connection with the Workhouse Hospital shootings; John Hurley & Tom Crowe (both cousins of Robert Byrne), Michael Dogherty (a servant in the house where Byrne was found) Arthur Johnson & Pat Bray (both from Limerick)

Dublin

J.J Walsh, M.P for North Sligo, is sentenced to 3 months imprisonment for unlawful assembly on the night of March 26th

16th April 1919

Limerick

The jury at inquest of death of Robert Byrne finds that he died ‘by revolver bullet discharged willfully by either Constable O’Brien or Constable Spillane’. The doctor who treated Byrne as he was dying said he had been wounded by ‘the man that was shot’.

As he was being treated Byrne asked his doctor ‘this is going to do for me doctor? I am not afraid to die, in any case’.

Patrick Lynch, representing Byrne family, posed the question ‘How was it that this semi-military force did not turn their revolvers upon the attacking party of healthy men, but killed patient in the bed? He was killed by a revolver bullet fired by a man intent to kill’

Amritsar

3 days after shooting dead of 100s of people by British troops, Lieutenant Governor of the Punjab, Tipperary-born Michael O’Dwyer, writing, Lord Chelmsford, says there is ‘an improvement in demeanour of city rabble’ but that many still ‘hostile or sullen’

Dublin

News of the events in Amritsar have not yet reached Ireland. The Freeman’s Journal, reporting on the ‘Indian revolt’ reports that the military are taking ‘necessary steps’ in Amritsar and Lahore

Paris

French newspapers begin to report on the situation in Limerick. Le Petit Parisien reports, under the headline GRÁVES EN IRLANDE (Strikes in Ireland), that if the strike is prolonged the impact could be devastating

17th April 1919

Dublin

British military forces continue to portray an Indian state in open revolt against British rule. The Evening Herald reports that normal conditions are expected to resume soon as ‘the methods adopted in Amritsar’ were having desired effect

Paris

As rumours spread that peace talks could conclude soon and a treaty by signed by 2nd May, tensions continue between the USA and Japan. However, it is hoped that these issues can soon be overcome to ensure a lasting peace between the two nations

St. John’s, Newfoundland

Despite treacherous conditions moving up from United States, and continued storms on Atlantic, an attempt to cross the Atlantic is about to commence. Other attempts, flying in the opposite direction are hoped to take off soon from Limerick

Athy

A meeting of the local branch of the ITGWU is held with a view towards establishing a workers’ co-op store in the town. An organiser from Belfast, Mr. Knox, spoke to a very attentive audience and was warmly received

18th April 1919

Holyhead, Wales

Captain J.C.P Wood’s brave endeavour to cross the Atlantic in a single flight begins with their first leg from Kent across the Irish Sea and on to their take off point in Limerick. The plane crashes into the sea six miles off the Welsh coast.

18th April 1919 -Good Friday

O’Connell Street, Dublin

Staff at Gresham Hotel strike work in early afternoon forcing effective closure of hotel. Other hotels affected by a strike include Wicklow & Central Hotels. All guests have left and all window blinds are drawn.

Ennis

At a meeting of Clare County Board of GAA, a discussion is held on whether civil servants that have taken oath of allegiance to King should be expelled from organisation. It is decided to allow county’s delegate to national executive to use his judgement

Dublin

The first major news reports of the Amritsar incident are published Ireland. The Freeman’s Journal reports that ‘200 casualties’ came about as a result of ‘the mob defying the proclamation of public meetings’

19th April 1919

Dublin

The Evening Herald reprints a cartoon originally published in an American newspaper highlighting the sheer futility of war and how it has led to the re-mortgaging of entire nations as the Roman God of war stands by with a bucket of blood

Limerick

As the Limerick Soviet continues, an American journalist in the city for the transatlantic flight attempt that came to an abortive end the day before was granted permission by the Strike Committee to buy a new shirt

Holyhead

Captain Wood and his co-pilot are reportedly safe and well after the fiasco of their attempt to fly across the Atlantic. Their plane, the Shamrock remains in the water.

The plane would remain in the water for a number of days until the fuselage it is towed into Holyhead. The wings were dismantled and given away in pieces as souvenirs.

20th April 1919 -Easter Sunday

Cork

A proposed bill to allow for University College Cork to leave the National University of Ireland and become an independent University is published.

Dublin

Over 1,000 hotel and restaurant workers are now on strike in Dublin. Over 30 hotels are closed as tourists flocking into the city for the Easter holidays are turned away in disappointment

Mansion House, Dublin

The Annual GAA Conference is held. The President, Alderman James Nowlan (below), Kilkenny, brings forward a resolution stating that any civil servant that takes the oath of allegiance be barred from the organisation

An amendment is made to ensure that any person that took the oath under duress up to November 1918 be allowed to remain a member, but that in future any person that takes the oath be barred. This amendment is defeated by 19 votes and Nowlan's original motion is carried

Mansion House, Dublin

A representative of the Limerick Strike Committee attended the GAA Convention seeking support for their cause. Harry Boland proposed that the GAA pledge £100 from their funds to be donated. He also proposed 4 fundraising games for the cause. An on-the-spot collection was then called for which realised £33 which was immediately given the to Limerick delegate.

Overall, it is announced that the GAA has £2,437, 19s. in their bank account

Araglen, East Cork

The first Volunteer raid on an RIC Barracks during the War of Independence takes place in Araglen. Mick Fitzgerald, prominent Volunteer in the Fermoy area, led the raid. They struck when all but 1 officer was at mass

Dublin

The Sunday Independent publishes cartoon of Britain observing demands of India and Egypt saying 'Blimey! They look ugly, I wish this Peace Conference would get a move on'. The following week would bring events in Paris to the forefront of everyone's mind.

Toomevara, North Tipperary

A local community hall is formally opened in Toomevara. A concert is held that draws large crowds from neighbouring Nenagh, Roscrea, and Cloughjordan. The editor of the @NenaghGuardian expresses disappointment there were no songs in Irish

New York

Ahead of the introduction of the Wartime Prohibition Act which will prohibit the sale of any beverage with an alcoholic content of over 1.28%, the New York Tribune publishes a cartoon depicting Americans streaming over the border to Mexico for alcohol

Paris

There is surprise and dismay among Allied representatives at the Peace Conference as Germany announces that the delegates they will send in the coming days will not have plenipotentiary powers, and can only review terms of Peace Treaty. Furthermore, the delegates, described as ‘Diplomatic Dust’ by Le Petit Journal, may propose counter-proposals to Allied demands and should they not be considered, Germany may not sign the treaty

Limerick

It is announced special Treasury Notes for use in during the ongoing soviet will be printed as legal tender. They are to range up to 10 shilling, and around border of each will be printed the words ‘General Strike Against British Militarism, April 1919’

Avoca, Wicklow

Motor cars carry hundreds of people to the Vale of Avoca for a scenic day out. It is reported that all of the local businesses and hotels were packed with visitors from Greystones, Bray, and Dublin

21st April 1919

Paris

After a great outcry from Allied Nations, a few hours after Germany announced that their delegates would not have plenipotentiary powers, they accept Allied terms and agree that their delegates would have the power to sign any treaty put before them. The German delegates will be Count Brockdorff Rantzau, the German Minister for Foreign Affairs, Johannes Giesberts, Minister of Posts, Carl Melchior, Financial and Economic Advisor to the German Government, Herr Leinert, President of the Prussian Assembly, and Professor Walther Schucking, an academic in International Law

22nd April 1919

London

The London Times publishes a note commenting on how they are receiving more letters on the Irish situation than letters on any other subject. Gerald Villiers-Stuart, of the noted Anglo-Irish family in Waterford, writes ‘Ireland has fallen backwards into the middle-ages because English politicians dangled Home Rule before Irish eyes and then allowed a hereditary enemy snatch it away

Eyeries, Cork

Following the wounding of 3 RIC Officers nearly a fortnight ago in Eyeries, a force of military move into the quiet village and seize three houses belonging to Patrick O'Neill. They then proceeded to remove all furniture from the house before leaving

Kilross, Tipperary

Maurice Crowe, and Patrick Moloney, most recently arrested on 8th March, are re-arrested and held in custody. It is not clear on what grounds the arrests have been made

Weyhill, Hampshire

Five RAF Officers are killed when their Handley-Page plane crashed into a telegraph pole on take off. The deceased were trapped in the plane when it crashed into a sleeping quarters and burst into flames

Limerick

As the Limerick Soviet continues, most of the people that had been refused entry to the city without military permits have made their way home by either boarding a train, or crossing the Shannon by boat.

Skibbereen

The local trades and labourers of the town agree in a meeting to fall in line with 'the workers of Ireland, and the world' and observe 1st May as a national holiday for the working classes

Limerick

General Frederick Shaw, Commander in Chief of Crown Forces in Ireland, visits Limerick. He states that the proclaimed area has a population of 38,000 and that 21,000 military permits have been issues (under 16s not requiring a permit)

Thomastown, Kilkenny

For the first time since his release from Lincoln Prison, Sean O'Mahony pays a visit to his native town. He is warmly welcomed by the local Sinn Féin club and is entertained by the prominent locals and the clergy

Kinvara, Galway

Florimund Quinn, and his herd, Tom Diviney, are shot at whilst they farmed in Kinvara. They are wounded and are recovering from their ordeal. It is believed that they were shot at in connection with the means Mr. Quinn had acquired the land

23rd April 1919

Cork

Arthur & Matthew Barlow, from Shrough, Tipperary, who were arrested on 3rd April, are sentenced 2 years imprisonment with hard labour. Their younger brother, John, who had initially been released, is given 6 month prison sentence, which is suspended in full

Paris

Hopes for the nearing end of the Peace Conference negotiations are hit by a significant blow - the apparent withdrawal of Italy from talks. The Italian PM, Vittorio Orlando, demands autonomy over the city of Fiume (modern day Rijeka in Croatia)

President Wilson believes that Italian sovereignty over Fiume and the immediate area would bottle up the emergence of a new nation, and could sow the seeds of a future war. Lloyd George is desperate to seek Wilson and Orlando to meet before the former departs Paris altogether

Cahir RIC Barracks, Tipperary

A woman called Alice O’Mahony of Kilmoyler presents herself to Cahir RIC Barracks claiming that she has killed her husband with an iron bar. RIC Officers and medical staff rush to the O’Mahony home to make the grim discovery of Alice’s husband, Edmond, on the floor, conscious, but in a grave condition. He died before being removed to hospital

Salthill Bay, Galway

There was considerable aerial excitement in Galway today as a plane descended over the city at a rapid pace. It was apparent, given the speed of the descent that something, was wrong. The plane, piloted by Arthur Brown (below without cap) and John Alcock (below with cap) crashes into the sea. The plane crashed into the sea after a mid-air somersault followed by a nose-dive into the water. Alcock made it out of the plane immediately, but Brown was initially trapped as it sunk under the water. He eventually escaped and both men survived to tell the tale and continue their aeronautic careers.

Mansion House, Dublin

T.J Ryan, Premier of Queensland, arrives in Dublin for a visit. He meets Lord Mayor in Mansion House (below) where he says Irish question was now one of international importance. Later that day he travels to Greystones to meet with de Valera

Arklow

Two RIC Officers, on sentry duty at Kynock’s Explosive factory, are attacked as they returned to their barracks. They are gagged and bound with rope and relieved of their rifles and bayonets. One of them eventually got loose from ropes and raised the alarm.

Arklow

Thomas New and Thomas Furlong, who had recently been released from prison in Belfast on health grounds are welcomed into the town by a crowd of 3,000 people headed by the local brass band. They were entertained in the local Sinn Féin rooms

Dublin

Charlotte Despard, prominent suffragette and sister of Lord French, is welcomed to a reception of the Irish Women’s Franchise League.

Limerick

7pm

Three men approach the military blockade on the way into Limerick City. The sentry requests military permits. Two of the men produce their permits and are permitted entry, the third man is turned away. A little while later, the sentry notices a man trying to enter the city through some fields. He was told to halt, at which the man began to run. In keeping with the policy put in place after the Collinstown Aerodrome Raid, the sentry fired at him, but missed. The sentry fired two further shots. However, the man evaded the shots and made his way into the city and safely took shelter in some houses.

24th April 1919

Notre Dame Cathedral, Paris

Irish Independent reports on special service in Notre Dame commemorating the 3rd Anniversary of the Easter Rising. The service, organised by Sean T. O’Kelly, was officiated by Monsignor Connolly, Chaplain-in-Chief American Armed Forces.

Paris

Tensions between American and Italian delegates take a drastic turn. Orlando makes good on his threat and withdraws from talks altogether. The disagreement arises over Italy’s insistence on keeping the city of Fiume on the Adriatic

Rome

American opposition to Italy’s claim over Fiume leads to anti-American protests in Rome. American, British and French Embassies are all guarded heavily to prevent damage from angry crowds. Italian King announces support for Orlando’s stance against Wilson.

Dublin

Blatant profiteering among dairy suppliers in the Dublin region becomes apparent. The cost of milk in Dublin is currently 9 pence per quart. In Cork, milk is 5 pence per quart

Islandeady

Two natives of the Mayo parish of Islandeady are sentenced to prison terms. Michael Staunton, president of West Mayo Sinn Féin, receives 6 months. Patrick Jordan receives 18 months in prison. Both sentences had a slight remittance upon them

Arklow

RIC Officers raid the Ancient Order of Hibernians hall searching for arms following a busy day in the town yesterday which involved a large SF event and an attack on 2 Officers. No arms are found, but a search of a house in Pound Hill yields a revolver

Fethard, Tipperary

A dance in the Town Hall in aid of the local marching band is prohibited by the military

Limerick

Thomas Johnson, Irish Labour Party, announces to press that all workers that can resume work in Limerick without a permit should do so tomorrow. He adds that workers that need a permit should refuse to work under such terms of slavery and subjugation

25th April 1919

Rome

As protests continue in the Italian capital over the stance of President Wilson on Italian claims over the city of Fiume, it is reported that the calling cry of the crowds is 'Long live America and down with Wilson!'

26th April 1919

Ballinagoul, Ring, Waterford

A fight breaks out in a small shebeen in the fishing village of Ballinagoul. Michael Walsh, a young fisherman runs to the local RIC Barracks for help in suppressing the row. Seeing a man running towards them, he is shot in the neck. Walsh is shot by a young Officer called McCarthy, who panicked at the sight of a young man running towards them. However, there was no indication that Walsh was given any sort of warning before the shot was discharged. Walsh's condition is said to be grave.

Bray

James Cleary, Main Street, is brought before court for selling butter with a water content of 19.3%. Legally, unadulterated butter contains no more than 15% water. Cleary claimed he was told when he purchased it from a local farm that it was fine to sell.

Limerick

The Limerick Soviet is all but over as businesses re-open across the city. Thomas Johnston has left the city. However, some workers are bitterly disappointing at the fizzling out of the stand that they had successfully taken.

Dublin

Dublin's Mater Misericordiae Hospital issues its first appeal for funds in three decades. The ad reveals that only about 2% of their expenses are funded by public funds from Dublin Corporation (£475 out of £23,894).

Soloheadbeg, Tipperary

Two small white crosses, erected in the memories of the two RIC Officers shot dead there in January, are removed by unknown assailants.

27th April 1919

Dublin

Sunday Independent publishes cartoon of John Bull (Britain) in bed, a mounted machine gun and other weapons on his locker covering a document ‘Cherished Principles of Liberty’, being woken up by Africa, Egypt, India, Ireland all demanding self-determination

Limerick

The Limerick Soviet officially ends. Strike Committee issues proclamation calling upon all workers to resume work tomorrow. They thank all who helped bring about the Soviet for the past fortnight, which was a ‘dignified protest against military tyranny’

Abbeyleix

Several showers of unseasonable snow disrupt a hurling game between Rathdowney and Kilcotton in the Leix and Ossory Hurling Championship. The game eventually ends in a draw

Arklow

The Wicklow area is badly affected by the winter storm that hit Ireland. Around the town, several trees were uprooted, and people were forced indoors due to heavy snow. In the rural hinterland, there are reportedly several cattle dying for want of fodder

Kells

Darrell Figgis gives a talk in the St. Vincent de Paul Hall in aid of the local Sinn Féin Club. During speech, he referred to the state of the banking system in Ireland. He spoke of how Irish banks were lending out too much Irish money to English investors

Ballinagoul, Ring, Waterford

The local District Inspector of the RIC visits the rural fishing village to question his men on the shooting of Michael Walsh yesterday. The area, described as one of the quietest in the country, resided in the main by Irish speaking fishermen, is in complete shock at the incident. Walsh’s condition continues to be very serious.

Aughnacliffe, Longford

An Aeridheacht is held in Aughnacliffe in Longford, near the Cavan border. Afterwards, Matt Brady and William McNally accompany a friend to his home. Given the late hour, both men return to the village hurriedly. 2 RIC Officers, emerging from a house, seeing men running, shoot them. Some Gaelic Leaguers, who were gathered in the village hall after the Aeridheacht emerge to see what has happened. A bullet grazed McNally's head and he was bleeding, but Brady is more seriously wounded. The local curate, Fr. Manning, rushes to the scene and administers the last rites, before Brady is taken away to Longford Infirmary where his condition is grave. It is the second incident of RIC Officers firing on civilians falsely perceiving a threat in as many days.Decades later, Michael Murphy, in his Witness Statement to the Bureau of Military History, states that Brady is paralysed for life following the incident. He identifies one of the RIC Officers as Sergeant McClean, an 'Orangeman', whose card was marked by local Volunteers

Vatican

Pope Benedict XV sends his blessing via telegram to the Archbishop of Dublin, William Walsh, who is very ill in his home in Drumcondra

Wicklow

The Wicklow Town Sinn Féin Club confirm that they have asked every newsagent in the town to stop importing any Sunday papers in future and to only stock Irish papers

Kilkenny

In a significant sign of changing political attitudes in Kilkenny, the previously popular United Irish League branch comes to an end. The Kilkenny People, in a scathing satirical account of its final meeting, says that only 7 attended 'the funeral'

Croke Park, Dublin

8,000 people attend hurling game in aid of Irish Republican Prisoners fund between Tipperary & Dublin. Dublin win by 6 points.

London

The unseasonable snowstorm that hit Ireland also causes havoc in Britain. The Times notes that snow began to fall in London around 1pm and did not cease for the rest of the day.

28th April 1919

Dublin

The Evening Herald publishes Ireland's 14 Points, that have been handed to the Secretary to President Wilson. The Points were entrusted the Irish American Delegation by Dr. Patrick McCartan, Dáil Éireann's envoy to America.

The headings of each point are;

  • 1.Ireland desires impartiality in the Peace Conference
  • 2.Ireland demands independence as a sovereign State
  • 3.Ireland’s record of services to mankind entitles her to recognition
  • 4.Ireland has a distinctive national individuality
  • 5.Ireland has adequate man power to maintain separate nationality
  • 6.Ireland’s economic and financial position is sound
  • 7.Ireland's industry and trade are sufficient to sustain separate statehood
  • 8.Ireland’s preparations for statehood are sufficient to guarantee stability
  • 9.Ireland has the right to self-preservation †the right to resist extermination
  • 10.Ireland demands that England now fulfill its international promise
  • 11.Ireland’s intentions towards the world are essentially peaceful
  • 12.England is disqualified as unfit to rule Ireland
  • 13.Ireland demands reparation from England to guarantee future security
  • 14.Summary of Ireland’s rights demanded of the Conference
  • 15.The Points, according to reports in New York, is prepared by Laurence Ginnell

As part of Ireland's demands, £500,000,000 is sought in reparations from Britain to secure the Irish State financially (Approximately €6.6 billion in modern terms).

Bridewell RIC Barracks, Dublin

The two men that were arrested yesterday in Beresford Place in connection with organising a socialist meeting are named as John Burns and Dermot O'Leary

Westport

P.J Doris, the Editor of the Mayo News newspaper, continues to be refused a permit to leave Westport and conduct his journalistic work around the county.

Longford

There is widespread confusion as reports reach Dublin that Matt Brady, the rate-collector that was shot and seriously wounded by RIC Officers in Aughnacliffe, has died. Reports to the contrary only were received in Dublin at 11pm

Swords, Dublin

Armed RIC Officers and military officials arrive at the home of Frank Lawless, M.P for Dublin North, and seize his piano in connection with an unpaid expenses bill for the Balrothery guardians.

33 Grattan Street, Cork City

8pm

As business wraps up after a busy Monday in Andy Aherne's Showmakers on the ground floor of 33 Grattan Street, opposite St. Francis' Church, 3 Cork City Volunteers frantically move about the kitchen behind the shop. The kitchen behind the shop has been used for several weeks as a bomb-making factory for the Volunteers. They had obtained a large quantity of gelignite, for use in quarry blasting, and they were using a motorised pestle and mortar to grind the chemicals into finer powders. The fine powder was stored in biscuit tins for future placement in shells.

The Volunteers received word that RIC Officers were about to carry out raids in the Grattan Street vicinity. Dick Murphy, local Company Captain, Micheál Tobin, and Sean O'Connell raced to the premises. They proceeded to empty the biscuit tins of their contents into thick linen bags. O'Connell was carefully emptying one of the boxes into a bag held by the other two when, suddenly, a huge explosion blew the three men several feet away and destroyed the kitchen. O'Connell was blown clean through a window, whilst Tobin and Murphy were badly burned. Two further Volunteers, and a local Cumann na mBan member, Mrs. Hegarty, were just about to enter the room and narrowly escaped injury. The kitchen's back wall was blown away. The building was a tenement, and contained 5 flats, housing up to 15 people. One tenant, washing Mary McMahon, who was washing clothes in an upstairs room, fell through the floor along with a considerable amount of debris but was miraculously not seriously injured.

RIC Officers rushed to the scene. Upon initial inspection they immediately suspected that there it was illegal explosive material that caused the disaster. They set about speaking to all of the injured. Murphy, who had been taken to North Infirmary was removed by Volunteers. As was O'Connell from the Sisters of Mercy that night. However, Micheál Tobin was too badly injured to be removed and the Volunteers were forced to leave him. Tobin's condition was worst of the three Volunteers by far and his wounds are life-threatening

Westport

A replacement, as Resident Magistrate for Westport, for J.C Milling who was shot dead a few weeks ago is announced; R.W Glass, a barrister from Banbridge

29th April 1919

Paris

Peace Conference delegates agree that the former Kaiser, Wilhelm II, will not face execution as a result of war provocation, but they reserve the right to reprimand him over same.

Dublin

It is reported that Soviet Council of People's Commissars, headed by its Vladimir Lenin, has decided to commit monthly sums abroad from Bureau of General Foreign Propaganda. The first month's payment of half a billion roubles is allegedly sent to Sinn Féin

Dublin Port

A report from the Port confirms that in 1918, Ireland imported 1,066,541 tons of coal. Other totals include 2,400 tons of wine, 4,100 tons of rum, 8,500 tons of soap, 1,700 tons of tobacco, and 6,200 tons of rice

Newtown Sandes, North Kerry

What the Kerryman calls, the 'wage-craze' among the farming classes of North Kerry manifests itself if an extraordinary assembly at 7.30am in the otherwise quite village of Newtown Sandes. 140 farmers marched through Main St. with pikes. The march was sparked amidst rumours that two local creameries were about to be dismantled amidst increased labour unrest in the region

Limerick

Arthur Johnson, the final man held in custody in connection with the Limerick Workhouse shootings is released. He had been arrested in the house where Robert Byrne had died.

30th April 1919

Dublin

John Pentland Mahaffy, Provost of Trinity College for the past five years, dies at the age of 80.

1st May 1919

Westminster

Captain Willie Redmond, M.P, queries exact number of children that had been detained by crown forces in Ireland since the beginning of the year. Nobody was prepared to answer Redmond, to which he asked was the post of Irish Minister effectively abandoned

Dublin

No newspapers are printed in Dublin as part of observance of Labour Day. Below shows people eager for their daily dose of news when the Belfast newspapers arrive into Amiens St. Train Station around noon

Dublin

The Irish Independent, not known for its support of Trade Unions historically up to that point, in a summary of May Day, says that the day, conceived as a holiday for the working people, was a failure

Westminster

Austen Chamberlain, Chancellor of Exchequer, announces Britain’s first ever budget that anticipates revenue in excess of 1 billion pounds. Although, little mention is made specifically of Ireland, it is expected that the island will contribute at least fifty million pounds.

Dublin

There is a general closure of business in the capital as part of May Day celebrations. All building and tradesmen downed tools, all public houses closed, as did chemists, draperies, grocers and all of the major factories. An obvious exception to this was all public bodies, and banks. The Under Secretary for Ireland had issued a decree that any person not presenting themselves for work would be liable to dismissal.

College St., Dublin

Two women called Kearney and Clarke were arrested for selling red Labour Day flags on College Street without permission. They are remanded to the nearby DMP Station in Great Brunswick St.

Croke Park

A large Aeridheacht is held in Croke Park to celebrate Labour Day. Some of the festivities are curbed, however, following notification to the Secretary of the GAA, Luke O’Toole by the DMP that military would observe proceedings ‘in readiness’

Nenagh

A thousand workers march through the streets of Nenagh as part of May Day celebrations. Members of Trade Unions from Newport carried a red banner with an image of James Connolly upon it.

Tullamore

Up to 5,000 workers marched through streets of Tullamore. Like in most towns, warnings not to carry red banners were not heeded. All of the marchers assembled to hear an address by James Connor, Chair of the King’s County Trade Union Council

Enniskillen

The inclusivity of May Day demonstrations was noted by Mr. Nethercott, local Trade Union organiser. He noted how Labour was beyond party politics and commended Orangemen and Sin Féiners alike for working together in interest of the working man

Cleveland, Ohio

There are major riots as part of May Day demonstrations in which two people are killed. Violence broke out when police insisted that marchers stop displaying red Labour flags

Nenagh

For the first time, in his Monthly Report to Dublin Castle, the North Tipperary County Inspector, Ernest Mulliner, writes that ‘the state of the [area] has not been satisfactory’ and that there is a strong undercurrent of disloyalty

2nd May 1919

Paris

It is announced that three members of Irish American delegation, Frank Walsh, Edward Dunne and Michael Ryan, are to visit Ireland upon invitation from de Valera. They will land in Dublin tomorrow and intend on visiting the west of the country to view conditions

Paris

German plenipotentiaries formally hand in their credentials to the allied negotiators. The five minute meeting is the first between the Germans and the Allies of the Peace Conference. It is reported that they will be given 15 days to sign the treaty

Belfast

Ten Republican prisoners are moved from Belfast prison to a facility in Manchester. Among them is Austin Stack. There is much frustration at this move, given the release of Irish prisoners from England following the death of Pierce McCan

Westminster

Sylvia Pankhurst is arrested at entrance to House of Commons. She is arrested with another suffragette, Amelia O’Mahoney. Both charged with obstructing police from duties to which they said they were perfectly entitled enter House and conduct business

Aghadavoyle, Armagh

The home of Robert Turner, a large farmer in the district, is raided by 8 armed and masked men. They get away with only a single shotgun. This is the third such raid for arms in the area in as many weeks

Kilkenny

The Kilkenny People report on story of a night out for 2 returning soldiers. They were both ‘helpless with drink’, but with a mutual effort at bringing one another home, they managed to propel themselves forward but not without rubbing shoulders with most of windows of street. When charged the following day one of the men said he had been in France for 3 years and had been gassed & wounded. When he took drink it affected his head and that stout made him giddy. They were fined 5s. each

3rd May 1919

Paris

The French press reports that Peace Treaty is nearly drafted. Some of guarantees underpinning Treaty are that Germany must not seek an alliance with Russia, Austria must not seek an alliance with Germany, and that Alsace-Lorraine will remain in French hands

Kingstown, Dublin

The mailboat, Connaught, pulls into Kingstown Harbour. Aboard are the Irish American delegation to the Paris Peace Conference, Frank Walsh, Edward Dunne, and Michael Ryan. They are greeted by De Valera on the pier

Borrisofarney, North Tipperary

The RIC conduct a raid on the premises of Hugh Kelly, a local farmer. Kelly is arrested after a revolver is discovered and brought by armed guard to Nenagh. From there, he was removed to Cork for courtmarital.

4th May 1919

Dublin

The Sunday Independent publishes the 'Rainbow Chaser' cartoon depicting the ordinary man in his futile efforts to grasp world peace, depicted as a rainbow on the horizon. The cartoon emulates the uncertainty that Peace Conference will secure a lasting peace

Paris

It is reported that the delay in handing the Treaty over to the Germans is due to the desire of Britain, France and the United States, that Italy should be present at the Conference for final stages. An invitation is extended to the Italian Government to return

Annamoe, Wicklow

The Irish American Delegation, accompanied by de Valera, en route to a tour of Glendalough, stop in to the Barton home in Glendalough House, in Annamoe. They are entertained by Robert Barton's sister, Dulcibella

5月4日1919 (4th May 1919)

北京 (Beijing)

As rumours grow that Shandong Province is to be granted to Japan as part of the Peace Treaty in Paris, thousands of student protesters congregate at The Tiananmen, the entrance to the Forbidden City. Up to 4,000 protesters demand that the Treaty be revised, and that China receive the Shandong. They burn Japanese goods and denounce 'traitors at home' that have weakened China on the international stage. The event is seen as one of the seminal moments in modern Chinese history

5th May 1919

Limerick

The evening press contradicts earlier reports that the special military area of Limerick had been lifted. In reality, the military area restrictions remained in place, albeit restrictions on entry into the city have been lifted

Belfast

Michael Ryan, and Edward Dunne, two members of the Irish American Delegation visit Belfast. They were accompanied to the North by W.T Cosgrave and Richard Mulcahy, in a train from Amiens St. Station. Prominent Belfast Sinn Féiner, Denis McCullough, organised the trip, and met the delegation on their arrival to Great Victoria St. Station. They dined in the Metropole Hotel and spoke with locals. However, the Lord Mayor, John C. White, refuses to meet the delegation

Bailieborough, Cavan

A concert, during which Laurence Ginnell, was due to speak at, is forcibly prohibited by the military. Crown Forces with fixed bayonets and armoured cars with machine guns prevented entry to the hall. Ginnell (below), during the melee that ensued, shouted out comparing the treatment of the Irish as 'British Prussianism'. No injuries are reported.

Delvin, Westmeath

6 men are charged with making an illegal collection after mass on Easter Sunday last. When questioned had they a permit, one of the defendants, Laurence Ginnell (nephew of M.P) said they had, from de Valera, the highest authority in the land

Grattan St., Cork

RIC Officers inspecting the scene of last week's explosion make a startling discovery underneath the damaged floorboards of the ground-floor kitchen; a trunk containing 64 partly completed bombs, and 75 live bombs, and a stick of gelignite

Castletownbere, Cork

As part of ongoing military restrictions in the area, all licensed public houses are prohibited from opening. Patrols of the area of military and RIC Officers ensure that no alcohol is sold to any parties

Eyeries, West Cork

A dance, being held at a crossroads near Eyeries RIC Barracks, is broken up by RIC Officers charging at them with batons. One onlooker is badly wounded with a blow to the head in the incident

China

Following yesterday's protests in Beijing, a general strike of students begins in several cities across China. They are joined in their protest by several sections of workers sympathetic with the students' ideals

6th May 1919

London

Morning Post newspaper in London issues a scathing editorial on visit of the Irish American delegates. The say; 'The British people are likely to resent the intervention of Americans, whether Irish-American, or even the President of the American Republic in British affairs. These affairs are our own business, and the business of nobody else. And if Mr. Lloyd George should sink so low as to have any truck with this attempt by foreign emissaries to intervene in our domestic affairs he is betraying the sovereign powers entrusted to him by his King and the nation.'

Dublin

John Cotter, Belvedere Court, is courtmartialed in connection with a speech that he made on the Iona Road, Glasnevin, on treatment of prisoners in Belfast. During the speech he referred to deaths of Coleman, Ashe, and McCan and how His Majesty was responsible

Rome

King Victor and Vittorio Orlando agree that Italy shall return to the Peace Conference. It is agreed that Fiume is to come under the jurisdiction of the League of Nations for 16 years, after which it would be handed over to the Italians

Paris

Marshal Ferdinand Foch, the Commander of Allied Forces, expresses grave concern over the finalised terms of peace treaty and potential lack of securities in place for the future safety of France. He recommends that the Treaty is not signed

Dublin

Agricultural labourers in Clondalkin, Lucan, and Palmerstown continue to be on strike over conditions. The Irish Farmer's Union decide that they will lock out any members of the ITGWU unless the labourers resume work by the end of the week

Maryborough

11am

When the train arrives in the main station in Queen's County, they are greeted with a great display of tricolours and American flags and a guard of honour formed by Laois Volunteers, Cumann na mBan and na Fianna

7th May 1919

9am, Kingsbridge Train Station, Dublin

Two of the Irish American Delegates leave Dublin en-route to Cork. They are accompanied by Richard Mulcahy and W.T Cosgrave

Limerick Junction

1.30pm

After passing through Emly and Knocklong Stations, the train stops in Limerick Junction. There were very large crowds, with the military keeping a close eye on proceedings. Edward Dunne spoke of the ideals of a Republican form of government

Thurles

1pm

Local members of Sinn Féin formed a welcome party as the train briefly stopped in Thurles. A large tricolour, draped over an old castle wall caught the attention of the duly impressed delegates

Cork Train Station

4pm

When the Delegates' train arrives, they are greeted by the Lord Mayor of Cork, William O'Connor. They make their way through the city in a car decorated with American flags. The crowds throng the South Mall in the Delegates’ wake

That evening, the Delegates are special guests at a mass gathering on Grand Parade which was presided over by Liam de Roiste. At the meeting, Michael Ryan reiterated his desire to ensure that Ireland governs herself in the same republican way that the United States governs itself

Cork City Hall

4.30pm

As the American flag is hoisted over Cork City Hall, the Delegates arrive where they sign the Visitors' Book. After lunch a meeting of the City Council convenes and hears from the 2 Delegates

8th May 1919

Cork

Before their Departure for Limerick, Edward Dunne, one of Irish American delegates, attends an exhibition hurling game between North Mon. and Farranferris. He meets with captains of teams afterwards along with Liam de Roiste & John McCarthy, Chairman Cork GAA

Limerick

The Irish American Delegates, Frank Walsh having re-joined them following his return from a brief business trip to London, receive the Freedom of Limerick City from the Lord Mayor

Waterford

Another American politician is also in Ireland at present, in private capacity. James P. Glynn, Congressman from Connecticut, is on holidays in Waterford. He gave a speech in Waterford Volunteer Hall, and honoured George Murphy, who was released from prison

Corporation Street, Belfast

A Canadian soldier, on leave in a premises on Donegall Street, becomes strange in demeanour and walks out onto Corporation Street when he proceeds to begin running and attacking people with his service knife. 5 people are wounded

9th May 1919

Liverpool

Eamonn Bulfin, Birr, is deported from England to Argentina. He is placed aboard the Reseada bound for Buenos Aires. Bulfin was former leader of UCD Volunteers, and raised green flag over GPO 3 years earlier during Rising

Mansion House

The Irish American Delegates arrive to Mansion House for special sitting of Dáil. As they entered they are greeted by huge crowds of well-wishers. Such was volume of crowds, Volunteers linked arms to allow traffic to proceed along Dawson Street

Round Room, Mansion House

In welcoming the Delegates, de Valera says ‘Our friends have been but a few days amongst us, but in these few days I am perfectly certain that they have experienced and that they understand the warmth and the sincerity of their welcome.’

He added ‘Until recently, as John Mitchell said fifty years ago, England possessed the ear of the world, into which she poured her story. Today that is no longer true. England is no longer able to pour any story she wishes into the ear of the world, and we must tell the world that success meant Ireland's freedom’

Arthur Griffith begins his speech by referring to the Armenian people. The devastation caused by the Ottoman Empire was published widely in the English press, and led to a great increase in recruitment. When the Armenian people sought British help recently to create their own state, the British told them that they needed no state as they had been exterminated.

He goes on to say ‘Ireland has been cheated often she is not going to be cheated again, neither will she be deceived by promises. To some of us the saddest incidents of the war were deaths of Irishmen, who, believing England's promises, fought in England's army in the hopes that there is no nation in Europe which has suffered so much under an existing Empire as this nation of ours’

Thank God you have visualised to us that you have the direction. We are not here to give advice, because, thank God, you have been well advised by your own trusted leaders already; but we are here to ask our powerful Government to say to the other Governments of the world, that President de Valera, Count Plunkett and Arthur Griffith have been selected to represent the Government elected by an overwhelming majority of the Irish people; and to request that they be permitted, with all the dignity attached to that representation, to proceed to Paris.

In his speech, Frank Walsh says ‘I say, my friends, that we are returning to Paris. We came with a direct mandate; we are not here to give direction.

Michael Collins begins his speech by saying ‘The task falls to me of showing how, while this destruction was going on, we were at the same time paying enormous sums in over-taxation, and were, in addition, being drained of our Capital to an appalling extent.’

UCD, Earlsfort Terrace

As the Irish American Delegation emerge from the Mansion House, they enter a car with de Valera and proceed to a reception in UCD’s main building in Earlsfort Terrace. They are greeted on arrival by Sean O’Dea, President of the Student’s Body, and academics including Dr. Douglas Hyde

Shortly after Delegates leave building, 3 military motors speed up Dawson Street and pull up. Over 20 soldiers alight, along with several DMP detectives. The Lord Mayor demands an explanation as the men proceed to enter the building. They say they are searching for wanted men

St. Stephen’s Green

6.50pm

The Delegation make their way back to Mansion House. Dawson Street has been closed off for nearly 2 hours by military as they continue to search Mansion House. An airbound shot was also fired as military tried to contain the large crowds

The Delegation’s motor car is stopped. The Officer in Charge says the Delegates can proceed, but de Valera cannot. Frank Walsh takes exception and demands de Valera be granted entry too. After 30 mins, the military withdraw and allow them all to pass

10th May 1919

City Hall, Dublin

Noon

The Irish American Delegation are received by Dublin Corporation in City Hall (below). Afterwards the make a short visit to Mountjoy Prison before taking a train to Galway for the western leg of their Irish visit

11th May 1919

Waterford

The man who was shot by RIC Officer in Ballinagoul a few weeks ago, Michael Walsh, has died. He had been doing well for past days and doctors were confident of recovery. However, yesterday, Walsh contracted an infection which grew worse until his death

Shrough, Tipperary

Patrick Noonan, a farmer’s son, and brother to a man arrested several weeks ago, is arrested and is brought under armed escort to Cork prison

Ballyedmond Castle, Killowen

All companies of the Newry Volunteer Battalion mobilise in the town and proceed in groups to Ballyedmond Castle, home of Lieutenant Nugent, who fought in the Great War, on the banks of Carlingford Lough. When they arrived they found the premises guarded by only a caretaker, the Nugents having left for the weekend. Up to 90 Volunteers conducted a thorough search of the property and grounds. Newry Volunteer, Edward Fullerton, and three other Volunteers broke up concrete floor of the basement throughout the night, but found no storage unit underneath. As dawn broke, the Volunteers retreated. They left with a small quantity of arms, and used a boat in the lough to transport them to Louth

Waterford

13 RIC Officers raid the headquarters of the Waterford News newspaper. They begin to dismantle the printing press. When a reason was demanded by the Editor, Edmund Downey, he was told it was due to the printing of seditious material. The newspaper would not be printed again until August

Galway

At midnight, the Irish American Delegation’s train pulls into Galway Train Station. There, they are greeted by thousands of well wishers. They were escorted to the Railway Hotel, whose entrance was decorated with American flags

Knappagh, Mayo

The Irish American delegation are stopped at a military checkpoint in Knappagh, 3 miles outside Westport, their intended destination. They are accompanied by Father Michael Flanagan, W.T Cosgrave, and Eoin MacNeill. Frank Walsh demanded to speak with the leading military officer in the town. Whilst they all awaited the despatch rider to make his way into Westport, a crowd of locals had begun to walk out to Knappagh to meet the delegation waving tricolours and American flags. They were stopped by military with revolvers drawn and a major incident seemed imminent. Cosgrave explains to officers blocking their way that they had been issued with diplomatic passports, approved of by both President Wilson and Lloyd George. The Officer in charge responded ‘I know you were coming, but this place is under military control and my orders are that you cannot go through tonight’.

Once the military officer came and reiterated that there would be no entry a scuffle almost broke out, but eventually retreated and made their way to Castlebar.

Kilshennan, South Tipperary

Seamus Robinson, Dan Breen, Sean Hogan and Sean Treacy, the so called ‘Big 4’ á la the Big 4 at the Peace Conference, are still on the run from Crown Forces following their involvement in the Soloheadbeg Ambush. They have been harboured in safe houses across Tipperary and West Limerick for the past few months. They are in the vicinity of the Kilnamanagh Battalion of the South Tipperary Volunteers under the protection of Mick Davern. Mick is hosting a dance that night in Ballagh, and he asksthe four to attend. Robinson believes that they are in a very safe district and they decide to attend. Sean Hogan, a few days from his 18th Birthday, thoroughly enjoyed the dance and met with a young woman called O’Keefe. He accompanied her to another dance in Meaghar’s in nearby Annfield

12th May 1919

Annfield, South Tipperary

Sean Hogan eventually falls asleep in the kitchen of the Meagher’s farmhouse in Annfield. In the early morning, Hogan is awoken by cries that RIC Officers were approaching to raid the house. Hogan rushed out of the house with his revolved out the back door but ran straight into a group of officers who detailed him and brought him to Thurles Barracks

Kilshenane, South Tipperary

Seumas Robinson, Dan Breen and Sean Treacy are awoken by Paddy Kinane who informs them that Sean Hogan has been arrested. The three men rise instantly and process the news their comrade is in custody. Cursing Hogan’s insistence on going to the Annfield dance with the young woman, Robinson is reminded of Hogan’s own words ‘Ireland will never be free until she can produce a Robert Emmet who doesn't give a damn about women!’ They determine Hogan will be taken to either three places; Tipp Town, Dublin, Cork. Robinson believes that if he is taken Tipp Town they would have the ability to rescue him from custody, and if brought to Dublin he believes they could storm courthouse with sufficient numbers. However, as it becomes clear he will be taken to Cork, they decide that the must stop Hogan from reaching there and determine that they must mount a rescue attempt in Knocklong Train Station the following evening

Mayo

The Irish American Delegation depart Castlebar en-route to Dublin. They are sent on their way with music and an illuminated address by the local Urban Council. The train stopped again in Castlerea, where Michael Ryan said he knew several residents. On the train platform he gave a speech denouncing the rise of militarism in Europe and urged all Irish people to stick together in the cause of Irish freedom. As they passed through Balla and Claremorris, the train briefly stopped to allow the delegation give words of thanks to the hundreds of people gathered

Athlone

As Irish American delegation were changing in Athlone for train to Dublin, Frank Walsh apologised for not being able spend their final day in Athlone, but that they needed return to Paris to make their demands on behalf of 20 million of their ‘kith and kin’

Dundalk

Frank Walsh, the leader of the Irish American delegation, joined De Valera in travelling to Louth for an audience with the Primate of All Ireland, Cardinal Logue. Walsh and DeValera make a very short address to a crowd outside the Imperial hotel in the town

Rathfarnham

Edward Dunne and Michael Ryan, ahead of their departure for Paris, visit St. Enda’s in Rathfarnham, where they dine with Margaret Pearse and Áine Ceannt. Afterwards, they return to Fitzwilliam Square before heading to Kingstown Harbour.

Lower Fitzwilliam Street, Dublin

A very illustrative incident showing difficulties that Republican movement faced in maintaining order upon their supporters takes place in Fitzwilliam Square shortly after the departure of the Irish American delegation. As crowds departed Fitzwilliam Square following the Irish American delegation’s departure, a large Union Jack is spotted hanging from window highlighted below, in 8 Fitzwilliam Street Lower, currently home to European Movement Ireland. The crowd began to shout up at window demanding its removal. An elderly lady calmly looked out window at crowd of several hundred with a bemused expression, entirely indifferent to their demands. However, the crowd began to throw stones at the window and as it smashed the woman fled. Several more stones were thrown smashing other windows of the building before a young man appeared at the door demanding they stop, which they did. But just as peace settled, another woman, in No. 10 Fitzwilliam Sq., opened her window and folded her arms defiantly at the crowd. She wore British coloured ribbons on her blouse and her appearance gave cause to humour in the crowd. But some of crowd turned their stone throwing to this property. When 4 men approached No. 10 and demanded entry, a priest emerged and demanded they leave area.

13th May 1919

Morning

Seamus Robinson, Dan Breen, and Sean Treacy make their way to home of Danny Molony, about a mile from Knocklong Train Station. They keep watch upon each train as it pulled up into station and made plans for a rescue attempt of Sean Hogan

Emly Train Station

James Scanlon, JJ O'Brien, Sean Lynch and Ed Foley, all from Galtee Battalion of the East Limerick Volunteers board a train, whose next stop would be Knocklong Station. Their job is to identify the carriage within which Sean Hogan was being held

8pm

Knocklong Train Station

The Cork-bound train from Thurles pulls into Knocklong station. On the platform are a number of Volunteers including Seán Treacy and Ned O’Brien, of the Galtee Battalion. They receive a signal indicating which carriage Hogan is on and they immediately storm the train. The charging Volunteers come upon Hogan’s position. He is held by 4 armed RIC Officers. Constable Michael Enright, standing closest to Hogan, is shot dead immediately. A hand-to-hand scuffle ensues. Sean Treacy and Sergeant Peter Wallace tangle over a gun, which discharged leaving Wallace seriously wounded. Treacy, also injured with a bullet wound to the neck, is further injured along with other Volunteers when another RIC Officer, in a dazed state, Constable Reilly fires indiscriminately at the train from the platform. Dan Breen returns fire causing Reilly to retreat, but not before Breen is hit in the chest. Amidst the chaos, the Volunteers flee. The Volunteers rendezvous in a rural area outside Knocklong where Treacy and Breen are treated by sympathetic doctors.

Ballinagoul, Ring, Waterford

An inquest is held into the death of Michael Walsh, who died two days ago following his shooting on 27th April. In his official statement, Constable McCarthy, the young officer who shot Walsh, stated that Walsh had approached the barracks and shouted ‘You must give up your arms, and come out and fight me’. However, Walsh said that he had raced to the Barracks after a row had broken out in the Draper’s Bar between two naval officers in the local licensed premises. When asked what he wanted by McCarthy, Walsh said ‘a row on the bridge’. McCarthy then shot him. The Jury found that McCarthy had deliberately shot Walsh who was unarmed. The RIC Representative sought to have the word ‘deliberately’ removed from the verdict but his request was struck out

Berlin

Friedrich Ebert, President of Germany, denounces peace terms on offer. He reiterates that Germany cannot sign the treaty in its current format and that President Wilson’s desertion of his own 14 Points may incur the eventual wrath of the German people

Armagh

Frank Walsh has a lengthy meeting with Cardinal Logue. Walsh speaks about his relationship with Cardinal Gibbons, and how he had attended the Philadelphia Conference. Logue blessed Walsh on his journey to Paris and in his efforts on behalf of Irish people

14th May 1919

Ship Street Barracks, Dublin

Two Court Martials are held one of Pierce Beasly M.P, and the other of Daniel Pius Walsh. When charges are put to Beasley he replied that he did not recognise the court, and that the British Army had no right to try an elected representative and soldier for the people of Ireland

Paris

Marshal Ferdinand Foch is given power to militarily ensure that terms of Peace Treaty are maintained, even if Germany refuse to sign. It is reported President Wilson, yesterday told Foch ‘take all military actions necessary in case the Huns do not sign treaty’

Killmallock

5.30pm

Sergeant Peter Wallace, who received a gunshot to the stomach in a struggle with Sean Treacy yesterday on board a train in Knocklong Train Station dies. He is the second fatality from the rescue of Sean Hogan and becomes the fifth IRIC Officer to die in War of Independence. All five were Irish-born

London

King George V telegrams Lord French expressing his sympathy on the shooting dead of RIC Officers in Knocklong. Lord French’s reply notes thanks from all of his Loyal Subjects in Ireland.

Westport

In echoes of the recent case of two Tipperary children being held by Crown Forces without charge for weeks, Michael McLaughlin, father of John, wins a case of habeus corpus in connection with John’s detention by police. John was detained by police on 3rd April in connection with the shooting dead of J.C Milling. Despite giving his whereabouts on the night, police had been trying to get McLaughlin to amend his statement

Newport, North Tipperary

A party of fully armed soldiers from Nenagh patrol the village of Newport during a meeting in the Town Hall where Joseph McDonagh, M.P, was making a speech. It was McDonagh’s second event of the day, having already spoken at Kilcommon

15th May 1919

Galbally, Limerick

The Archbishop of Cashel, John Harty, denounces shooting dead of 2 RIC Officers in Knocklong. He said it did not matter that British forces were subjugating Irish people, 2 wrongs did not make a right, he urged young men turn away from bloodshed

Portmarnock, North Dublin

Play commences in the Irish Professional Golf Championship.

Knocklong

Authorities scouring countryside as part of investigation into Train Station incident. There are persistent rumours 2 of the raiding party, namely Dan Breen and Sean Treacy, are dead. In reality the 2 men have fled to rural West Limerick & are recovering

Cork

Frederick Murray, a mason by trade, is arrested and charged in connection with the shooting of two RIC Officers in the early morning of 30th March on the Western Road. The incident was, at the time, the most serious in the city since hostilities began

Westport

20 men are prosecuted in Westport by the new R.M in connection with being in the town without military permits. The men, mainly farmers, all stated they were in town purchase agricultural items and were refused permits when applied. Fines ranged up to 5 s.

Arklow

7 young local men are court-martialled in connection with illegal church-gate collection outsideChurch on 23rd March. The men smoke cigarettes during proceedings & had their hats forcibly removed. They're remanded in Mountjoy after refusing recognise court. They are James Walsh, Thomas Quigley, John Keyes, Robert Tyrell, Denis Keogh, J.J Kavanagh, and William Cleary. Several women are ejected from proceedings as they jeered the presiding magistrate throughout

Dublin

The Irish Independent publishes editorial ‘The Next War’ commenting upon how ink is barely dry on text of document designed to bring about peace and the great powers are making agreements to defend each other when inevitable occurs in a number of years time

Paris

German Delegates in Paris demand that an international tribunal be set up immediately into the question of responsibility for the Great War. Anxieties are continuing to run high in the French capital that the Germans will not sign the Treaty. He speaks about a man who stayed awake for three days batting as rats as his wife lay dying in the bed beside him. He urges to government to begin a scheme of social housing to commence immediately

Westminster

Sir Maurice Dockrell, Unionist M.P for Dublin Rathmines, and only Dublin representative in the House of Commons, gives a speech on the deplorable conditions of housing in the slums of the city

16th May 1919

North Infirmary, Cork City

11pm

A doctor, doing his rounds, comes upon a group of 3 young men. When he asks upon whose authority are they here one of them produces a revolver and says ‘this is our authority!’. They take Timothy Hegarty, a patient there, away. Hegarty was one of the people that were injured during the bomb-making explosion in 33 Grattan Street on 28th April.

Oldtown, North Dublin

Officers raid the home of Mary Adrien and seize her bicycle, sewing machine and hatstand. It is in connection with a similar payment to that which found Frank Lawless relieved of his piano on 28th April

17th May 1919

Paris

The Echo de Paris newspaper reports that the Ottoman Empire will cease to exist as part of the terms of the Peace Treaty. In its place the independent state of Turkey will be formed. The rest of the region will be divided into;

  • Palestine - Under British jurisdiction
  • Mesopotamia -Under British jurisdiction
  • Armenia - Under American protection
  • Syria - Under French jurisdiction
  • Anatolian Frontier - Under French jurisdiction
  • Adalia - Under Italian jurisdiction

Ballinrobe, Mayo

The first Republican Court, independent of the British judicial system, convenes in Ballinrobe

18th May 1919

Dublin

The Sunday Independent publishes a cartoon of America viewing a Kinetoscope of events in Ireland which he describes as resembling the Western Front. All the while, Britain urges his ally that there is nothing exceptional to see in Ireland at present

Berlin

Phillip Scheidemann, German Chancellor, denounces the terms of the Paris Peace Treaty at a public meeting outside the Reichstag in Berlin

Dolphin's Barn, Dublin

Una Nic Con Midhe, a member of the Dolphin's Barn Cumann na mBan, is sentenced to a weeks imprisonment in connection with non-payment of a fine she was handed for selling Irish flags without a license

London

In response to a question in the House of Commons, Military Authorities confirm that the total number of British troops in Ireland is 58,362 (in 2019 there are 8,898 soldiers in Irish Defense Forces, 13,751 members of Gardaí, 6,700 members of PSNI)

19th May 1919

12.30am

Mid-Atlantic Ocean

Harry Hawker and Kenneth Mackenzie-Grieve, are several hours and 800 miles into their first earnest trans-Atlantic flight attempt. Hawker is piloting a 32-foot long Sopwith Atlantic biplane. Trouble arises, however, when the water coolant in their radiator begins to boil for a second time. For a number of hours Hawker tries to amend his flying pattern to clear up to boiling water, but to no avail. As dawn approached the pilots faced a difficult decision

6am

850 Miles of Irish Coast

Harry Hawker comes to the decision that with his water coolant boiling away, to continue his attempt to cross the Atlantic would damage the engine and lead to him crashing into the sea. He, along with co-pilot, Kenneth Mackenzie-Grieve, zig-zag the plane in an attempt to find any passing ship so that they could attempt a water landing and be rescued. Miraculously, amidst heavy sea swell, the shape of the SS Mary, and old Danish ship came into view. Hawker landed the plane 200 yards from the Mary, and the Danish crew, en-route from Norfolk to Aarhuus, pulled the pilots aboard. The old ship was, however,was ill equipped for communication and lacked a radio. News of the rescue would not be possible until the ship docked somewhere

3pm

Dublin

Harry Hawker was expected to reach Ireland by early afternoon, and without any communication or sign of the plane, fears grow that the plane is lost at sea.

19th May 1919

London

Yesterday's Sunday Pictorial story on Sinn Féin is laughably dismissed in Dublin. The paper claims, under a heading 'Oriental Sinn Féiners' that De Valera is inviting Egyptian and Indian nationalists to be members of Sinn Féin and Dáil Éireann. The official Sinn Féin reply is 'How can any reputable correspondent write such stuff? It is, what he calls himself, political tomfoolery, written and published for purpose of causing a new sensation'.

Berlin

Senior German officials continue to denounce the terms of the Peace Treaty on offer. President Ebert says 'a cry of indignation rings through Germany at the peace conditions - this product of our enemies' revengeful hysteria'

Knocklong

During a visitation from the Archbishop of Cashel, Rev. Dr. John Harty congratulated the people of Knocklong for having nothing to do with the recent shootings, denouncing the incident as an imported crime.

Westport

The most extensive search of the Mayo town to date takes place as military forces raid practically every building in the centre of the town.

Kingstown, Dublin

Crown Forces prohibit all future lectures in the local Sinn Féin hall. The talks, which proved to be very popular in the area, had been organised by the local Sinn Féin leader, Fred Allan.

Feenagh, Limerick

Military forces prohibit the holding of an aeridheacht in the village of Feenagh as they occupied the area. The people, not deterred, moved to a remote field in the parish and held their aeridheacht there instead

Tipperary

North Mon hurling team defeat Mount St. Joseph's of Roscrea in the second Harty Cup Final. Dr. Harty, presented the trophy to the winning captain. The young men from Cork won by 3-2 to 2-2.

20th May 1919

Paris

With one day left for the Germans to sign the Peace Treaty, there are indications that an extension will be sought as the Germans continue to refute most of the terms put before them. Marshal Foch continues to assure the press that Allied forces are ready to re-engage should they decide to pull back altogether from negotiations

Paris

Reuters correspondent in Paris indicates American officials are considering seeking permission for de Valera to visit Peace Conference and put to them Ireland’s case. The correspondent adds, however, that such permission is likely to be denied by the British

Mercy Hospital, Cork

Micheál Tobin, who was injured during the Grattan St. Bomb Making Factory explosion, dies of his wounds. After, Robert Byrne, who died in Limerick during a rescue attempt, he is the second Volunteer to die during the War of Independence

Cork Lunatic Asylum

John Moylan, a Volunteer from Newmarket, escapes custody. He had been transferred there from Cork County Jail to stay in solitary confinement following a breach of prison rules

Kilrush, Clare

Five men from the hinterlands of Kilrush are sentenced following their courtmartial on May 8th. Arthur O’Donnell receives 2 yrs with hard labour. John Grogan, Michael Mahony, Joe Sexton, Thomas Howard all receive 18 months with hard labour

Enniskerry, Wicklow

Alfred H. Anderson is arrested in connection with an unlawful assembly a few weeks ago in Sligo. He is removed to Bray under an armed escort

Rathdrum, Wicklow

John Walsh, Market Street, Rathdrum, is arrested on a charge of illegal drilling in Avoca a few weeks ago.

Dublin

Four members of the DMP, all in plain clothes, carry out an extensive search of the home of Frank Fahy, M.P for Galway. Fahy was absent, but his wife, recovering from a serious illness, is left shaken by the experience. They seize some Gaelic League magazines

Mallow

8 men are brought before court in connection with illegal collection made on 16th March. RIC Officers testify that when asked for a permit, one of men produced a ‘permit’ signed by Eamon de Valera. The RIC refused to recognise it and began to arrest the men. They are Thomas Riordan, Daniel Lyons, Patrick Moynahan, Philip Archdeacon, Jer Crowley, John O’Donnell (all Kanturk), Charles O’Reilly, Patrick Connors, Thomas Cronin (all Newmarket)

Dublin

All of main newspapers are full of reports on apparent disappearance of Harry Hawker and Kenneth Mackenzie-Grieve. The Irish papers focus on dismissing rumours that a wireless message received from the plane indicated it had crashed on the mouth of Shannon.

London

The Times also dedicates much space to mysterious disappearance of the plane. In reality, Hawker and Mackenzie-Grieve are safe and well aboard a Danish vessel without a radio ensuring that wild rumours as to the fate of Hawker’s plane grow for the entire week

Kingstown

Amid increased naval manoeuvres off the Irish coast, the HMS Enchantress, with the First Lord of the Admiralty, Walter H. Long, aboard docks in Kingstown

21st May 1919

Dublin

There remains no news on fate of Harry Hawker’s attempt to cross Atlantic. Some speculation surrounds the possibility that the plane crashed and the pilots could have been picked up by any of the 50 Scandinavian fishing vessels in the area without a radio. In fact, this is exactly what happened and the pilots remain safe and well aboard a Danish trawler that has changed course for the Outer Hebrides

Berlin

Marshal Foch’s insistence that Allied forces ‘were ready’ should Germany not sign the Peace Treaty has enraged people in German capital. To add to this opponents of the fragile government are openly discussing seizing power adding to the tension in the city

Dublin

The case of the Westport boy, John McLoughlin, in police custody once again comes before a judge. One week ago, the boy’s father, John, a labourer from outside Westport, had won a case of habeas corpus for the child to be returned. Sergeant Matheson, appearing for the Crown, stated that they did not return the boy to his home after questioning, as they felt that he would not be safe given the ‘excitement that prevailed in Westport’, and that he would be in danger as he had been in police questioning. They were now anxious for the boy to be returned to his home. The judge asked that the boy be brought before court tomorrow so that the case could be finally settled.

Dublin

The bakers of Dublin are threatening to go on strike, leaving the city without bread from Saturday on. They demand a 44 hour working week, and a wage in the region of 79s. to 95s.

Versailles

Edith Wilson, President Wilson’s wife, becomes the first First Lady to fly in a plane, as reported in a Reuter’s Telegram. She flew over the district of Versailles and was said to be delighted with the event. Her flight pre-dates, by a number of decades, FDR, the first sitting president to fly in a plane

Bansha, Tipperary

Military authorities focus their attentions upon the rural area of Bansha in their search for Breen, Treacy, Robinson, and Hogan. They ask farmers if ‘any strangers’ had been on their property in recent days

Dublin

Claims first reported on on 29th April that Sinn Féin were to receive half a billion roubles from the Soviet Council of People's Commissars, headed by Vladimir Lenin, are finally officially denied. Sinn Féin rep says they have nothing in common with the Bolsheviks and are being sustain by donations from the Irish people

Paris

It is announced that the Germans have been granted an extension to sign the Peace Treaty. They now have until 29th May

21st May 1919

Kilmallock Courthouse

The inquests into the deaths of Constable Enright, and Sergeant Wallace, who both died during the Knocklong Ambush, are held in Kilmallock Courthouse. The building was thronged with interested parties as proceedings opened. In both cases, the jury found that the men had died from shock and hemorrhage caused by gunshot wounds from persons unknown. Mr. McClean, D.I in Bruff acted for the police and A.H Morgan acted as solicitor for family of Sergeant Wallace. Dr. M.R Cleary, of Hospital, held the inquest into Sergeant Wallace’s death. Dr. J.F Macnamara and Dr. William P. Lee carried out the post mortems on the two men. Dr. P.J Cleary, of Kilmallock held the inquest into Constable Enright’s death. Miss Jeanie Gallagher was a key witness in proceedings as she was in the same carriage as the affray during which Sean Hogan escaped from police and multiple shots were fired

Cork

The popularity of handball in the Cork area is shown in these photos printed in the Cork Examiner showing large crowds in attendance at the Cork Junior and Senior handball finals. The senior competitors are (below far right to left) C.J Clarke (Fermoy) and B. O’Driscoll (Mallow). The Junior competitors are D. Quinlan and J.J Barrett.

Mercy Hospital, Cork

The body of Volunteer Micheál Tobin is removed from Mercy Hospital below and is witnessed by thousands of Cork people. He is removed to St. Peter and Paul’s Church. The cortege is led by local Volunteers and Cumann na mBan.

22nd May 1919

Paris

News breaks of resignation of 9 members of American Delegation in protest at terms of Peace Treaty. They feel that peace ought to have been secured on basis of Wilson’s 14 points. Instead, they feel that terms are feeding into a European Imperialist agenda. Among resignees is William Bullitt. Part of Bullitt’s reasoning for resigning was failure of his mission to meet with Bolshevik leader, Vladimir Lenin. In one of histories great what-could-have-been scenarios, the Russians committed to honouring the debt of Tsarist Russia and pursue a policy of cooperation with the west. The endeavour failed, however, following pressure from the British. They held out hope that the Whites would win Civil War. Lloyd George’s Secretary for War, Winston Churchill was an anti-communist & exerted most pressure on pulling of support for Bullitt mission.

23rd May 1919

Paris

Count Ulrich von Brockdorff-Rantzau, one of the main German delegates at the Peace Conference, states that if they signed the Peace Treaty, they would be signing the death warrant of millions of Germans. The Allied delegates reply that the terms of the Treaty are warranted givenexamples of German aggression and destruction during the War such as the destruction of the coal fields of Northern France and the attacks on shipping by U-Boats

Dublin

The threatened strike by Dublin bakers is called off as they agree to enter arbitration process

24th May 1919

Kingstown

The HMS Enchantress, with First Lord of the Admiralty, Walter H. Long aboard, is visited by Lord French and Ian Macpherson. The increased naval activity on Irish Coast is picked up upon by the British Press who openly discuss the need to repress Sinn Féin.

London

The Morning Post publishes comments from the Lord Chancellor, Lord Birkenhead (below); 'The mind of England was inflexible, wrongdoing and crime would be put down with an iron hand'. He adds that Ireland is in a state of open rebellion against British rule

Lille

In a large munitions factory near Lille, a fire took hold and the explosives began to ignite. Explosions raged for several hours causing many casualties. It is reported that among the dead are Chinese labourers

31 Richmond Ave., Fairview, Dublin

The home of Kathleen Clarke is raided by DMP officers. The house searched but nothing taken away. Clarke, still recovering from an illness she contracted in Holloway Prison, was in house with her 3 children & Constance Markievicz

Terenure

As part of 'Ultan's Week’, a fundraising Camogie game took place between @UCDcamogie against Gaelic League team. The publicity it received made it possible the highest profile camogie game to date. St. Ultan's Hospital for infants had been set up a few weeks earlier by Kathleen Lynn and Madeleine ffrench-Mullen to address poor maternity conditions in the city. St. Ultan's week was a multi-faceted fundraising initiative including a full programme in the Abbey.

Queenstown, Cork

A flotilla of 8 Royal Naval destroyers return to port after searching west coast for any sign of Hawker and missing plane. They went out 300 miles from Irish coast in all directions to no avail. Hope is all but lost of discovering the men alive

Dublin

The Sunday Independent cartoonist gives his thoughts on the perception that the Royal Navy are not doing enough in their search for Hawker.

Washington

American newspapers, reporting on protests in Germany over the Peace Conference, surmise that the Germans are merely posturing and will be forced to sign the Treaty very soon. It is thought the protests are designed to gain sympathy from Allied states

25th May 1919

Butt of Lewis Lighthouse, Lewis, Outer Hebrides, Scotland

A ship gives a visual signal to the lighthouse; 'Saved hands, Sopworth Aeroplane'

The Lighthouse Keeper, in disbelief, replies 'Is it Hawker?'

The reply from the ship at sea was, 'Yes'

2 miles off Lewis Coast

The Royal Navy Destroyer, HMS Woolston, sails to the Danish vessel, Mary, and brings aboard Harry Hawker and Kenneth Mackenzie Grieve. Once aboard, Admiralty announces rescue of the two to the press amidst great public celebration

Paris

Representatives of Allied forces reiterate the attitude of the American press and state that the Germans will sign a Treaty by June 15th

Hellfire Club, Dublin Mountains

One of Dublin's most unusual organisations, The Pirates, said to be mainly comprised of professionals, make their annual 'cruise' to the Hellfire Club.

Scapa Flow, Scotland

Hawker and Grieve are transferred to another vessel, the HMS Revenge, to be brought ashore in Thurso, where a mass of journalists await. Aboard the Revenge, Hawker announces he would give no interviews until he spoke with the Daily Mail Since 1906, the pioneering age of aviation received a financial impetus from an unlikely source; the Daily Mail newspaper, and its proprietor, Chapelizod-born Alfred Harmsworth, Lord Northcliffe. He offered £10,000 for the first non-stop transatlantic flight. The most famous prize that had been successfully claimed in full to this point was of £10,000 awarded to French pilot Louis Paulhan, the first man to fly from London to Manchester. A slew of pilots were vying for another £10,000 on offer for the first transatlantic flight in 1919.

Thurso, Scotland

It is announced that the Daily Mail will award Hawker and Grieve £5,000 for their efforts in trying to cross the Atlantic. It is half the prize on offer for a successful crossing, but Lord Northcliffe recognised their brave efforts nonetheless

Fertagh, Moynalty, Meath

John Halton, a young farmer, is shot at from behind a fence near his home. Although wounded, he will recover. It is reported that Halton was recently involved in an issue with Moybologue Hibernian Hall, of which he is a trustee

Cullen, Millstreet

An aeridheacht is proclaimed by the military who occupy the area. The locals take themselves to Glashakinleen, a few miles away, and hold their festivities their instead unbothered by unsuspecting military

Red Square, Moscow

Vladimir Lenin gives a speech in Red Square celebrating 'the universal military training of the working people'. He concludes his speech by shouting 'Long live the world communist revolution!'

26th May 1919

St. John's, Newfoundland, Canada

News reaches St. John's at midnight of the rescue of Hawker and Grieve. There are great celebrations in the town in which their journey began. Locals urge the Royal Navy to patrol future transatlantic attempts more closely

New York

New York's only weekend afternoon newspaper reportedly sold out in minutes as people celebrated news of Hawker's rescue. The transatlantic race has been main news for several weeks as the public are invested in seeing who will be the first to cross Atlantic

Buckingham Palace, London

After having issues a telegram to the families of Hawker and Grieve a few days ago offering his sympathy, the Kind issues a new telegram congratulating families on bravery of their husband/son during their flight almost reaching Ireland

Paris

It is announced that 373,351 graves have been identified and registered around the battlefields of France as the clean up operation from four years of war continues. It is expected there are several thousand more graves to be registered

Belfast

Amidst an ongoing split in Ulster Unionism, that is threatening the integrity of Party, a by-election in East Antrim takes place. The leading candidates are William Moore (Carson Supporter) and George Hanna (Independent Orangeman). Race is too tight to call

Paris

William Bullitt, who resigned from the American delegation at Peace Conference a few days ago, leads growing calls for America not to join the League of Nations, blasting the proto-organisation as useless to intervene in international disputes

London

The Dublin correspondent of the Daily Herald reports that authorities in Dublin Castle have convinced the Government to proclaim Sinn Féin as illegal organisation. The recent docking of the First Lord of the Admiralty in Dublin is seen as a sign of this move

Parliament Square, London

Fierce rioting breaks out in front of parliament when recently discharged soldiers and sailors march in protest at the huge levels of unemployment among men that have returned from the war. They feel abandoned by the country they fought for

Khyber Pass, Afghanistan

As fighting continues between British troops & Afghan fighters, the Commander of Afghans writes 'British Officers commenced unlawful war without any declaration of war on any side'. He adds bombs from aeroplanes have caused heavy casualties

London

News emerges that Lord Northcliffe, Daily Mail owner, offered to split his £10,000 prize between Mrs. Hawker and Mrs. Grieve when is appeared they were lost at sea. However, Mrs. Hawker refused, convinced as she was that her husband was in fact alive.

Maryborough

A 'Cinemotor' arrives in the Laois town and shows some comedies for a crowd in the Town Hall. The travelling operation is run by a group of ladies and gentlemen 'thrift' advisors. They are keen to point out that they are not government appointed. It appears that they merely travel around the country advising people on how to save money. They advise people to cease buying children sweets and put the few pennies aside for future investment. An odd, albeit intriguing, means of financial advising 100 years ago today

Abbeyleix, Queen's County

An inquest is held into the death of 80 year old Richard Butler of Ballinakill, who was run over by a military car on Abbeyleix's Main Street. The evidence heard that an R.A.F Officer driving through the town slowly struck the elderly man

Moneygall

Jeremiah Collison returns home after a short stint in prison for illegal drilling. He receives a hearty welcome home from his friends and neighbours

Kilkenny

W.T Cosgrave receives the freedom of Kilkenny city from the mayor, Peter de Loughry. Speakers at the reception included Constance Markievicz andFr. O'Flanagan before several thousand appreciative Sinn Féin supporters

London

Hawker and Grieve arrive into King's Cross Station from Edinburgh. They are greeted by thousands of well wishers in one of the greatest outpourings of joy in the city since end of war. Below shows the two men (centre) struggling to get through the great crowd.

27th May 1919

Edinburgh

Hawker and Grieve arrive into Edinburgh. Hawker, the more recognised of the 2, was carried upon the shoulders of the crowd to the Station Hotel for breakfast. Grieve managed to quietly slip away and enter by a side door. They later departed for London

134 Foley Street, Dublin

The home of Phil Shanahan, M.P, is raided by DMP Officers. It is believed they were searching for arms, but left with nothing

New York

Dr. Patrick McCartan, M.P, James MacDermott, and Liam Mellowes are fined $50 for attempting to pass as American sailors in an attempt to go from the USA to Britain and/or Ireland. Michael F. Doyle, Casement's solicitor in 1916, defended the men

Jalalabad, Afghanistan

British planes bomb the palace of the Emir of Afghanistan, Amanullah Khan. Separately, a plane dropped 4 bombs atop of 2,000 Afghan troops that were on military parade. The barracks into which they sought shelter was next bombed

Java, Indonesia

The devastation caused by the eruption of Kelud Volcano three weeks earlier becomes clear. The eruption instantly boiled the lake in the crater of volcano, and subsequent mud flow killed thousands

Paris

Robert Lansing, American Secretary of State, tells Frank Walsh that there is no prospect of De Valera, Griffith, and/or Count Plunkett receiving passports to allow him to travel to Paris to present Ireland's case at the Peace Conference.

Westminster

The Local Government (Ireland) Bill, which will legislate for application of P.R, passes its third reading in the House of Commons. It is vigorously opposed by both shades of Irish representation, by Edward Carson and Joseph Devlin

Thomastown, Kilkenny

7 members of the local Sinn Féin club are summoned to court over the illegal collection of money for the Dáil Éireann Self Determination fund. They are to appear in court in one week

The seven men are Denis Murphy, Seamus McKenna, Daniel Fitzgerald (all Thomastown), William Forristal (Jerpoint), Thomas Ryan (Bonnybrook), Michael Callanan (Ballylowra), James Ryan (Castlegarden)

Dublin

A meeting to be held in the Mansion House is prohibited. The meeting was to protest the imprisonment of James Larkin's brother, Peter, in Australia, along with 11 others in connection with anti-conscription protests there a few months ago

28th May 1919

Paris

The Germans' opposition to the Peace Treaty terms are summarised in a telegram from Berlin; 'A dying philosophy of imperialist and capitalist tendencies is here celebrating its last terrible triumph'. They issue 8 counter proposals

St. John's, Newfoundland

A vessel docking in St. John's indicates that it was radio'd in open ocean by an American ship, the Lake Charleville, who indicated that they had picked up Hawker's plane and were bringing it to Britain among their cargo. All mails are saved

London

In one of the worst outbreaks of its kind, race riots break out in London's East End. Reports suggest that a great array of weapons were used in a prolonged battle between white and black residents in the Hoxton area

London

The Daily Mail continue to push idea to the British Public that all out rebellion is about to commence in Ireland and the government should act. Under a heading 'The next Rebellion in Ireland' an anonymous source writes about how the Irish public are afraid

Maginstown, Cahir, Tipperary

Nicholas Ryan, County Councillor, is approached by 4 men armed with revolvers at his home. Ryan escapes and reaches Clonmel to report the incident. He believes he is being intimidated into not declaring support for a new rate collector

Cork

8 prisoners are released from Cork Prison. They are all released on health grounds, and all of them have recently spent time in solitary confinement. See next tweet for details of released persons. Daniel Healy (Queenstown), George Lenihan (Dungarvan), Michael Foley (Eyeries), Timothy Cronin (Kerry), Thomas Reidy (Carrick-on-Suir), William Roche (Kerry), Art O'Donnell (Clare), Thomas O'Connor (Milltown), Partick Casey (Cashel), and Patrick Philips (Cashel)

London

Punch Magazine has its say upon the widely held belief that Germany, for all its complaints and posturing, will be forced to sign Peace Treaty regardless and is merely attempting to show its own people its reluctance to do so.

29th May 1919

Dublin

At a meeting of @DublinPortCo the issue of the amount of traffic in the city is discussed. It is proposed that the best way to overcome this was to build a subway underneath the Liffey to accommodate underground transit of commuters

Ireland

The island basks in a heat-wave. There as been no rain in Dublin for three weeks as a drought begins to take hold in Leinster

Ballsbridge, Dublin

It is announced that, for the first time since 1913, the Dublin Horse Show will take place on the grounds of the Royal Dublin Society. The Show will begin on 10th June

Westminster

Charles Barrie, M.P Banffshire, makes a strange claim in parliament that Ireland is now home to Yiddish speaking Jews that were travelling country as pedlars. Barrie's claims are dimissed on basis that Jewish community in Ireland were no threat at all

St. Joseph's Industrial School, Greenmount, Cork

Members of Corporation are invited to school, the only one run by Presentation Brothers. They are invited to observe the excellent education the boys are receiving in carpentry and physical activity. Greenmount would go on to become one of the most harrowing institutes in Ireland. The 2009 Ryan Report concluded that Greenmount 'residents were physically, emotionally and sexually abused by members of staff.

Naas

After lengthy discussions in the town among traders into the adherence of a weekly half-holiday every Thursday, after one week, the initiative collapses as most businesses remain open on Thursday afternoon

Killaloe

Hodgin's Circus visits the Clare side of the Shannon for a performance. One of the circus performers, a young girl minding horses, received a kick from a horse to the head. She is removed to Limerick Hospital where she dies of her injuries

30th May 1919

Amiens St. Train Station, Dublin

Laurence Ginnell M.P, is arrested as he alights train from Belfast. He had been accompanying home 5 prisoners that had been released from HMP Crumlin Road. It is believed it is in connection with a speech he made recently in Athlone

O'Connell Street, Dublin

The Irish Independent reports that of the 190 buildings that were destroyed three years ago during the Easter Rising, 58 have been re-built, 68 are still under construction, with 64 yet to begin

Dublin

Piaras Béaslaí, M.P for East Kerry, who was court-martialed a few weeks ago in connection with a speech made in Edend